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Protecting Humanity's Cradle Of Civilization: Advancing The Right To Self-Determination For Indigenous Peoples In The Middle East & South Caucasus, Lisabelle Panossian Apr 2024

Protecting Humanity's Cradle Of Civilization: Advancing The Right To Self-Determination For Indigenous Peoples In The Middle East & South Caucasus, Lisabelle Panossian

Northwestern Journal of Human Rights

During this paper’s drafting, an indigenous people’s independent government collapsed. For over thirty years, the Republic of Artsakh was a de facto independent region inside the internationally-recognized borders of Azerbaijan. The region comprised of an indigenous Armenian majority—until September 2023. In December 2022, Azerbaijani authorities blocked the only road that connected Nagorno-Karabakh to the outside world. This blockade resulted in shortages of food, medical supplies, and fuel, the severity of which was especially felt during a harsh winter.

After experiencing starvation and preventable medical complications under a nine month-long blockade, the Azerbaijani government launched a military incursion on the Republic …


Human Rights Without Borders, Christian Gonzalez Chacon Jan 2024

Human Rights Without Borders, Christian Gonzalez Chacon

Northwestern Journal of Human Rights

In the current global context, millions of people are forced to migrate

yearly for reasons ranging from persecution and violence, internal armed

conflicts, and forced displacement, to lack of employment and climate

change. In the Americas, we recently witnessed the phenomenon of the

“migrant caravans,” where thousands of people, mostly from the Northern

Triangle of Central America—El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala—

were willing to walk hundreds of miles to enter the U.S.-Mexico border to

escape poverty and violence in their countries. Another caravan of close to

10,000 migrants from the Northern Triangle of Central America including

Guatemala, El Salvador and …


Zero-Option Defendants: United States V. Mclellan And The Judiciary's Role In Protecting The Right To Compulsory Process, Wisdom U. Onwuchekwa-Banogu Jan 2024

Zero-Option Defendants: United States V. Mclellan And The Judiciary's Role In Protecting The Right To Compulsory Process, Wisdom U. Onwuchekwa-Banogu

JCLC Online

How does one obtain evidence located outside the United States for a criminal trial? For prosecutors, the answer is an exclusive treaty process: Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties (MLATs). Defendants, on the other hand, may only use an unpredictable, ineffective, non-treaty process: letters rogatory. The result is a selective advantage for law enforcement at the expense of the defendant. Though this imbalance necessarily raises Sixth Amendment Compulsory Process Clause concerns, MLATs have remained largely undisturbed because defendants still have some form of process, albeit a lesser one. But what happens when the letters rogatory process is also closed off to the …


Non-State Actors For Profit: Revisiting Transnational Corporations' Personhood And Responsibility Under International Law, Katayoon Beshkardana, Faraz Shahlaei Jan 2024

Non-State Actors For Profit: Revisiting Transnational Corporations' Personhood And Responsibility Under International Law, Katayoon Beshkardana, Faraz Shahlaei

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

The growing impact of Transnational Corporations (TCs) on international trade, investment, and human rights raises the question of international corporate responsibility. For international responsibility, TCs must be recognized as subjects of international law with legal personality. Apart from states as the primary subjects of international law, such status has been granted to inter-governmental organizations (IGOs). The factors that contributed to the IGOs’ recognition as international law subjects seem to be present for TCs today. While the International Court of Justice granted such legal status to IGOs, for TCs, the best path to recognition would be to establish a global authority …


Slapp Suits: An Encroachment On Human Rights Of A Global Proportion And What Can Be Done About It, Laura Lee Prather Dec 2023

Slapp Suits: An Encroachment On Human Rights Of A Global Proportion And What Can Be Done About It, Laura Lee Prather

Northwestern Journal of Human Rights

Freedom of expression is the underpinning of all other freedoms. Yet, increasingly, journalists, citizens, advocacy groups, whistleblowers, academics, and media organizations are being targeted and subjected to judicial harassment for informing the public about matters of public concern, denouncing authoritarian regimes, and exposing wrongdoing. These meritless lawsuits do not seek to right a wrong, but rather to silence and intimidate critics. They are known as “Strategic Lawsuits Against Public Participation” (“SLAPP” suits) and are on the rise globally. Because SLAPP suits are designed to inhibit ongoing investigations, stifle informed public debate, and prevent legitimate public interest reporting, they present a …


Climate Change, Corruption, And Colonialism: Solving The Conundrum With Regional Courts, Taylor Nchako Nov 2023

Climate Change, Corruption, And Colonialism: Solving The Conundrum With Regional Courts, Taylor Nchako

Northwestern University Law Review

It is no secret that climate change is the most pressing issue of our times. Global South countries, especially those in Africa, face challenges mitigating the worst impacts of climate change, adapting technological solutions, and continuing to develop their nation’s infrastructure and industry. Cameroon provides an archetypal example of the challenges many African countries face. Plagued by an economy that both exacerbates climate change and stands to collapse from it, Cameroon struggles with corruption that has roots in colonialism and neocolonialism. This corruption taints not only the forestry service and the executive branch, but the judiciary as well, leaving Cameroon’s …


The Rejection Of The Anti-Corruption Principle And Its Effect On Human Rights At Home, Juliet S. Sorensen Sep 2023

The Rejection Of The Anti-Corruption Principle And Its Effect On Human Rights At Home, Juliet S. Sorensen

Northwestern Journal of Human Rights

21st century scholarship analyzing the Framers’ treatment of corruption asserts that their incorporation of anti-corruption means in the Constitution should be interpreted as a framework to inform contemporary judicial review and jurisprudence. Led by Zephyr Teachout’s article “The Anti-Corruption Principle,” this school of thought asserts that the anti-corruption principle should be on par with separation of powers and freedom of expression, a guiding lodestar in interpreting the Constitution.

This article submits that the anti-corruption principle of constitutional interpretation is, in fact, a rights-based approach to corruption, equating freedom from corruption with the other rights and liberties enshrined in the Constitution. …


Promises And Pitfalls In Un Regulation Of Judicial Independence, Martha Kiela Sep 2023

Promises And Pitfalls In Un Regulation Of Judicial Independence, Martha Kiela

Northwestern Journal of Human Rights

This article investigates the current mechanisms and power of the UN to ensure judicial independence in the UN Member States. First, it surveys the UN bodies which play a role in creating international regulations for judicial independence and monitoring Member States’ compliance with them. Second, it analyzes the responses of these bodies to challenges to judicial independence by conducting case studies of Venezuela and Poland, and how these actions compare to those of other international organizations and tribunals. The central questions it seeks to answer are which mechanisms of review and enforcement have so far been the most effective in …


Debt And Dependence: Foreign Interference In Haiti And The Importance Of Non-State Actor Accountability, Sandra Wisner, Brian Concannon May 2023

Debt And Dependence: Foreign Interference In Haiti And The Importance Of Non-State Actor Accountability, Sandra Wisner, Brian Concannon

Northwestern Journal of Human Rights

Colonialist policies and lending practices by foreign states and non-state actors have led to serious and wide-spread violations of Haitian individuals’ fundamental human rights. In particular, a series of loan conditions imposed by international financial institutions and their members states left Haiti vulnerable to increased food insecurity and a severely diminished social sector. This paper proposes that the imposition of such loan conditions constitutes a violation of foreign actors’ obligations under international law respecting economic, social, cultural, and political rights, as well as their extra-territorial obligations (ETOs) to take joint and separate action to promote and respect human rights beyond …


Treaties As A Tool For Native American Land Reparations, Hannah Friedle May 2023

Treaties As A Tool For Native American Land Reparations, Hannah Friedle

Northwestern Journal of Human Rights

"The only compensation for land is land."1

Hundreds of treaties signed. Hundreds of treaties broken. The juvenile United States grew in size as independent Native nations ceded their territory through treaties. Thirsting for more land, the United States broke its promises and continued its manifest destiny westward. And what of tribes’ treaty rights to land? Some Native nations received financial compensation for treaty violations. But money is crumbs to many whose traditional homelands are still colonized.

Tribes are entitled to the land promised to them under treaties—instruments supposedly carrying the force of federal law. Land reparations are a partial …


Human Rights, Trans Rights, Prisoners’ Rights: An International Comparison, Tom Butcher Apr 2023

Human Rights, Trans Rights, Prisoners’ Rights: An International Comparison, Tom Butcher

Northwestern Journal of Law & Social Policy

In this Note, I conduct an international comparison of the state of trans prisoners’ rights to explore how different national legal contexts impact the likelihood of achieving further liberation through appeals to human rights ideals. I examine the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia, India, Argentina, and Costa Rica and show the degree to which a human rights framework has been successful thus far in advancing trans prisoners’ rights. My analysis also indicates that the degree to which a human rights framework is likely to be successful in the future varies greatly between countries. In countries that are hesitant …


A Loaded God Complex: The Unconstitutionality Of The Executive Branch’S Unilaterally Withholding Zero-Days, Brendan Gilligan Apr 2023

A Loaded God Complex: The Unconstitutionality Of The Executive Branch’S Unilaterally Withholding Zero-Days, Brendan Gilligan

Northwestern Journal of Technology and Intellectual Property

No abstract provided.


Managing Misinformation On Social Media: Targeted Newsfeed Interventions And Freedom Of Thought, Richard Mackenzie-Gray Scott Mar 2023

Managing Misinformation On Social Media: Targeted Newsfeed Interventions And Freedom Of Thought, Richard Mackenzie-Gray Scott

Northwestern Journal of Human Rights

Whether it is being told a particular politician consumes children, or drinking cow urine will cure your disease, or that Jimi Hendrix is alive and well living the good life in Drumnadrochit, misinformation affects societies in myriad ways. Its spread online via social media platforms raises questions concerning how it can be addressed. This article engages with a related problem: Can the use of targeted behavioral interventions on social media newsfeeds to reduce the spread of misinformation be reconciled with the human right to freedom of thought?


A Chinese Law Wedge Into The Hong Kong Common Law System: A Legal Appraisal Of The Hong Kong National Security Law, Han Zhu Feb 2023

A Chinese Law Wedge Into The Hong Kong Common Law System: A Legal Appraisal Of The Hong Kong National Security Law, Han Zhu

Northwestern Journal of Human Rights

This paper is the first to comprehensively analyze the key legal controversies surrounding the Hong Kong National Security Law (NSL) and its implementation. Based on doctrinal analysis, case studies, and the most up-to-date statistics, this study centers on three categories of legal disputes: (1) the constitutionality and legality of the NSL; (2) the disputed content of the NSL; and (3) the legislative procedural issues involving the NSL. The study shows that the enactment of the NSL is not only an unprecedented crisis facing the “one country, two systems” framework, but also marks a culmination of the intersection and conflict between …


The Rise And Fall Of Section 502b, John Ramming Chappell Feb 2023

The Rise And Fall Of Section 502b, John Ramming Chappell

Northwestern Journal of Human Rights

The first major foreign policy legislation of the human rights revolution of the 1970s,1 Section 502B of the Foreign Assistance Act (FAA) is a latent oversight tool that Congress could use to promote human rights in U.S. security assistance. Section 502B may be the most potent provision of law regarding human rights and security assistance that has never been used. The provision prohibits U.S. security assistance to governments that engage in a consistent pattern of gross violations of human rights, requires the State Department to report on human rights issues, and provides Congress with a mechanism to enforce the statute’s …


The Effect Of The Pro Act On Secondary Activity And International Trade, Christopher R. Rodenbaugh Jan 2023

The Effect Of The Pro Act On Secondary Activity And International Trade, Christopher R. Rodenbaugh

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

No abstract provided.


Live And Let Liv?: The Case Against Antitrust Alarm And The Multi-Tour Future Of Professional Golf, Reed Silverman Jan 2023

Live And Let Liv?: The Case Against Antitrust Alarm And The Multi-Tour Future Of Professional Golf, Reed Silverman

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

No abstract provided.


Disciplining Cbdcs: Achieving The Balance Between Privacy Protection And Central Bank Independence, Cheng-Yun Tsang, Yueh-Ping Yang, Ping-Kuei Chen Jan 2023

Disciplining Cbdcs: Achieving The Balance Between Privacy Protection And Central Bank Independence, Cheng-Yun Tsang, Yueh-Ping Yang, Ping-Kuei Chen

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

Central bank digital currency (“CBDC”) is a crucial FinTech development that aspires to overhaul the current payment system. In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, CBDCs’ promises to reduce personal contact, facilitate socially desirable use of money, and initiate more targeted monetary measures have increased their popularity. In addition, CBDCs can potentially serve as a tool to internationalize a sovereign’s currency. World central banks, thus, have gradually formulated a consensus on structuring CBDCs, leaving the regulatory aspects of CBDCs deserving more attention. Among the regulatory issues related to CBDCs, observers often mentioned their association with privacy concerns, but comprehensive studies …


Leveling The Playing Field: How To Get International Student-Athletes Paid Under Name, Image And Likeness, Justin Auh Jan 2023

Leveling The Playing Field: How To Get International Student-Athletes Paid Under Name, Image And Likeness, Justin Auh

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

No abstract provided.


Trends In China-Africa Economic Relations And Dispute Settlement, Won Kidane Jan 2023

Trends In China-Africa Economic Relations And Dispute Settlement, Won Kidane

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

The rapid rise in the last two decades of China-Africa economic interactions in trade, investment, construction projects, and loans require sustained inquiry into the substantive rules of engagement and mechanisms of dispute settlement. Evidently, however, it would quickly emerge that the improvements in supranational legal frameworks have not kept pace with the growing scale and complexity of the economic interactions. While trade relations between China and Africa are theoretically subject to the same multilateral World Trade Organization (WTO) rules, they are in practice mostly based on informal unilateral concessions. Moreover, investment relations are partially governed by fragmented and mostly outdated …


Empowering Women's Land Rights As A Climate Change Mitigation Strategy In Nigeria, Cate Baskin Jul 2022

Empowering Women's Land Rights As A Climate Change Mitigation Strategy In Nigeria, Cate Baskin

Northwestern Journal of Human Rights

This article focuses on the intersection between gender and land rights as they relate to climate change in Nigeria. Decisions about land use, such as biodiversity management and farming techniques, impact the quality of the land and peoples’ ability to live off it. This article will show that women are better situated to utilize techniques which sustain the land. Despite this, women have historically been denied land rights in Nigeria, creating a disconnect between the women who cultivate the land and the men who own it and leading to unsustainable use of agricultural land in Nigeria. Climate change is only …


Convergence & Conflict: Reflections On Global And Regional Human Rights Standards On Hate Speech, Evelyn Aswad, David Kaye Jul 2022

Convergence & Conflict: Reflections On Global And Regional Human Rights Standards On Hate Speech, Evelyn Aswad, David Kaye

Northwestern Journal of Human Rights

What is hate speech under international human rights law? And how do key international adjudicators interpret the law governing it? This Article seeks to illuminate two countervailing and under-reported trends: on the one hand, a growing consensus among U.N. experts and treaty bodies concerning interpretations of “hate speech” prohibitions in international law; and on the other, a failure of several regional human rights bodies to develop approaches to hate speech that are consistent with the U.N.’s universal standards. The Article begins by analyzing the U.N.’s approach to freedom of expression and hate speech and examining how, in the last decade, …


Professional Indifference?: How One Case Improves Protection For Immigrant Children In United States Detention Centers, Caitlin Fernandez Zamora Jul 2022

Professional Indifference?: How One Case Improves Protection For Immigrant Children In United States Detention Centers, Caitlin Fernandez Zamora

Northwestern Journal of Human Rights

This Article discusses the case Doe 4 ex rel. Lopez v. Shenandoah Valley Juvenile Center Commission. This case was a class action brought by unaccompanied immigrant children against the Shenandoah Valley Juvenile Center Commission under § 1983 protection for adequate medical care. The plaintiff class alleged that, among other things, the Commission failed to (i) provide adequate mental health care due to punitive practices; and (ii) implement trauma-informed care. The plaintiffs were immigrant children who fled their native countries due to harrowing circumstances, many of whom struggled with severe mental illness. The district court granted the defendant’s motion for summary …


The Healthcare Legacy Of The Mission Civilisatrice In Unincorporated U.S. Territories, Sam F. Halabi Mar 2022

The Healthcare Legacy Of The Mission Civilisatrice In Unincorporated U.S. Territories, Sam F. Halabi

Northwestern Journal of Human Rights

Individual and population health in unincorporated U.S. territories – American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands – lag terribly behind those in the 50 U.S. states and D.C. The populations in the territories – with drastically higher rates of poverty – suffer and die from chronic conditions like cancer, diabetes, and heart disease at far higher rates; must find facilities and doctors thousands of miles away for even moderately complex cases; and perpetually struggle to make access to basic services available. While scholars have long pointed to the disparate treatment of these populations …


Human Rights Council's Universal Periodic Review As A Forum Of Fighting For Borderline Recommendations? Lessons Learned From The Ground, Kazuo Fukuda Mar 2022

Human Rights Council's Universal Periodic Review As A Forum Of Fighting For Borderline Recommendations? Lessons Learned From The Ground, Kazuo Fukuda

Northwestern Journal of Human Rights

Highly acclaimed as a key innovation of the United Nations Human Rights Council, the Universal Periodic Review (UPR) was created in 2006 as a cooperative, peer-review mechanism to shift away from the highly politicized Commission on Human Rights. Despite the significance and hope attached to the UPR, it has been conspicuously under-examined in the U.S. legal scholarship. And most relevant literature elsewhere has avoided directly addressing the fundamental question of exactly what the UPR’s added value is to the global human rights regime in terms of its direct contribution to improving human rights situations on the ground. This is mainly …


Monitoring Sanctions Compliance At Sea, Richard L. Kilpatrick Jr. Jan 2022

Monitoring Sanctions Compliance At Sea, Richard L. Kilpatrick Jr.

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

No abstract provided.


What Remains Of The Alien Tort Statute After Nestlé Usa, Inc. V. Doe?, Clara Petch Jan 2022

What Remains Of The Alien Tort Statute After Nestlé Usa, Inc. V. Doe?, Clara Petch

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

Abstract

The Alien Tort Statute (ATS), which provides U.S. courts with jurisdiction over violations of the law of nations, has been a crucial mechanism for obtaining redress for international human rights abuses. However, over the past four decades, the Supreme Court has continually chipped away at the jurisdictional reach of the statute. Most recently, in June 2021, the Supreme Court addressed the scope of the ATS in two consolidated cases: Nestlé USA, Inc. v. Doe and Cargill, Inc. v. Doe. Plaintiffs were former trafficked and enslaved children forced to work on cocoa farms in Ivory Coast under grueling conditions. Plaintiffs …


Clarity About Comity: How Courts Have Attempted Greater Guidance For Chapter 15 Litigants, Sabrina Lieberman Jan 2022

Clarity About Comity: How Courts Have Attempted Greater Guidance For Chapter 15 Litigants, Sabrina Lieberman

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

Abstract

This note explores the development of courts’ refusal to extend comity to foreign representatives who have filed a proceeding under chapter 15 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code. Congress adopted chapter 15 as part of a comprehensive 2005 bankruptcy reform. It allows foreign entities to receive protection under the U.S. Bankruptcy Code. In most cases, foreign representatives who file a chapter 15 proceeding are involved with ancillary insolvency proceedings outside the United States. There is often a question of how or if a U.S. court overseeing the chapter 15 proceeding will defer to a judgment or process within the foreign …


Married To Sustainability: The Sdg Wedding Cake Framework As A Tool For Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility, Jacob Aubrecht Jan 2022

Married To Sustainability: The Sdg Wedding Cake Framework As A Tool For Strategic Corporate Social Responsibility, Jacob Aubrecht

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

If anything can be said about the future, it is that nothing is certain. In this acceleratingly dynamic reality, stability and certainty are among the greatest assets a leader can have. The opportunity to secure long term stability is something that few would pass up. Broadly speaking, corporate leaders must be acutely aware of global market forces, government regulation, and their own power in the marketplace to create cogent predictions about the future.

This paper is designed for the burgeoning corporate leader that is looking to craft their strategic position on corporate social responsibility (CSR), or the savvy one looking …


Euphemism And Jus Cogens, G. Alex Sinha Jul 2021

Euphemism And Jus Cogens, G. Alex Sinha

Northwestern Journal of Human Rights

Jus cogens norms of international law encompass the most stringent prohibitions of the law of nations. They reflect a global—and typically moral—consensus about impermissible conduct so complete and forceful that no derogation is permissible under any circumstances. Yet states derogate nevertheless. Lacking any valid legal justification for violating jus cogens norms, derogating states instead seek to euphemize their unlawful conduct. Doing so appears at a glance to be a calculated choice that allows States to have their cake and eat it too—to acknowledge the peremptory norms that purportedly bind all sovereigns while acting freely in violation of those norms by …