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Intellectual Property Law

Patents

2012

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Standards, Patents, And The National Smart Grid, Jorge L. Contreras Nov 2012

Standards, Patents, And The National Smart Grid, Jorge L. Contreras

Pace Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Principle Of Fair Notice: Is It Prudent Guidance For The Future Of Patent Law? , Georgia E. Kralovic Oct 2012

The Principle Of Fair Notice: Is It Prudent Guidance For The Future Of Patent Law? , Georgia E. Kralovic

Pepperdine Law Review

No abstract provided.


Competition In Information Technologies: Standards-Essential Patents, Non-Practicing Entities And Frand Bidding, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Oct 2012

Competition In Information Technologies: Standards-Essential Patents, Non-Practicing Entities And Frand Bidding, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Standard Setting is omnipresent in networked information technologies. Virtually every cellular phone, computer, digital camera or similar device contains technologies governed by a collaboratively developed standard. If these technologies are to perform competitively, the processes by which standards are developed and implemented must be competitive. In this case attaining competitive results requires a mixture of antitrust and non-antitrust legal tools.

FRAND refers to a firm’s ex ante commitment to make its technology available at a “fair, reasonable and nondiscriminatory royalty.” The FRAND commitment results from bidding to have one’s own technology selected as a standard. Typically the FRAND ...


Competition In Information Technologies: Standards-Essential Patents, Non-Practicing Entities And Frand Bidding, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Oct 2012

Competition In Information Technologies: Standards-Essential Patents, Non-Practicing Entities And Frand Bidding, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Standard Setting is omnipresent in networked information technologies. Virtually every cellular phone, computer, digital camera or similar device contains technologies governed by a collaboratively developed standard. If these technologies are to perform competitively, the processes by which standards are developed and implemented must be competitive. In this case attaining competitive results requires a mixture of antitrust and non-antitrust legal tools.

FRAND refers to a firm’s ex ante commitment to make its technology available at a “fair, reasonable and nondiscriminatory royalty.” The FRAND commitment results from bidding to have one’s own technology selected as a standard. Typically the FRAND ...


Cross-Border Ip Infringement: Patents, Marketa Trimble Jul 2012

Cross-Border Ip Infringement: Patents, Marketa Trimble

Boyd Briefs / Road Scholars

Professor Marketa Trimble presented these materials at the CASRIP 20th Anniversary / IP LLM 10th Anniversary IP-across Topic Scholarship Conference on July 28, 2012.


Innovation And Competition Policy: Statutory Supplement And Other Materials, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Jun 2012

Innovation And Competition Policy: Statutory Supplement And Other Materials, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This Supplement to Cases and Materials on Innovation and Competition Policy includes the following: (1) a statutory supplement containing relevant provisions of the antitrust laws, the Patent Act, the Copyright Act, and the DMCA: (2) an annotated table of contents. Other supplemental materials, including discussion of recent decisions or other developments, will be added from time to time.

This book will be supplemented frequently as important new decisions or other developments occur. However, the author will attempt not to revise individual chapters during the course of the academic semester in order to avoid confusion in pagination or printing. Instead, supplemental ...


An Overview Of Patent Prosecution, Frederick W. Dingledy Jun 2012

An Overview Of Patent Prosecution, Frederick W. Dingledy

Library Staff Publications

No abstract provided.


Technology Transfer And Innovation Policy At Canadian Universities: Opportunities And Social Costs, Samuel Trosow, Michael B. Mcnally, Laura E. Briggs, Cameron Hoffman, Cassandra D. Ball, Adam Jacobs, Bridget Moran May 2012

Technology Transfer And Innovation Policy At Canadian Universities: Opportunities And Social Costs, Samuel Trosow, Michael B. Mcnally, Laura E. Briggs, Cameron Hoffman, Cassandra D. Ball, Adam Jacobs, Bridget Moran

FIMS Publications

This report, supported by a Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC) Knowledge Synthesis Grant, critically examines the role of universities in transmitting knowledge in the forms of technology transfer mechanisms, intellectual property agreements and other knowledge diffusion policies. In reviewing and synthesizing the recent literature on the topic, we seek to provide some initial evidence-based policy recommendations in order to generally strengthen Canada‘s innovation ecosystem and more specifically to maximize the return on the nation‘s investment in higher education research and development.


What Is The "Invention"?, Christopher A. Cotropia May 2012

What Is The "Invention"?, Christopher A. Cotropia

Law Faculty Publications

Patent law is in flux, with recent disputes and changes in doctrine fueled by increased attention from the Supreme Court and en banc activity by the Federal Circuit. The natural reaction is to analyze each doctrinal area involved on its own. Upon a closer look, however, many patent cases concern a single, fundamental dispute. Conflicts in opinions on such issues as claim interpretation methodology and the written description requirement are really disagreements over which "invention" the courts should be considering. There are two concepts of invention currently in play in patent decisions. The first is an "external invention" definition, in ...


Maturing Patent Theory From Industrial Policy To Intellectual Property, Oskar Liivak Apr 2012

Maturing Patent Theory From Industrial Policy To Intellectual Property, Oskar Liivak

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

We have always known that technological progress is important and this country has always aimed to promote it. A large part of that responsibility has fallen on the shoulders of the patent system. Embarrassingly, despite over two hundred years of experience, we still do not actually know if the patent system helps or hinders technological progress. This Essay argues that the problem is not the patent system but rather patent theory. Patent theory suffers from three linked problems: exceptionalness, indeterminacy, and animosity. First, patent law is seen as a necessarily unique exception to the overall market economy. By artificially making ...


Oh, The Places You'll Go: The Implications Of Current Patent Law On Embryonic Stem Cell Research, Stacy Kincaid Apr 2012

Oh, The Places You'll Go: The Implications Of Current Patent Law On Embryonic Stem Cell Research, Stacy Kincaid

Pepperdine Law Review

No abstract provided.


Digestion And Re-Innovation: A Lesson Learned From China´S High-Speed Rail Technology-Transfer Agreements, Joe Massie Apr 2012

Digestion And Re-Innovation: A Lesson Learned From China´S High-Speed Rail Technology-Transfer Agreements, Joe Massie

Intellectual Property Brief

No abstract provided.


Markman Pro Publico: Friending The Courts On Patent Claim Interpretation Issues, Charles Lee Thomason Apr 2012

Markman Pro Publico: Friending The Courts On Patent Claim Interpretation Issues, Charles Lee Thomason

Intellectual Property Brief

In Markman claim term disputes, the paramount interest of the public in patents and in the public domain is unrepresented, even though “patent rights are ‘issues of great moment to the public.’” What delineates the outer bounds of the patent claim interpretation inquiry are the “private interests of the litigants.” The public interest is set aside. Neither the courts nor the litigants are well positioned to address the “underlying policy of the patent system” or to ask pointedly whether the patent claims, unless properly construed, have enough “worth to the public” to “outweigh the restrictive effect of the limited patent ...


The Role Of Patents In The International Framework Of Clean Technology Transfer: A Discussion Of Barriers And Solutions, Mark Consilvio Apr 2012

The Role Of Patents In The International Framework Of Clean Technology Transfer: A Discussion Of Barriers And Solutions, Mark Consilvio

Intellectual Property Brief

No abstract provided.


Designer Collaborations As A Solution To The Fast-Fashion Copyright Dilemma, Arielle K. Cohen Apr 2012

Designer Collaborations As A Solution To The Fast-Fashion Copyright Dilemma, Arielle K. Cohen

Chicago-Kent Journal of Intellectual Property

This article explores the issue of large retailers capitalizing on designers’ designs by using the method of “close copying” and the dilemma that designers face due to their lack of recourse since their designs are not afforded copyright protection. The Council of Fashion Designers of America has been lobbying Congress for protection and their efforts have created the Innovative Design Protection and Piracy Prevention Act. This legislation is currently pending but it is a revised version of the earlier Design Piracy Prohibition Act and it removes many of the controversial provisions that were in the earlier version. Therefore, there is ...


Rebutting Obviousness In The Pharmaceutical Industry: Secondary Considerations Of Analogs, Jolie D. Lechner Apr 2012

Rebutting Obviousness In The Pharmaceutical Industry: Secondary Considerations Of Analogs, Jolie D. Lechner

Chicago-Kent Journal of Intellectual Property

Pharmaceutical companies depend on patent protection to recuperate the high costs of research and development. In regards to the patentability of structurally related compounds, the courts must decide whether a compound is obvious in view of its structurally similar prior art. In general, a compound is non-obvious over the structurally related prior art if the compound exhibits unexpected results. However, placing primary emphasis on a compound's unexpected properties is out of step with the realities of drug development. For example, during drug development, chemists will modify a compound's structure until they produce a compound that exhibits optimal pharmakinetic ...


Funk Brothers - An Exercise Obviousness, Shine Tu Apr 2012

Funk Brothers - An Exercise Obviousness, Shine Tu

Law Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Could A Hub And Spoke, Homegrown Ceo Strategy Boost The Success Of University Start-Ups?, Brendan O. Baggot, Martin R. Graf Phd Mar 2012

Could A Hub And Spoke, Homegrown Ceo Strategy Boost The Success Of University Start-Ups?, Brendan O. Baggot, Martin R. Graf Phd

Brendan O. Baggot

How can universities make more money with their spinout company (SpinCo)‐suitable technologies? By “growing” their own CEOs to improve both the quality and quantity of startup company leaders available, that’s how. Surprisingly, however, at most universities little or no effort is made to interweave this critical need into tech transfer efforts.


The Myth Of Generic Pharmaceutical Competition Under The Hatch-Waxman Act, Emily Michiko Morris Feb 2012

The Myth Of Generic Pharmaceutical Competition Under The Hatch-Waxman Act, Emily Michiko Morris

Fordham Intellectual Property, Media and Entertainment Law Journal

Without a doubt, health care costs are on the rise, and how to reduce those costs is of great concern to many. The Hatch-Waxman Act attempts to reduce pharmaceutical costs by encouraging market entry by lower-priced generic pharmaceuticals and without a doubt has been successful in doing so over the last three decades. The question is, at what price? Although designed to balance greater generic market entry with stronger incentives for brand-name pharmaceutical innovators to continue developing new drugs, the Act appears to have fall short of making those incentives nearly strong enough and, indeed, likely weakens them. Perhaps more ...


Settlement Of India/Eu Wto Dispute Re Seizures Of In-Transit Medicines: Why The Proposed Eu Border Regulation Isn't Good Enough, Brook Baker Jan 2012

Settlement Of India/Eu Wto Dispute Re Seizures Of In-Transit Medicines: Why The Proposed Eu Border Regulation Isn't Good Enough, Brook Baker

Brook K. Baker

European Customs officials have used fictive patent rights to justify the seizure of lawful generic medicines produced in India and destined for non- European markets. Following a public outcry and initiation of two WTO complaints, the EU has proposed amendments to Border Regulations Measure 1383/2003. The Proposed Border Regulation in its current form will not adequately resolve the risk of interception in Europe of medicines lawfully manufactured and exported from India and destined for lawful import and consumption in a non-EU country. This analysis concludes that multiple weaknesses remain in the Border Regulations, including: (1) continued coverage of alleged ...


Limits On Utility In The Face Of 21st Century Invention: The Problem With Limiting Patent Claims On Est Sequences, Kyle Strache Jan 2012

Limits On Utility In The Face Of 21st Century Invention: The Problem With Limiting Patent Claims On Est Sequences, Kyle Strache

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

No abstract provided.


Professional And Academic Employee Inventions: Looking Beyond The Uk Paradigm, Justine Pila Jan 2012

Professional And Academic Employee Inventions: Looking Beyond The Uk Paradigm, Justine Pila

Justine Pila

The vast majority of inventions are devised by employees, raising the question who is entitled to patent them? Under the UK Patents Act 1977, the right to patent an invention lies primarily with its inventor(s). However, an exception exists for employee inventions to which section 39(1) applies. The recent decision of the Full Court of the Federal Court of Australia in UWA v Gray raises the question of the applicability of this provision in the university context, in respect of regular academic employees. In that case, the Court relied on UK authorities to support its conclusion that the ...


‘Sewing The Fly Buttons On The Statute:’ Employee Inventions And The Employment Context, Justine Pila Jan 2012

‘Sewing The Fly Buttons On The Statute:’ Employee Inventions And The Employment Context, Justine Pila

Justine Pila

Section 39(1) of the Patents Act 1977 governs the ownership of inventions devised by employees in the course of their employment. Introduced ‘to codify in a few lines the accumulated common law experience’ prior to 1977, it does not expressly differentiate between employment fields, and has been widely assumed to apply indiscriminately, without regard to the particular context of employment. The purpose of this article is to revisit that assumption. In the argument made, section 39(1) was built around a private sector paradigm the courts’ departure from which is supported by a ‘rational reason’ in the Shanks v ...


Patent Eligibility And Scope Revisited After Schütz V. Werit, Justine Pila Jan 2012

Patent Eligibility And Scope Revisited After Schütz V. Werit, Justine Pila

Justine Pila

This chapter responds to the contribution of Professor Ted Sichelman in the same volume by reconsidering the UK courts’ method of determining patent scope. Using my earlier work regarding the role of eligibility as a determinant of patent scope as the departure point for that reconsideration, I argue that the theory of “patent eligibility scope” proposed in Sichelman’s chapter runs against the grain of UK patent jurisprudence by virtue of its uncertain and open-ended policy nature, and is therefore unlikely to be accepted by the UK courts. On the other hand, recent UK cases such as Schütz v. Werit ...


Intellectual Property Rights And Detached Human Body Parts, Justine Pila Jan 2012

Intellectual Property Rights And Detached Human Body Parts, Justine Pila

Justine Pila

This paper responds to an invitation by the editors to consider whether the intellectual property (IP) regime suggests an appropriate model for protecting interests in detached human body parts. It begins by outlining the extent of existing IP protection for body parts in Europe, and the relevant strengths and weaknesses of the patent system in that regard. It then considers two further species of IP right of less obvious relevance. The first are the statutory rights of ownership conferred by domestic UK law in respect of employee inventions, and the second are the economic and moral rights recognized by European ...


Hired To Invent Vs. Works Made For Hire: Resolving The Inconsistency Among Rights Of Corporate Personhood, Authorship, And Inventorship, Sean M. O'Connor Jan 2012

Hired To Invent Vs. Works Made For Hire: Resolving The Inconsistency Among Rights Of Corporate Personhood, Authorship, And Inventorship, Sean M. O'Connor

Articles

This Essay focuses on the interrelation of three legal doctrines that affect the allocation of ownership and attribution of products of the human mind. The first, corporate personhood, grants corporations rights of personhood similar to those of natural persons. The second, the work-made-for-hire doctrine (WMFH) under copyright law, allocates ownership and attribution for copyrightable works to the employer of the natural-person author—even where that employer is a nonnatural, legal person such as a corporation. And the third, shop rights and the hired-to-invent exception, permits courts to grant equitable licenses or assignments to employers for their employees’ inventions.

These three ...


Patent Law—Patentability Post-Bilski: No Need To Throw The Baby Out With The Bath Water When Determining Subject Matter Eligibility Under 35 U.S.C. § 101, Jennifer L. Davis Jan 2012

Patent Law—Patentability Post-Bilski: No Need To Throw The Baby Out With The Bath Water When Determining Subject Matter Eligibility Under 35 U.S.C. § 101, Jennifer L. Davis

University of Arkansas at Little Rock Law Review

Pursuant to Title 35, §101 of the United States Code, anyone who "invents or discovers any new and useful process, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement thereof" is eligible for a patent. Traditionally, the United States Patent and Trademark Office and the federal courts have enumerated a variety of tests for determining patent eligibility, but common language in the case law had lead to, in Bilski v. Kappos, 130 S. Ct. 3218 (2010), the development of what is known as the machine-or-transformation test. In an opinion delivered on the final day of the 2009-2010 ...


Economics Of The Independent Invention Defense Under Incomplete Information, Murat C. Mungan Jan 2012

Economics Of The Independent Invention Defense Under Incomplete Information, Murat C. Mungan

Scholarly Publications

Patents lead to ex post deadweight loss arising from a noncompetitive market structure for the invention. Many have argued that introducing independent invention as a defense (IID) to patent infringement can increase social welfare by decreasing such deadweight loss at the price of a modest decrease in the number of inventions. This paper considers the effects of IID in a setting where R&D firms have incomplete information about their rivals. Four main results follow under incomplete information: (i) fewer things are invented under an IID regime; (ii) IID’s effects on welfare are ambiguous; (iii) IID is more likely to increase welfare if gains from competition in the product market are high; and (iv) determining precise conditions under which IID performs better than ...


Princo Corp. V. Int'l Trade Comm'n: Patent Misuse No Longer A Deterrent To Anticompetitive Behavior In The Group Venture Context, Brian D. Hill Jan 2012

Princo Corp. V. Int'l Trade Comm'n: Patent Misuse No Longer A Deterrent To Anticompetitive Behavior In The Group Venture Context, Brian D. Hill

Journal of Business & Technology Law

No abstract provided.


Patents Fettering Reproductive Rights, Scott A. Allen Jan 2012

Patents Fettering Reproductive Rights, Scott A. Allen

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.