Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Jurisdiction

Institution
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 3510

Full-Text Articles in Law

Muskrat Textualism, Matthew L.M. Fletcher Jan 2022

Muskrat Textualism, Matthew L.M. Fletcher

Northwestern University Law Review

The Supreme Court decision McGirt v. Oklahoma, confirming the boundaries of the Creek Reservation in Oklahoma, was a truly rare case in which the Court turned back arguments by federal and state governments in favor of American Indian and tribal interests. For more than a century, Oklahomans had assumed that the reservation had been terminated and acted accordingly. But only Congress can terminate an Indian reservation, and it simply had never done so in the case of the Creek Reservation. Both the majority and dissenting opinions attempted to claim the mantle of textualism, but their respective analyses led to polar ...


White Collar Crime Between Law And Reality, Alissar Farhat, Saed Yakan Jan 2022

White Collar Crime Between Law And Reality, Alissar Farhat, Saed Yakan

Al Jinan الجنان

White collars crimes are considered one of the most serious dilemmas facing the modern world, due to the emergence of many criminal organizations and the expansion of their illegal activity as a result of the development of means of transportation, communication and information technology. Therefore, this made it easier for these organizations to exploit this development to their advantage, making it difficult for individual countries to fight this type of organized crime, which led to the need of international cooperation in combatting them. These crimes are increasing by number every day and are no longer occurring in developing countries only ...


Autonomous Weapons Systems And The Procedural Accounta- Bility Gap, Afonso Seixas-Nunes Dec 2021

Autonomous Weapons Systems And The Procedural Accounta- Bility Gap, Afonso Seixas-Nunes

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

The development and well-established principles of Internationla Humanitarian Law have been progressively establishing limits to the means and methods of warfare. Those principles and rules are necessarily applicable to future autonomous weapon systems (AWS), but questions regarding liability for violations of IHL caused by AWS have been looming the international debate. This article has two parts. The first part aims to identify a technical dimension of AWS that has been neglected by international lawyers: States responsibility for IHL violations caused by errors in AWS’ software. This article argues that “errors” can neither be identified with “malfunctions” nor attributed to human ...


Forum Selection Clauses, Non-Signatories, And Personal Jurisdiction, John F. Coyle, Robin J. Effron Dec 2021

Forum Selection Clauses, Non-Signatories, And Personal Jurisdiction, John F. Coyle, Robin J. Effron

Notre Dame Law Review

Who is bound by a forum selection clause? At first glance, the answer to this question may seem obvious. It is black letter law that a person cannot be bound to an agreement without her consent. In recent years, however, courts have not followed this rule with respect to forum selection clauses. Instead, they routinely enforce these clauses against individuals who never signed the contract containing the clause. Courts justify this practice on the grounds that it promotes litigation efficiency by bringing all of the litigants together in the chosen forum. There are, however, problems with enforcing forum selection clauses ...


Autonomous Corporate Personhood, Carla L. Reyes Dec 2021

Autonomous Corporate Personhood, Carla L. Reyes

Washington Law Review

Several states have recently changed their business organization law to accommodate autonomous businesses—businesses operated entirely through computer code. A variety of international civil society groups are also actively developing new frameworks— and a model law—for enabling decentralized, autonomous businesses to achieve a corporate or corporate-like status that bestows legal personhood. Meanwhile, various jurisdictions, including the European Union, have considered whether and to what extent artificial intelligence (AI) more broadly should be endowed with personhood to respond to AI’s increasing presence in society. Despite the fairly obvious overlap between the two sets of inquiries, the legal and policy ...


Uncovering The Legislative Histories Of The Early Mail Fraud Statutes: The Origin Of Federal Auxiliary Crimes Jurisdiction, Norman Abrams Dec 2021

Uncovering The Legislative Histories Of The Early Mail Fraud Statutes: The Origin Of Federal Auxiliary Crimes Jurisdiction, Norman Abrams

Utah Law Review

The federal crime of mail fraud is generally viewed as the original federal auxiliary jurisdiction crime, that is, a crime that does not protect direct federal interests against harm. Rather, it functions as an auxiliary to state crime enforcement. In the almost 150 years since Congress enacted the mail fraud statute, federal auxiliary crimes have proliferated and have become the most important part of federal criminal jurisdiction—so that, today, they largely duplicate state crimes. It is important to know how this form of federal criminal jurisdiction originated.

Mail fraud is a crime that scholars, judges, and lawyers have viewed ...


Article Iii And The Political Question Doctrine, Scott Dodson Nov 2021

Article Iii And The Political Question Doctrine, Scott Dodson

Northwestern University Law Review

Courts and commentators have often sourced the political question doctrine in Article III, a repository of other separation-of-powers doctrines applicable to the federal courts. Rucho v. Common Cause, a blockbuster political question case decided in 2019, explicitly tied the doctrine to Article III. But the historical development of the doctrine undermines the depth of that connection. Further, sourcing the doctrine in Article III leads to some very odd effects, including leaving state courts free to answer federal political questions. This Article argues that the source of the political question doctrine is in substantive law, not in Article III. Such an ...


An Open Governor’S Seat, Open Constitutional Question, And The Need For An Answer, Samuel Steele Mclelland, James R. Baxter Oct 2021

An Open Governor’S Seat, Open Constitutional Question, And The Need For An Answer, Samuel Steele Mclelland, James R. Baxter

Arkansas Law Notes

Another election cycle always means a renewal of fresh lawsuits and legal questions, and 2022 is no exception. the announcement of Sarah Huckabee Sanders’s run for Governor of Arkansas reignites an interesting aspect of Arkansas’s Constitution: must a candidate for Governor live in the State of Arkansas for seven consecutive years, immediately preceding taking office? A final ruling by the Arkansas Supreme Court will give clarity and stability going forward for the most important elected position in the state.


The Cost Of Doing Business? Corporate Registration As Valid Consent To General Personal Jurisdiction, Matthew D. Kaminer Oct 2021

The Cost Of Doing Business? Corporate Registration As Valid Consent To General Personal Jurisdiction, Matthew D. Kaminer

Washington and Lee Law Review Online

Every state has a statute that requires out-of-state corporations to register with a designated official before doing business there, but courts disagree on what impact, if any, those statutes can or should have on personal jurisdiction doctrine. A minority of states interpret compliance with their registration statutes as the company’s consent to general personal jurisdiction, meaning it can be sued on any cause of action there, even those unrelated to the company’s conduct in that state. The United States Supreme Court upheld this “consent by registration” theory over 100 years ago, but since then has manifested a sea ...


The Implausibility Standard For Environmental Plaintiffs: The Twiqbal Plausibility Pleading Standard And Affirmative Defenses, Celeste Anquonette Ajayi Oct 2021

The Implausibility Standard For Environmental Plaintiffs: The Twiqbal Plausibility Pleading Standard And Affirmative Defenses, Celeste Anquonette Ajayi

Washington Law Review

Environmental plaintiffs often face challenges when pleading their claims. This is due to difficulty in obtaining the particular facts needed to establish causation, and thus liability. In turn, this difficulty inhibits their ability to vindicate their rights. Prior to the shift in pleading standards created by Bell Atlantic Corp. v. Twombly and Ashcroft v. Iqbal, often informally referred to as “Twiqbal,” plaintiffs could assert their claims through the simplified notice pleading standard articulated in Conley v. Gibson. This allowed plaintiffs to gain access to discovery, which aided in proving their claims.

The current heightened pleading standard established by Twiqbal, also ...


Absurd Overlap: Snap Removal And The Rule Of Unanimity, Travis Temple Oct 2021

Absurd Overlap: Snap Removal And The Rule Of Unanimity, Travis Temple

William & Mary Law Review

Snap removal employs “a literalist approach” to the statute governing the procedural mechanism for removing cases from state court to federal court. In a typical removal scenario, defendants sued in state court would have the option to be heard in federal court instead, given that certain conditions are satisfied. [S]nap removal essentially allows the defendants to forego a condition that would bar removal if they can file before the plaintiff formally notifies them of the lawsuit. This practice of removing a case before being served with formal process—essentially an act of gamesmanship of the civil procedure system—has ...


Judicial Authority On Penalty Clause, Alissar Farhat, Saed Yakan Sep 2021

Judicial Authority On Penalty Clause, Alissar Farhat, Saed Yakan

Al Jinan الجنان

It is known that the parties of the contract include, in their contract, a penal clause hoping to urge good implementation and adhere to the specified deadlines without resorting to the judiciary. This clause led to many problems related to its nature. Questions were asked about its lawfulness and the conditions that must fulfill in order to be implemented, and the judiciary’s authority to interfere in the assessment of this clause, especially because this interference is considered an objection to the most important legal principles of the contract, knowing that this clause considers the contract “the law of the ...


Legal Barriers To Tribal Jurisdiction Over Violence Against Women In Maine: Developments And Paths Forward, Nina J. Ciffolillo Jul 2021

Legal Barriers To Tribal Jurisdiction Over Violence Against Women In Maine: Developments And Paths Forward, Nina J. Ciffolillo

Maine Law Review

After claiming title to the land now widely known as the United States, colonizers and settlers imposed a legal system that denies Indigenous nations agency. The United States government has launched a steady attack on attributes of Tribal sovereignty since its inception. The sexism entangled with colonialism encourages violence against women, and limitations on Tribal jurisdiction leave Indigenous nations without adequate recourse for violence against women on their land. Violence against women has become an epidemic in Indian Country, and most aggressors come from outside the territory. In 2013 when Congress granted tribes limited criminal jurisdiction over nonmembers on Tribal ...


Unpermitted Hajj: Its Provisions And Islamic Jurisprudence Effects, Asma Salmeen Al-Aryani Jul 2021

Unpermitted Hajj: Its Provisions And Islamic Jurisprudence Effects, Asma Salmeen Al-Aryani

Journal Sharia and Law

The present study dealt with the unpermitted hajj artfulness, and the pilgrim`s breach of his requisite. This research also elaborated on the juristic judgements and effects related to this problem.The juristic judgements discussed in the present study pivoted around the judgement on the pilgrim`s unpermitted hajj, and on the pilgrim`s artfulness to get the hajj permission. The effects of this phenomenon were viewed from two perspectives: firstly, the effects of prohibiting the pilgrim from the unpermitted hajj subsequent to the absolute Ihram (unconditioned by the removal of Ihram) and after the Ihram that is conditioned by ...


Misperception In The Matter Pending On A Condition: Extract From The Book “Garden In The Eye Of The Beholder And Paradise Of The Overseer“ (Rawdat Al-Nazir Wa-Jannat Al-Munazir) Authored By The Scholar Ibn Qudamah (Deceased The Year 620 H), Dr. Radwan Abdul Rab Saif Al-Sururi Jul 2021

Misperception In The Matter Pending On A Condition: Extract From The Book “Garden In The Eye Of The Beholder And Paradise Of The Overseer“ (Rawdat Al-Nazir Wa-Jannat Al-Munazir) Authored By The Scholar Ibn Qudamah (Deceased The Year 620 H), Dr. Radwan Abdul Rab Saif Al-Sururi

Journal Sharia and Law

There were certain texts that were understood in a different interpretation, and it follows that the winds of understanding came with what the conclusion ship does not desire.

The looking for this texts is reflected by the researcher in a series of researches, whose mission is to correct the course of thought, which the text has received on the order of corrupt introductions, so review it on an unintended understanding.

Perhaps the researcher turned to the text itself, so perhaps it what made others disorientation.

This research represents the forefront of these texts that are considered in the book “Rawdat ...


Defending A Religious Institution Using The Charitable Immunity And Ecclesiastical Doctrine Defenses To Tort Liability, Michael M. Harrison Jul 2021

Defending A Religious Institution Using The Charitable Immunity And Ecclesiastical Doctrine Defenses To Tort Liability, Michael M. Harrison

Arkansas Law Notes

efense attorneys in Arkansas are, not infrequently, called upon to defend religious institutions from tort suits brought against them for a variety of reasons. Such claims may arise out of a motor vehicle accident involving a church bus, a slip and fall accident on church premises, a claim of sexual molestation on the part of a church employee, or another type of claim. In defending claims against religious institutions, it is imperative that the defense of charitable immunity and, where applicable, the Ecclesiastical doctrine, be raised in the first responsive pleading to the Complaint, be that an Answer and/or ...


The Powers Of The Inter-American Court Of Human Rights Towards The Implementation Of Gender Justice Laws At The National Level In South America, Kiana Therrien-Tomas Miss Jul 2021

The Powers Of The Inter-American Court Of Human Rights Towards The Implementation Of Gender Justice Laws At The National Level In South America, Kiana Therrien-Tomas Miss

Bridges: An Undergraduate Journal of Contemporary Connections

Although South America is earning international attention as an innovative global leader in various fields, it currently remains a nation steeped in traditional beliefs and practices. Despite prevailing laws against domestic violence, countless Latin American women proceed to be failed by the legal system. As South American society produces its own theory of gender justice, apprised by local realities and universally accepted norms, women's rights advocates and the Supreme Court can represent a decisive role in forming the discourse. Throughout this work, I aim to contemplate the powers of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACHR) towards the implementation ...


Enforcing Outbound Forum Selection Clauses In State Court, John Coyle, Katherine Robinson Jul 2021

Enforcing Outbound Forum Selection Clauses In State Court, John Coyle, Katherine Robinson

Indiana Law Journal

Forum selection clauses are a staple of modern business law. Parties agree, ex ante, on where they can sue one another and then rely on the courts to enforce these agreements. Although the number of contracts containing forum selection clauses has skyrocketed in recent years, there is a dearth of empirical information about enforcement practice at the state level. Are there any states that refuse to enforce them? How frequently are they enforced? Under what circumstances, if any, will these clauses be deemed unenforceable? The existing literature provides few answers to these questions.

This Article aims to fill that gap ...


Constitutional Remedies As Constitutional Law, Martin H. Redish Jun 2021

Constitutional Remedies As Constitutional Law, Martin H. Redish

Boston College Law Review

Virtually all constitutional scholars agree, and the Supreme Court has uniformly held, that our entire system of constitutional democracy is premised in important part on the dictate of judicial review, i.e., the power of the judiciary to exercise the final say as to the meaning of the countermajoritarian Constitution’s provisions. Absent judicial review, the fundamental speed bumps to tyranny that the Framers so carefully inserted into our political structure would be rendered all but useless at best and a fraud on the electorate at worst. Yet puzzlingly, most of the very same scholars and judges assume that the ...


The Chancellors Are Alright: Nationwide Injunctions And An Abstention Doctrine To Salve What Ails Us, Ezra Ishmael Young Jun 2021

The Chancellors Are Alright: Nationwide Injunctions And An Abstention Doctrine To Salve What Ails Us, Ezra Ishmael Young

Cleveland State Law Review

This Article endeavors to reclaim the nationwide injunction as a valid exercise of federal equity power within the jurisdictional limits set by Article III. It posits that federal equity is expansive—it extends as far as necessary to provide a remedy where there is no adequate one at law. Historical and doctrinal context and critique are deployed to demonstrate that nationwide injunctions are not constitutionally ultra vires. This Article also posits that despite having expansive equity jurisdiction and powers, federal courts can and should in many cases exercise their constitutional discretion when sitting in equity to abstain in certain nationwide ...


A Firm Pillar Of Local Justice: The Failures Of The New York Town And Village Justice Courts Supporting Statewide Adoption Of The District Court Model, Noah Sexton Jun 2021

A Firm Pillar Of Local Justice: The Failures Of The New York Town And Village Justice Courts Supporting Statewide Adoption Of The District Court Model, Noah Sexton

Journal of Law and Policy

Town and village justice courts have been the center of municipal law, both civil and criminal, since the mid-nineteenth century. However, in the modern world, they have become corrupt, poorly managed institutions, creating issues involving procedural integrity and civil rights. In order to remedy these failures and modernize the New York State Unified Court System, state legislators must look to the district court model as it currently exists in Nassau and Eastern Suffolk Counties. The district court model offers several benefits, including the imposition of educational and experiential requirements for judges, the creation of internal and external oversight institutions, the ...


"Gone, But Never Forgotten:" Missing And Murdered Indigenous Women And Girls In The United States, Julianna Kramer Jun 2021

"Gone, But Never Forgotten:" Missing And Murdered Indigenous Women And Girls In The United States, Julianna Kramer

Honors Theses

Native women and girls in the United States are twice as likely to be sexually assaulted compared to white women, and murder rates on certain reservations can be tenfold higher than the national average. This pervasive violence traces back to colonialism. Native women have historically been abused, exploited, and neglected by America’s institutions, and lasting prejudice against Native peoples endures.

The United States government has stripped tribal governments of their ability to seek justice for their women. The Major Crimes Act of 1885, Proclamation 280, and the Oliphant v. Suquamish Indian Tribe (1978) decision place responsibility for investigating and ...


Doe V. Nestle, S.A.: Chocolate And The Prohibition On Child Slavery, Megan M. Coppa May 2021

Doe V. Nestle, S.A.: Chocolate And The Prohibition On Child Slavery, Megan M. Coppa

Pace International Law Review

West Africa is presently home to approximately 1.5 million acres of cocoa farmland, which subsequently produces 70% of the world’s current chocolate supply. Côte d’Ivoire, also known as the Ivory Coast, is one of the largest cocoa producing countries within West Africa.

The increase of farmland and the need to control the deteriorating conditions have always created a demand for farm workers. Regrettably, more than 1.5 million cocoa farm workers in West Africa are currently children. These child workers are exposed to hazardous dust, flames, smoke, and chemicals, are required to utilize dangerous tools that they ...


Lack Of Subject Matter Jurisdiction Or Political Deferral: An Analysis Of Bragg V. West Virginia Coal Association, Crystal Moore May 2021

Lack Of Subject Matter Jurisdiction Or Political Deferral: An Analysis Of Bragg V. West Virginia Coal Association, Crystal Moore

Journal of Natural Resources & Environmental Law

No abstract provided.


Don't You Know That You're Toxic? Cercla Section 113(H) Challenges, Sovereign Immunity, And Perfluoroalkyl Substances In Pennsylvania Drinking Water In Giovanni V. Navy, Stephanie J. Oppenheim May 2021

Don't You Know That You're Toxic? Cercla Section 113(H) Challenges, Sovereign Immunity, And Perfluoroalkyl Substances In Pennsylvania Drinking Water In Giovanni V. Navy, Stephanie J. Oppenheim

Villanova Environmental Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Getting Away With Murder: How California State Law Determined Recovery In First Roundup Cancer Case Johnson V. Monsato Co., Eliza L. Quattlebaum May 2021

Getting Away With Murder: How California State Law Determined Recovery In First Roundup Cancer Case Johnson V. Monsato Co., Eliza L. Quattlebaum

Villanova Environmental Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Seeing Color: America's Judicial System, Elizabeth Poulin May 2021

Seeing Color: America's Judicial System, Elizabeth Poulin

Senior Honors Projects

In many eyes, it often seems as though being white in America is easy, or a privilege. Being white in America is considered a safety blanket, with an abundance of opportunities beneath it. Yet, how does a physical difference such as skin color manifest itself as privilege? Noticing color is not wrong, hateful, or oppressive. Even children notice color, and we define them as the ultimate innocence. But in fact, skin color is often a trigger. When the world has preconceived notions about people of color, an oppressive system designed to harm people who have never done anything to deserve ...


Determining The Constitutionality Of Public Aid To Parochial Schools After Espinoza, Anna Bryner May 2021

Determining The Constitutionality Of Public Aid To Parochial Schools After Espinoza, Anna Bryner

Sigma: Journal of Political and International Studies

No abstract provided.


The Internet And The Hobbs Act: What’S The Connection?, Lucas G. Spremulli Apr 2021

The Internet And The Hobbs Act: What’S The Connection?, Lucas G. Spremulli

Boston College Law Review

The Hobbs Act provides a federal alternative to traditional state robbery charges by criminalizing any robbery that affects interstate commerce. Courts have interpreted the Hobbs Act’s commerce element broadly, by requiring the government to demonstrate that a robbery had a de minimis effect on interstate commerce. With this standard, robberies of businesses generally satisfy the statute’s commerce element, but robberies of individuals often do not. This difference between a state and a federal robbery charge is significant, because the Hobbs Act generally carries substantially harsher penal sentences. This Note examines when the use of the internet in the ...


إنابة القضاء القطري في تنفيذ الحكم Apr 2021

إنابة القضاء القطري في تنفيذ الحكم

Journal Sharia and Law

تعليق على حكم محكمة العين الجنائية الابتدائية الصادر في 18/9/1991 في شقه المدنية والقاضي بإنابة القضاء القطري في تنفيذ الحكم

تعليق- غير محكم