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2019

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Relationship Between Sustainable Outer Space Law And The Use Of Satellite Technology In Handling Marine Plastic Debris, Andreas Pramudianto Dec 2019

Relationship Between Sustainable Outer Space Law And The Use Of Satellite Technology In Handling Marine Plastic Debris, Andreas Pramudianto

Journal of Environmental Science and Sustainable Development

Since the discovery of plastic material, which ends up as plastic waste after use and partly enters the sea, it has become a global problem that needs serious treatment. No international agreement exists about handling marine plastic debris. By contrast, national laws have been created to plastic bags and plastic debris. Currently, the existing legal instruments, especially in outer space law, are still traditional and inadequate. A sustainable new paradigm in outer space law is needed, such as the use of satellite technology, such as the COSMOS satellite by RKA Recosmos, for global environmental issues, including the ozone layer, climate …


The Separation Of Migrant Families At The Border Under The Trump Administration’S Zero-Tolerance Policy: A Critical Analysis Of The Mistreatment Of Immigrant Children Held In U.S. Custody, Dhillon Ramkhelawan Dec 2019

The Separation Of Migrant Families At The Border Under The Trump Administration’S Zero-Tolerance Policy: A Critical Analysis Of The Mistreatment Of Immigrant Children Held In U.S. Custody, Dhillon Ramkhelawan

Child and Family Law Journal

This article provides a critical analysis of the Trump Administration’s zero-tolerance policy that separated migrant families at the Southwest United States border from April to June 2018. It will provide a statistical analysis regarding the number of migrant children that were separated from their parents during this time period, and it will describe the poor living conditions that many of these children were subjected to as they waited for their parent’s immigration cases to be decided. Additionally, this article will also critically analyze the United States’ history of mistreating migrant children who started to flee their war-torn countries in Central …


Of Sustainable Development In Africa: Addressing The (In)Congruence Of Plastic Bag Regulations With International Trade Rules, Regis Y, Simo Dec 2019

Of Sustainable Development In Africa: Addressing The (In)Congruence Of Plastic Bag Regulations With International Trade Rules, Regis Y, Simo

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

Several aspects of the trade policies of African countries suffer from neglect in the legal literature. When they are the object of research, the focus is sometimes limited to their participation in the dispute settlement system or on the enforceability of special and differential treatment provisions. While practice displays that African countries have almost never been the target of complaints for a number a reasons, those approaches do not always take into consideration African countries’ domestic measures affecting the flow of goods and services, which could eventually trigger disputes. This paper intends to fill that gap and add to the …


Global Implementation Of Soda Taxes: Is There A Better Solution For Combatting Obesity?, Lauren Cedeno Dec 2019

Global Implementation Of Soda Taxes: Is There A Better Solution For Combatting Obesity?, Lauren Cedeno

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

As incidences of overweight and obese populations continue to increase around the world, countries are looking for ways to decrease the prevalence of this epidemic. Soda and SSB taxes have increased in prevalence as countries seek to address the health problems associated with consumption of soda and other sugary beverages. This Note explores the implementation of these taxes in Mexico, Europe, and the United States. In analyzing these taxes, this Note seeks to gain a greater understanding of whether these taxes have impacted overweight and obesity rates in the countries and municipalities that have enacted them. This Note argues that …


Reducing The Governance Gap For Corporate Complicity In International Crimes, Seunghyun Nam Dec 2019

Reducing The Governance Gap For Corporate Complicity In International Crimes, Seunghyun Nam

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

With increasing reports of corporations involved in serious human rights abuses that amount to international crimes, there are greater calls for states to hold these corporations accountable. Still, many obstacles and challenges remain when it comes to holding corporations accountable. Complex corporate structures, the extraterritorial dimension of the abuses, competition among states and businesses, lack of institutional capacity on the part of states, and lack of legal coordination among states collectively create an impunity gap. The case studies of the situation in Burma and the Democratic Republic of Congo involving foreign companies aim to illustrate this governance gap. With growing …


Between Scylla And Charybdis: Maritime Liens And The Bankruptcy Code, Ian T. Kitts Dec 2019

Between Scylla And Charybdis: Maritime Liens And The Bankruptcy Code, Ian T. Kitts

Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law

Federal courts have had trouble fitting maritime law into the bankruptcy scheme created by the Bankruptcy Code (the Code). Particularly troublesome have been vessel-arrest proceedings that are underway when the vessel’s owner files for bankruptcy. Prior to the enactment of the Code, courts applied the doctrine of custodia legis to decide whether the admiralty or the bankruptcy court would administer the vessel. Since the Code was enacted, courts have generally held that the bankruptcy court gained control. A recent Ninth Circuit decision, however, split with other circuits and seems to have revived custodia legis. This Note argues that the Ninth …


“Hey Alexa, Do Consumers Really Want More Data Privacy?”: An Analysis Of The Negative Effects Of The General Data Protection Regulation, Katherine M. Wilcox Dec 2019

“Hey Alexa, Do Consumers Really Want More Data Privacy?”: An Analysis Of The Negative Effects Of The General Data Protection Regulation, Katherine M. Wilcox

Brooklyn Law Review

Recent news articles discuss the flooding of email inboxes with lengthy terms and condition updates, viral videos of Mark Zuckerberg’s public Cambridge Analytica hearing before Congress, and the phenomenon of internet advertisements appearing for items that consumers merely searched for on Google a day prior. Effective as of May 25, 2018, the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) established a framework that sets legal standards targeted at businesses and other data collectors to dramatically increase data privacy protections for citizens of the EU. Consumers, however, do not seem to appreciate these increased protections, as they rarely read the updated …


The Oecd Multilateral Tax Instrument: A Model For Reforming The International Investment Regime?, Wolfgang Alschner Dec 2019

The Oecd Multilateral Tax Instrument: A Model For Reforming The International Investment Regime?, Wolfgang Alschner

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

The international tax and investment regimes display striking similarities. They are both based on thousands of bilateral treaties that follow similar principles but differ in fine print. They each facilitate the free flow of international capital by respectively disciplining fiscal and regulatory host state conduct. Finally, they share common historical foundations and have experienced similar periods of rapid diffusion and deep contestation. Yet, while the international tax regime recently accomplished a sweeping reform to solve a decades-old legitimacy crisis, the investment regime is still grappling with its own legitimacy crisis and reform. In 2018, the multilateral tax instrument (MLI) entered …


Coming To Terms With Wartime Collaboration: Post-Conflict Processes & Legal Challenges, Shane Darcy Dec 2019

Coming To Terms With Wartime Collaboration: Post-Conflict Processes & Legal Challenges, Shane Darcy

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

The phenomenon of collaboration during wartime is as old as war itself. During situations of armed conflict, civilians or combatants belonging to one party to the conflict frequently provide assistance to the opposing side in various ways, such as by disclosing valuable information, defecting and fighting for the enemy, engaging in propaganda, or providing administrative support to an occupying power. Such acts of collaboration have been punished harshly, with violent retribution often directed at alleged collaborators during armed conflict, while states and at times non-state actors have prosecuted and punished collaboration as treason or related offenses in times of war. …


How Much Do Expert Opinions Matter? An Empirical Investigation Of Selection Bias, Adversarial Bias, And Judicial Deference In Chinese Medical, Chunyan Ding Dec 2019

How Much Do Expert Opinions Matter? An Empirical Investigation Of Selection Bias, Adversarial Bias, And Judicial Deference In Chinese Medical, Chunyan Ding

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

This article investigates the nature of the operation and the role of expert opinions in Chinese medical negligence litigation, drawing on content analysis of 3,619 medical negligence cases and an in-depth survey of judges with experience of adjudicating medical negligence cases. It offers three major findings: first, that both parties to medical negligence disputes show significant selection bias of medical opinions, as do courts when selecting court-appointed experts; second, expert opinions in medical negligence litigation demonstrate substantial adversarial bias; third, courts display very strong judicial deference to expert opinions in determining medical negligence liability. This article fills the methodological gap …


Kicking The Law: The Effects Of Fifa Regulations On A World Cup Host Country’S Legislative Process In Regards To Intellectual Property Protection, Nicole-Amanda Brandofino Dec 2019

Kicking The Law: The Effects Of Fifa Regulations On A World Cup Host Country’S Legislative Process In Regards To Intellectual Property Protection, Nicole-Amanda Brandofino

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

Brand protection is highly sought after by large organizations that seek to monetize valuable intellectual property. At the international level, treaties such as the TRIPS Agreement allow for protection amongst signatory nations. As a leader in the international sports field, FIFA has capitalized on its well-known brand throughout the world through the selling of merchandise and licensing to influential third parties. With the occurrence of the World Cup every four years, FIFA strives to uphold the high revenue it earns through its wide intellectual property portfolio. As the World Cup host country prepares for the tournament, it must abide by …


Sovereign Immunity For Russia's Rocket Engines? Enforcing The "Yukos" Award, Evan Drake Dec 2019

Sovereign Immunity For Russia's Rocket Engines? Enforcing The "Yukos" Award, Evan Drake

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

In 2003 Yukos Oil Company was once the largest oil company in Russia, and its oligarch CEO was Russia’s richest man. By 2007 Yukos had been dissolved, its CEO arrested, and its assets acquired by Russian state oil giants Rosneft and Gazprom. The fall of Yukos triggered what may be the largest arbitral dispute of all time. In 2014, the former shareholders of Yukos successfully won a $50 billion award against Russia for violations of the Energy Charter Treaty – by far the largest in history. Now the shareholders need to collect. This Note examines how Yukos could enforce its …


The Clone Wars: The Right To Embryonic Gene Editing Under German Law, Keren Goldberger Dec 2019

The Clone Wars: The Right To Embryonic Gene Editing Under German Law, Keren Goldberger

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

Germany has the strictest genetic engineering laws in the world and bans virtually all kinds of embryonic gene editing. Since the invention of CRISPR, however, embryonic gene editing is more precise, and the possibilities of curing genetic diseases are more real than ever. This Note will argue for the right to embryonic gene editing through an analysis of German constitutional privacy and right to life jurisprudence. Ultimately, this Note argues for a right to procreate under German law that is backed by the state’s affirmative duty to encourage and protect life. When the technology is available, German Law should not …


Third-Party Funding: The Road To Compatibility In International Arbitration, Vienna Messina Dec 2019

Third-Party Funding: The Road To Compatibility In International Arbitration, Vienna Messina

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

Third-party funding in global commerce and dispute resolution has gained considerable traction in the last few decades. The rise in complex international arbitration cases has encouraged a demand for third-party funding arrangements since the disputes involve large amounts of money in addition to high legal costs. This Note explores the implications of third-party funding on the practice of international arbitration, particularly with the expansion of arbitral institutions’ doctrinal rules to address the use of third-party funding. Much of the pre-existing research and literature highlights the issues that third-party funding poses in international arbitration proceedings, but fails to consider a broader, …


Looking To The United Kingdom To Overhaul New York State’S Paid Family Leave Law And Close The Global Gender Gap, John Pietruszka Dec 2019

Looking To The United Kingdom To Overhaul New York State’S Paid Family Leave Law And Close The Global Gender Gap, John Pietruszka

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

The World Economic Forum estimates that mitigating gender-based disparities in the area of economic participation could lead to substantial economic benefits for the global economy. However, the international system of sovereign states requires this effort be piecemeal, as each state must set priorities to achieve greater gender parity within its own economic, political, and cultural contexts. The United States, by virtue of being the largest economy in the world by nominal GDP, undoubtedly has one of the largest roles to play in the effort to mitigate this global problem. Nonetheless, it lags behind other nation-states in several key areas that …


China-Eu Bit And Fta: Building A Bridge On The Silk Road Not Detoured By Labor Standard Provisions, Ronald C. Brown Dec 2019

China-Eu Bit And Fta: Building A Bridge On The Silk Road Not Detoured By Labor Standard Provisions, Ronald C. Brown

Washington International Law Journal

It is time for European Union and Chinese leaders to build on the existing EU-China 2020 Strategic Agenda for Cooperation, quickly conclude on-going negotiations on their EU-China Bilateral Investment Treaty, and begin substantive negotiations on an EU-China Free Trade Agreement? China is now the European Union's second-biggest trading partner behind the United States, and the European Union is China's biggest trading partner. China is reaching to become the leader in globalism and is investing heavily to make it happen. One of the world’s largest projects, the Belt and Road Initiative is a primary driver of China's larger development strategy. A …


Rethinking Adjudicative Jurisdiction In International Law, Satya T. Mouland Dec 2019

Rethinking Adjudicative Jurisdiction In International Law, Satya T. Mouland

Washington International Law Journal

The contribution of national courts to international law has long been doubted in the international law literature. As an aspect of the state’s power to prescribe, courts have been conceived as organs that merely apply the state’s laws, which may give effect to an international law norm. According to this conception, national courts merely apply and operate within the state’s national legal system and rarely have a direct contribution to international law. However, in enforcement proceedings for international arbitral awards, arising at the intersection between the law of state immunity and the law governing the enforcement of arbitral awards, a …


Film Review: Operation Finale, Melanie O'Brien Dec 2019

Film Review: Operation Finale, Melanie O'Brien

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

In 1960, the Israeli intelligence agency, Mossad, undertook an operation in Argentina to capture the architect of the Final Solution, Adolf Eichmann, and bring him to Israel to stand trial. Operation Finale [Chris Weitz, 2018] tells the story of this intelligence operation: the actions of and challenges for the agents involved, in a way that captures the banality of Eichmann’s personality before it was put on show for the world to see in his televised trial. Operation Finale is available on Netflix, rendering it a Holocaust film with an extraordinarily large reach.


Italy And The Aquarius: A Migrant Crisis, Alexandra Larkin Dec 2019

Italy And The Aquarius: A Migrant Crisis, Alexandra Larkin

Pace International Law Review

Italian journalist Indro Montanelli once wrote, “[w]e Italians are tolerant and civil with all those who are different. Black, red, yellow. Especially when they are far away, at a telescopic distance from us.” In recent years, Italy had a resurgence of nationalist and far-right political leaders, who have taken an anti-immigration stance. Public interest in migration of refugees and asylum seekers is due both to media coverage of their stories and to litigation before international courts. One high-profile story that made headlines in the summer of 2018 was Italy’s treatment of the Aquarius, a rescue vessel operated by the …


Towards A New Generation In Central American Trade: Proposals For Modernizing Cafta-Dr, Julia E. Johnson Dec 2019

Towards A New Generation In Central American Trade: Proposals For Modernizing Cafta-Dr, Julia E. Johnson

Pace International Law Review

To the surprise of many, the Trump Administration has signaled its intent to renegotiate the Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR). Why is the possible renegotiation of CAFTA-DR a surprise? CAFTA-DR has been largely favorable to the United States (U.S.)—the U.S. has enjoyed significant trade surpluses with CAFTA-DR countries since its ratification. CAFTA-DR has also promoted regional integration and co-production in Central America.Trade flows in and out of Central America have increased significantly. On balance, CAFTA-DR has benefitted all signatory nations from a trade standpoint, though it has left unaddressed a myriad of social, humanitarian, and governance issues. Consequently, …


The International Law Of Corporate Governance, Ram Sachs Dec 2019

The International Law Of Corporate Governance, Ram Sachs

Pace International Law Review

International economic agreements increasingly touch on fundamental principles of corporate governance. The trend contrasts with existing scholarship, which assumes corporate law evolves via domestic mechanisms. This Article introduces the EU-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement, with its dedicated chapter on corporate governance, as a case study. At the normative level, the emergence of corporate governance in international agreements represents a positive development by enabling countries to signal and put into action commitments for better governance. Given these recent developments, the field of comparative corporate governance should incorporate international agreements as an emerging source of law.


Bringing The Bosses To International Criminal Trials: The Problems With Joint Criminal Enterprise And The “Control Over The Crime” Approach As A Better Alternative, Juan-Pablo Pérez-León-Acevedo Dec 2019

Bringing The Bosses To International Criminal Trials: The Problems With Joint Criminal Enterprise And The “Control Over The Crime” Approach As A Better Alternative, Juan-Pablo Pérez-León-Acevedo

Pace International Law Review

Similar to most international and hybrid criminal tribunals, the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia used the doctrine or theory of Joint Criminal Enterprise (JCE) as a mode of liability when prosecuting and convicting those most responsible, namely, state and non-state political and military leaders, in cases of international crimes. Against such background, the main research questions of this article are whether JCE should be applied in cases of those most responsible for international crimes and whether JCE should be replaced by the “control over the crime” approach. Overall, this article argues and finds two main points. First, JCE …


Abortion Laws In Nigeria: A Case For Reform, P. Chibueze Okorie, Olubusola Adebayo Abayomi Dec 2019

Abortion Laws In Nigeria: A Case For Reform, P. Chibueze Okorie, Olubusola Adebayo Abayomi

Annual Survey of International & Comparative Law

The available statistics indicate that over 1,000,000 abortions occur in Nigeria annually, representing about 33 abortions per 1,000 women of child bearing age. It has also been asserted that illegal abortion is responsible for about 11% of maternal death in Nigeria and 50% of such deaths involve adolescents and young women. Although, it may be difficult to confirm these reports and statistics by different researchers, mainly because of the absence of official figures owing to the clandestine nature of abortion in Nigeria, there is no doubt that abortions are generally procured by women for various reasons, namely: financial and emotional …


Imperatives Of Corporate Governance On Corporate Citizenship In Nigeria, Professor Dr. S. Gozie Ogbodo, Dr. Godwin Luke Umoru Dec 2019

Imperatives Of Corporate Governance On Corporate Citizenship In Nigeria, Professor Dr. S. Gozie Ogbodo, Dr. Godwin Luke Umoru

Annual Survey of International & Comparative Law

This paper seeks to examine and interrogate the conceptual ideas and frameworks of corporate governance; its relationship and relevance to corporate citizenship and the elements that describe what is meant by corporate citizenship. Various perspectives of the role which corporate governance plays as a major influence on corporate citizenship and corporate social responsibility were clearly shown. Also shown is the meaning which is ascribed to corporate governance, its core principles, the rhetoric and realities concerning the effect of a corporation’s pursuit of power and profit on corporate citizenship, legal and social responsibilities and the significant paradigm shift. Situating the concept …


A New Era In The Application Of U.S. Securities Law Abroad: Valuing The Presumption Against Extraterritoriality And Managing The Future With The Sustainable- Domestic-Integrity Standard, Alina Veneziano Dec 2019

A New Era In The Application Of U.S. Securities Law Abroad: Valuing The Presumption Against Extraterritoriality And Managing The Future With The Sustainable- Domestic-Integrity Standard, Alina Veneziano

Annual Survey of International & Comparative Law

The U.S. Supreme Court in Morrison held that Section 10(b) of the Exchange Act did not apply extraterritorially, lacking a clear indication by Congress of the intent to do so. In reaching this conclusion, it clarified that the reach of Section 10(b) is a merits question, not a question of subject matter jurisdiction and stated that the focus of the statute was upon purchases and sales of securities in the United States while articulating a bright-line transactional test to determine whether extraterritorial application was appropriate. The transactional test completely rejected the conduct/effects tests, which had been used by courts for …


International Standards For Protection Of Religious Freedom, Anthony Peirson Xavier Bothwell Dec 2019

International Standards For Protection Of Religious Freedom, Anthony Peirson Xavier Bothwell

Annual Survey of International & Comparative Law

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, inspired by the “four freedoms” articulated by Franklin D. Roosevelt, proclaims but does not define the religious liberty that is the birthright of all people. Four centuries ago, when few people were free, religious ideas fostered the development of some of the fundamental principles of the law of nations. As international law has matured, increasingly it has recognized the right of individuals and groups to pursue their own religions and beliefs. The United Nations system has generated an array of international conventions, covenants, and resolutions which today articulate the rights of adherents to all …


Assessment Of The Role Of The Nigerian Police Force In The Promotion And Protection Of Human Rights In Nigeria, Dr. Ndubuisi J. Madubuike-Ekwe, Dr. Olumide K. Obayemi Dec 2019

Assessment Of The Role Of The Nigerian Police Force In The Promotion And Protection Of Human Rights In Nigeria, Dr. Ndubuisi J. Madubuike-Ekwe, Dr. Olumide K. Obayemi

Annual Survey of International & Comparative Law

This article examines the role of the Nigerian Police Force in the promotion and protection of human rights in Nigeria. It discusses the concept of human rights under international and domestic law. It highlights the powers of the Nigerian Police Force under the Police Act and the Administration of Criminal Justice Act, 2015 and observes that although the police use discretion to support human rights, it is the abuse of the discretion and power that results in violation of human rights of citizens. This article identifies the rights most subjected to abuse by the police as the right to life, …


Involuntary Dissolution: Theory And Operation In Publicly Traded Corporations, Dr. Murat Can Pehlivanoglu Dec 2019

Involuntary Dissolution: Theory And Operation In Publicly Traded Corporations, Dr. Murat Can Pehlivanoglu

Annual Survey of International & Comparative Law

Involuntary dissolution is recognized as the primary mechanism to monitor opportunism and remedy the aggrieved minority shareholders of corporations. Contrary to general understanding, involuntary dissolution is not idiosyncratic to close corporations. However, its application to publicly traded corporations requires an approach different than the one for close corporations. This note discusses and recommends the approach necessary to justify and effectively enforce involuntary dissolution statutes’ application in the context of publicly traded corporations. It expresses the opinion that the contractual view of corporate law would provide the theoretical basis necessary to construe the statute for publicly traded corporations and exemplifies its …


Front Matter Dec 2019

Front Matter

Annual Survey of International & Comparative Law

Front Matter includes the masthead, dedication, editorial, School of Law faculty, and Table of Contents.


Cuban Asset Control Regulations: The Transfer Of Estate Assets To Cuban Heirs Under The Obama And Trump Administrations, Madeleine N. Elser Dec 2019

Cuban Asset Control Regulations: The Transfer Of Estate Assets To Cuban Heirs Under The Obama And Trump Administrations, Madeleine N. Elser

University of Miami Inter-American Law Review

No abstract provided.