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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Kids Are Not Alright: A Look Into The Absence Of Laws Protecting Children In Social Media, Libby Morehouse Apr 2024

The Kids Are Not Alright: A Look Into The Absence Of Laws Protecting Children In Social Media, Libby Morehouse

Loyola of Los Angeles Entertainment Law Review

No abstract provided.


Aiming For Fairness: An Exploration Into Getty Images V. Stability Ai And Its Importance In The Landscape Of Modern Copyright Law, Matthew Coulter Apr 2024

Aiming For Fairness: An Exploration Into Getty Images V. Stability Ai And Its Importance In The Landscape Of Modern Copyright Law, Matthew Coulter

DePaul Journal of Art, Technology & Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


A Timeless Principle: Copyright Before The Statute Of Anne, Victoria Lieberman Apr 2024

A Timeless Principle: Copyright Before The Statute Of Anne, Victoria Lieberman

DePaul Journal of Art, Technology & Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


Innovation At A Crossroads: The Supreme Court's Influence On Pharmaceuticals, Trade Policies, And Public Health, Beau Reeves Apr 2024

Innovation At A Crossroads: The Supreme Court's Influence On Pharmaceuticals, Trade Policies, And Public Health, Beau Reeves

DePaul Journal of Art, Technology & Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


Beautifying The Human Experience: The Road To Knocking Out The Knockoff Industry Through Adaptions To Copyright & Design Patent Protections For Clothing, Moira Mccabe Apr 2024

Beautifying The Human Experience: The Road To Knocking Out The Knockoff Industry Through Adaptions To Copyright & Design Patent Protections For Clothing, Moira Mccabe

DePaul Journal of Art, Technology & Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


All Eyez On Rap & Hip-Hop: Analyzing How Black Expression Is Criminalized And The Language Of The Rap Act Of 2022, Maia Young Apr 2024

All Eyez On Rap & Hip-Hop: Analyzing How Black Expression Is Criminalized And The Language Of The Rap Act Of 2022, Maia Young

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

The Black existence, in the United States of America, has always been regarded as a conditional right. Conventionally, Blackness must always be nonviolent and non-disruptive to safely exist. Because of this, Blackness cannot be confined to restraints and disrupts these conventions with acts of joy and creative expression. Black creativity is both unconventional and sacred. Black creative expression documents, preserves, and unifies cultural lived experiences, from a first-hand lens of those oppressed. Creative and artistic expression celebrates the myriad of stories that are a part of the collective Black experience. Yet, Black creative expression is now being weaponized by prosecutors …


Constitutional Rights Of Artificial Intelligence, Mizuki Hashiguchi Apr 2024

Constitutional Rights Of Artificial Intelligence, Mizuki Hashiguchi

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

On February 8, 2022, the Italian Parliament approved constitutional amendments to protect the environment. A member of Parliament stated that the environment is an element of Italy, and that safeguarding the environment means safeguarding humans. The need to protect the environment seems to have become a critical component of public conscience. Likewise, if society perceives that artificial intelligence is vitally important for humanity, does constitutional law allow constitutional rights for artificial intelligence to be created?

Extending constitutional rights to artificial intelligence may be consistent with the jurisprudential history of rights. Constitutional rights have undergone metamorphosis over time to protect new …


Rembrandt’S Missing Piece: Ai Art And The Fallacies Of Copyright Law, Eleni Polymenopoulou Apr 2024

Rembrandt’S Missing Piece: Ai Art And The Fallacies Of Copyright Law, Eleni Polymenopoulou

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

This article discusses contemporary problems related to Artificial Intelligence (AI), law and the visual arts. It suggests that the fallacies of copyright law are already visible in legal conundrums raised by AI in the creative sector. These include, for instance, the lack of uniformity in relation to creations’ copyrightability, the massive scale of copyright infringement affecting visual artists and the creative industry, and the difficulties in implementing media regulation and cyber-regulation. The deeply cherished ‘human authorship’ criterion that was sustained recently by a US Federal Appeals Court in Thaler, in particular, is a short-term solution to the legal challenges …


Ai, Algorithms, And Awful Humans, Daniel J. Solove, Hideyuki Matsumi Apr 2024

Ai, Algorithms, And Awful Humans, Daniel J. Solove, Hideyuki Matsumi

Fordham Law Review

A profound shift is occurring in the way many decisions are made, with machines taking greater roles in the decision-making process. Two arguments are often advanced to justify the increasing use of automation and algorithms in decisions. The “Awful Human Argument” asserts that human decision-making is often awful and that machines can decide better than humans. Another argument, the “Better Together Argument,” posits that machines can augment and improve human decision-making. These arguments exert a powerful influence on law and policy.

In this Essay, we contend that in the context of making decisions about humans, these arguments are far too …


Chatgpt, Large Language Models, And Law, Harry Surden Apr 2024

Chatgpt, Large Language Models, And Law, Harry Surden

Fordham Law Review

This Essay explores Artificial Intelligence (AI) Large Language Models (LLMs) like ChatGPT/GPT-4, detailing the advances and challenges in applying AI to law. It first explains how these AI technologies work at an understandable level. It then examines the significant evolution of LLMs since 2022 and their improved capabilities in understanding and generating complex documents, such as legal texts. Finally, this Essay discusses the limitations of these technologies, offering a balanced view of their potential role in legal work.


The Antidote Of Free Speech: Censorship During The Pandemic, Christopher Keleher Apr 2024

The Antidote Of Free Speech: Censorship During The Pandemic, Christopher Keleher

Catholic University Law Review

Free speech in America stands at a precipice. The nation must decide if the First Amendment protects controversial, unconventional, and unpopular speech, or only that which is mainstream, fashionable, and government-approved. This debate is one of many legal battles brought to the fore during Covid-19. But the fallout of the free speech question will transcend Covid-19.

During the pandemic, the federal government took unprecedented steps to pressure private entities to push messages it approved and squelch those it did not. The Supreme Court will soon grapple with the issue of censorship during the pandemic. This article examines this litigation, along …


The Lack Of Responsibility Of Higher Educaiton Institutions In Addressing Phishing Emails And Data Breaches, Muxuan (Muriel) Wang Mar 2024

The Lack Of Responsibility Of Higher Educaiton Institutions In Addressing Phishing Emails And Data Breaches, Muxuan (Muriel) Wang

Duke Law & Technology Review

Higher education institutions (HEIs) are highly susceptible to cyberattacks, particularly those facilitated through phishing, due to the substantial volume of confidential student and staff data and valuable research information they hold. Despite federal legislations focusing on bolstering cybersecurity for critical institutions handling medical and financial data, HEIs have not received similar attention. This Note examines the minimal obligations imposed on HEIs by existing federal and state statutes concerning data breaches, the absence of requirements for HEIs to educate employees and students about phishing attacks, and potential strategies to improve student protection against data breaches.


Killing Two Birds With One Stone: Remedying Malicious Social Bot Behavior Via Section 230 Reform, Jackson Smith Feb 2024

Killing Two Birds With One Stone: Remedying Malicious Social Bot Behavior Via Section 230 Reform, Jackson Smith

William & Mary Business Law Review

As “interactive computer services” (social media sites) expanded over the past decade, so too did the prevalence of “social bots,” software programs that mimic human behavior online. The capacity social bots have to exponentially amplify often-harmful content has led to calls for greater accountability from social media companies in the way they manage bot presence on their sites. In response, many social media companies and private researchers have developed bot-detection methodologies to better govern social bot activities. At the same time, the prevalence of harmful content on social media sites has led to calls to reform Section 230 of the …


Online Disinhibited Contracts, Wayne R. Barnes Feb 2024

Online Disinhibited Contracts, Wayne R. Barnes

Faculty Scholarship

There have been at least two dominant forces at work in the realm of consumer contracting over the past several decades. One has been the rise and domination of the standard form contract (whereby merchants contract with consumers via the use of standardized, boilerplate terms and conditions that consumers do not read or understand). The second force has been the rise of e-commerce and the purchase of goods and services via websites and other online platforms, and the use of “wrap” formation methodology (whereby merchants obtain consumer assent to the online terms and conditions via the consumer’s informal click, scroll, …


Robots As Pirates, Henry H. Perritt Jr. Jan 2024

Robots As Pirates, Henry H. Perritt Jr.

Catholic University Law Review

Generative AI has created much excitement over its potential to create new works of authorship in the literary and graphical realms. Its underling machine-learning technology works by analyzing the relations among elements of preexisting material in enormous databases assembled from publicly available and licensed sources. Its algorithms “learn” to predict “what comes next” in different types of expression. A complete system thus can become glib in creating new factual summaries, essays, fictional stories and images.

A number of authors of the raw material used by Generative AI engines claim that the machine learning process infringes their copyrights. Careful evaluation of …


Digital Terror Crimes, Cody Corliss Jan 2024

Digital Terror Crimes, Cody Corliss

Law Faculty Scholarship

Terror actors operating within armed conflict have weaponized social media by using these platforms to threaten and spread images of brutality in order to taunt, terrify, and intimidate civilians. These acts or threats of violence are terror, a prohibited war crime in which acts or threats of violence are made with the primary purpose of spreading terror among the civilian population. The weaponization of terror content through social media is a digital terror crime.

This article is the first to argue that the war crime of terror applies to digital terror crimes perpetrated through social media platforms. It situates digital …


Data Is What Data Does: Regulating Based On Harm And Risk Instead Of Sensitive Data, Daniel J. Solove Jan 2024

Data Is What Data Does: Regulating Based On Harm And Risk Instead Of Sensitive Data, Daniel J. Solove

Northwestern University Law Review

Heightened protection for sensitive data is becoming quite trendy in privacy laws around the world. Originating in European Union (EU) data protection law and included in the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation, sensitive data singles out certain categories of personal data for extra protection. Commonly recognized special categories of sensitive data include racial or ethnic origin, political opinions, religious or philosophical beliefs, trade union membership, health, sexual orientation and sex life, and biometric and genetic data.

Although heightened protection for sensitive data appropriately recognizes that not all situations involving personal data should be protected uniformly, the sensitive data approach is …


From Alpha To Omegle: A.M. V. Omegle And The Shift Towards Product Liability For Harm Incurred Online, Preston Buchanan Jan 2024

From Alpha To Omegle: A.M. V. Omegle And The Shift Towards Product Liability For Harm Incurred Online, Preston Buchanan

University of Miami Business Law Review

But for the Internet, many of our interactions with others would be impossible. From socializing to shopping, and, increasingly, working and attending class, the Internet greatly facilitates the ease of our daily lives. However, we frequently neglect to consider that our conduits to the Internet have the potential to lead to harm and injury. When the Internet was in its infancy, and primarily was a repository of information, Congress recognized the threat of continual lawsuits against online entities stemming from the content created by their users. The Communications Decency Act of 1996 arose to mitigate the seemingly Herculean task for …


Virtual Stardom: The Case For Protecting The Intellectual Property Rights Of Digital Celebrities As Software, Alexander Plansky Jan 2024

Virtual Stardom: The Case For Protecting The Intellectual Property Rights Of Digital Celebrities As Software, Alexander Plansky

University of Miami Business Law Review

For the past several decades, technology has allowed us to create digital human beings that both resemble actual celebrities (living or deceased) or entirely virtual personalities from scratch. In the near future, this technology is expected to become even more advanced and widespread to the point where there may be entirely virtual celebrities who are just as popular as their flesh-and-blood counterparts—if not more so. This raises intellectual property questions of how these near-future digital actors and musicians should be classified, and who will receive the proceeds from their performances and appearances. Since, in the near-term, these entities will probably …


Piercing The Shield Of U.C.C. Article 4a: Estate Of Levin V. Wells Fargo Bank’S, Implications For Terrorism Victims’ Attachment Of Blocked Electronic Wire Transfers Originating From State Sponsors Of Terrorism, Olivia Lu Jan 2024

Piercing The Shield Of U.C.C. Article 4a: Estate Of Levin V. Wells Fargo Bank’S, Implications For Terrorism Victims’ Attachment Of Blocked Electronic Wire Transfers Originating From State Sponsors Of Terrorism, Olivia Lu

University of Miami Business Law Review

This Piece examines how ambiguity in the property interests that would be subject to attachment under section 201 of the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act (“TRIA”) and section 1610(g) of the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act (“FSIA”) has affected efforts by victims of terrorism to fulfill their monetary judgments, especially in light of courts’ use of Article 4A of the Uniform Commercial Code to fill the definitional gap. This Piece focuses on a recent D.C. Circuit decision, Estate of Levin v. Wells Fargo Bank, N.A., analyzing its implications for terrorism victims holding monetary judgments to attach blocked electronic funds transfers (“EFTs”) originating …


Privacy’S Next Act, Erik Lampmann-Shaver Jan 2024

Privacy’S Next Act, Erik Lampmann-Shaver

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

This Article identifies and describes three data privacy policy developments from recent legislative sessions that may seem unrelated, but which I contend together offer clues about privacy law’s future over the short-to-medium term.

The first is the proliferation, worldwide and in U.S. states, of legislative proposals and statutes referred to as “age-appropriate design codes.” Originating in the United Kingdom, age-appropriate design codes typically apply to online services “directed to children” and subject such services to transparency, default settings, and other requirements. Chief among them is an implied obligation to conduct ongoing assessments of whether a service could be deemed “directed …


Limits Of Algorithmic Fair Use, Jacob Alhadeff, Cooper Cuene, Max Del Real Jan 2024

Limits Of Algorithmic Fair Use, Jacob Alhadeff, Cooper Cuene, Max Del Real

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

In this article, we apply historical copyright principles to the evolving state of text-to-image generation and explore the implications of emerging technological constructs for copyright’s fair use doctrine. Artificial intelligence (“AI”) is frequently trained on copyrighted works, which usually involves extensive copying without owners’ authorization. Such copying could constitute prima facie copyright infringement, but existing guidance suggests fair use should apply to most machine learning contexts. Mark Lemley and Bryan Casey argue that training machine learning (“ML”) models on copyrighted material should generally be permitted under fair use when the model’s outputs transcends the purpose of its inputs. Their arguments …


Coded Social Control: China’S Normalization Of Biometric Surveillance In The Post Covid-19 Era, Michelle Miao Jan 2024

Coded Social Control: China’S Normalization Of Biometric Surveillance In The Post Covid-19 Era, Michelle Miao

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

This article investigates the longevity of health QR codes, a digital instrument of pandemic surveillance, in post-COVID China. From 2020 to 2022, China widely used this tri-color tool to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. A commonly held assumption is that health QR codes have become obsolete in post-pandemic China. This study challenges such an assumption. It reveals their persistence and integration - through mobile apps and online platforms - beyond the COVID-19 public health emergency. A prolonged, expanded and normalized use of tools which were originally intended for contact tracing and pandemic surveillance raises critical legal and ethical concerns. Moreover, their …


Quantifying Civil Recovery In Hybrid Antitrust-Data Protection Harms, Jose Maria Marella Jan 2024

Quantifying Civil Recovery In Hybrid Antitrust-Data Protection Harms, Jose Maria Marella

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

If digital platforms are found liable on hybrid antitrust-data protection violations, by how much should individual users be compensated? While traditional antitrust literature offers some estimation techniques, these methods were developed mostly around the idea that anti-competitive conduct manifests in supra-competitive prices, lost profits, or lost customers, all of which are easily quantifiable using commercially available evidence.

In digital markets, where antitrust violations are often intertwined with data protection issues, several complications arise. First, unlike transactions covered by traditional treble damage estimation techniques, “data-for-services” dealings are not evidenced by receipts. Second, personal data valuation is highly contextual and prone to …


Privacy Purgatory: Why The United States Needs A Comprehensive Federal Data Privacy Law, Emily Stackhouse Taetzsch Jan 2024

Privacy Purgatory: Why The United States Needs A Comprehensive Federal Data Privacy Law, Emily Stackhouse Taetzsch

Journal of Legislation

No abstract provided.


The Need For Corporate Guardrails In U.S. Industrial Policy, Lenore Palladino Jan 2024

The Need For Corporate Guardrails In U.S. Industrial Policy, Lenore Palladino

Seattle University Law Review

U.S. politicians are actively “marketcrafting”: the passage of the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law, the CHIPS and Science Act, and the Inflation Reduction Act collectively mark a new moment of robust industrial policy. However, these policies are necessarily layered on top of decades of shareholder primacy in corporate governance, in which corporate and financial leaders have prioritized using corporate profits to increase the wealth of shareholders. The Administration and Congress have an opportunity to use industrial policy to encourage a broader reorientation of U.S. businesses away from extractive shareholder primacy and toward innovation and productivity. This Article examines discrete opportunities within the …


New Rules For A New Era: Regulating Artificial Intelligence In The Legal Field, Hunter Cyran Jan 2024

New Rules For A New Era: Regulating Artificial Intelligence In The Legal Field, Hunter Cyran

Journal of Law, Technology, & the Internet

As Artificial Intelligence (AI) continues to evolve at a rapid pace, many industries have already started integrating new technologies to reduce costs and labor. While this is practical for some industries, the legal industry should be cautious before fully integrating AI. Some legal-service providers are already developing and offering new AI products. But the legal industry must approach these new products with some skepticism. While AI may eventually bring positive changes to the legal industry, AI currently has many flaws. This can create negative unintended consequences for attorneys and judges that are unaware of these flaws. Further, AI is not …


The Future Of The Christchurch Call To Action: How To Build Multistakeholder Initiatives To Address Content Moderation Challenges, Rachel Wolbers Jan 2024

The Future Of The Christchurch Call To Action: How To Build Multistakeholder Initiatives To Address Content Moderation Challenges, Rachel Wolbers

Journal of Law, Technology, & the Internet

This article explores the challenges the New Zealand Government faced after the events in Christchurch on 15 March 2019, where a violent gunman killed 51 people and live-streamed his attack on social media. The video was viewed millions of times in the days following, even as the tech companies took extraordinary efforts to reduce its virality. To find a long-term solution that ended the proliferation of this violent content while protecting human rights, the New Zealand Government decided to take a non-regulatory approach that worked alongside tech companies and civil society. The result was the creation of the Christchurch Call …


Table Of Contents, Seattle University Law Review Jan 2024

Table Of Contents, Seattle University Law Review

Seattle University Law Review

Table of Contents


Public Primacy In Corporate Law, Dorothy S. Lund Jan 2024

Public Primacy In Corporate Law, Dorothy S. Lund

Seattle University Law Review

This Article explores the malleability of agency theory by showing that it could be used to justify a “public primacy” standard for corporate law that would direct fiduciaries to promote the value of the corporation for the benefit of the public. Employing agency theory to describe the relationship between corporate management and the broader public sheds light on aspects of firm behavior, as well as the nature of state contracting with corporations. It also provides a lodestar for a possible future evolution of corporate law and governance: minimize the agency costs created by the divergence of interests between management and …