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Copyright & Modding In The Modern Gamespace, Josephine Railston May 2024

Copyright & Modding In The Modern Gamespace, Josephine Railston

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

In the modern gamespace, modding has become an excellent opportunity for video game enthusiasts to express their creativity and love for a game; but what happens when that passion is stifled by a major company? My poster presentation will examine the ethics behind modding and ROM hacking, from both the perspectives of major video game corporations as well as their fanbase at large. We will analyze this issue using the case study of Pokémon Prism, a Pokémon Crystal ROM hack, which was canceled days prior to its release following a cease and desist by Nintendo. More specifically, we will investigate …


Downstreaming, Rachel Landy Apr 2024

Downstreaming, Rachel Landy

Faculty Articles

Spotify and its competitors all offer the same product at the same price. Why? Scholars have argued that relationships can be designed in a way that naturally promotes innovation. By “braiding” certain formal contracting practices with informal enforcement norms, parties develop a frame-work that supports trust and positive, long-term collaboration. This Article takes on this consensus and shows that not all braiding is good. Using the multibillion-dollar subscription music streaming business as an illustration, it demonstrates just how industry forces can, and do, overcome braiding’s positive slant. In that industry, the major record labels (Universal, Warner, and Sony) weaponize braiding …


No Flash Photography Please: An Analysis Of Corporate Use Of Street Art Under Section 120(A) Of The Awcpa, Sierra Epke Apr 2024

No Flash Photography Please: An Analysis Of Corporate Use Of Street Art Under Section 120(A) Of The Awcpa, Sierra Epke

University of Miami Law Review

Street art and graffiti are pervasive artforms found throughout the world and throughout history. While the artforms have been associated with crime and vandalism in the past, they have increasingly been featured in different capacities from art galleries to corporate marketing campaigns. With street art’s growing recognition and popularity, corporations have begun to use the medium to target new customer bases. In some situations, the use of artwork in marketing campaigns is unsanctioned by the artist. Therefore, courts have now begun to examine the balance between copyright protection for street artists and the corporate use of street art. Section 120(a) …


Elaborating A Human Rights Friendly Copyright Framework For Generative Ai, Christophe Geiger Apr 2024

Elaborating A Human Rights Friendly Copyright Framework For Generative Ai, Christophe Geiger

Joint PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series

This paper analyses the copyright issues related to so-called “generative AI” systems and reviews the arguments currently advanced to change the copyright regime for AI-generated works from a human rights perspective. It argues that because of the applicable human rights framework for copyright but also the anthropocentric approach of human rights the protection of creators and human creativity must be considered the point of reference when assessing future reforms with regard to copyright and generative AI systems. Consequently, the copyrightability of AI-generated outputs should be considered with utmost care and only when AI is used as a technical tool for …


The Unbargained-For-Exchange In Copyright, Justin Ponds Apr 2024

The Unbargained-For-Exchange In Copyright, Justin Ponds

Mississippi College Law Review

Copyright law in the United States is more than the letter "C" in a circle. The visual impression of someone clutching a book prevails in many minds. The use of the phrase "it's copyrighted" has become common. Many people consider a "copyright" to be "property." The true story of copyright law is so steeped in history - a great deal from England - that it makes even Betty White seem middle aged. This Article examines some of that history and compares mistaken connotations about "property" within the realm of contract law - a better association.


Leveling Up Fair Use: The Ultimate Cheat Code For Video Game Modders In The Wake Of Google V. Oracle, Parker G. Furman Mar 2024

Leveling Up Fair Use: The Ultimate Cheat Code For Video Game Modders In The Wake Of Google V. Oracle, Parker G. Furman

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

Video game modifications, or "mods," made by third parties or fans of a video game, have reached the limelight of mainstream video game popularity. The internet has become a space for mod makers to share their creations with any user, without the need for physical modifications to a game cartridge or circuit board. Instead, mod software allows a player to install mods with ease and is extremely accessible, yet under the law, the legal status of video game mods remains uncertain. Video game mods are seen as infringing the copyright of the original game. This Note examines the application of …


Public Domain And Access To Knowledge, Faith O. Majekolagbe Mar 2024

Public Domain And Access To Knowledge, Faith O. Majekolagbe

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

In a world where truth is behind paywalls and lies are free, the importance of a realm of works that are free from copyright protection becomes even more important for access to knowledge and information. This Article considers a thriving and accessible public domain a key mechanism for engendering access to knowledge and propelling human development globally. The copyright public domain as a realm of freely accessible and usable works and elements of works is under immense threat due to the constant extension of the term of copyright protection, disparities in the scope of the public domain globally, the absence …


Building A Text And Data Mining Limitation: The Brazilian Case, Luca Schirru, Allan Rocha De Souza, Claudia Chamas Mar 2024

Building A Text And Data Mining Limitation: The Brazilian Case, Luca Schirru, Allan Rocha De Souza, Claudia Chamas

Joint PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series

In recent years, there has been a growing body of legal regulation of

TDM. Since 2018, Japan, the European Union, Singapore and others have

promoted changes to their copyright law and included specific limitations and

exceptions for TDM. These changes have been slow in the Global South and

the developing world, even though they are urgently needed there. This report

aims to present the Brazilian copyright legal framework and the policy

documents related to Intellectual Property, Artificial Intelligence and

innovation influencing political and public debate. This set of policies and

legislative texts provides the grounds for the discussion on the …


Briefing Note: 45th Meeting Of The Wipo Standing Committee On Copyright And Related Rights, Sean Flynn Mar 2024

Briefing Note: 45th Meeting Of The Wipo Standing Committee On Copyright And Related Rights, Sean Flynn

Joint PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series

This analysis provides a historical and legal overview of the principle agenda items to be discussed at the 45th meeting of the Standing Committee on Copyright and Related Rights.


Copyright's Public Reliance Interests, Bo S. L. Kim Mar 2024

Copyright's Public Reliance Interests, Bo S. L. Kim

Washington Law Review

Courts are increasingly invoking copyright law’s “scenes a faire” doctrine, which precludes infringement liability for copying typical or standard elements in a copyrighted work. But judges and commentators only cursorily discuss why certain elements constitute scenes a faire. Alternatively, they characterize the doctrine as merely an extension of other copyrightability doctrines. The result is doctrinal inconsistency in how scenes a faire applies and theoretical disagreement about why the doctrine exists.

This Article advances a “public reliance interests” theory of scenes a faire that provides descriptive clarity to the doctrine and highlights its underexplored importance to copyright law writ large. Drawing …


Calculating The Harms Of Political Use Of Popular Music, Jake Linford, Aaron Perzanowski Feb 2024

Calculating The Harms Of Political Use Of Popular Music, Jake Linford, Aaron Perzanowski

Articles

When Donald Trump descended the escalator of Trump Tower to announce his 2016 presidential bid, Neil Young’s “Rockin’ in the Free World” blared from the loudspeakers. Almost immediately, Young’s management made clear that the campaign’s use of the song was unauthorized. Neil Young was not alone. Trump drew similar objections from dozens of artists during his first two presidential bids. But as a matter of copyright law, it is unclear whether artists can prevent their songs from being played at campaign rallies.


Govt Publications Must Give Credit Where Due, Aparajita Lath Feb 2024

Govt Publications Must Give Credit Where Due, Aparajita Lath

Popular Media

Extract:

...[The] concept of moral rights applies not only to highly creative works of art or fiction but also to any original work, including original policy and academic writing, whether legal, economic, political, or any other. This concept of moral rights applies not only to highly creative works of art or fiction but also to any original work, including original policy and academic writing, whether legal, economic, political, or any other. In the recent past, several government bodies have borrowed from research published by individuals in newspapers in their reports and policy decisions.... While the government has benefited from individual …


Intellectual Property Rights And Copyright Laws In The Regime Of Artificial Intelligence (Ai) In India, Hemavathy C Feb 2024

Intellectual Property Rights And Copyright Laws In The Regime Of Artificial Intelligence (Ai) In India, Hemavathy C

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

Artificial Intelligence (AI) has been developing for two decades. The application of AI is budding quickly in business dealings, corporate communication and legal services. AI and Law Forms are increasingly important in the legal arena as they play a significant role in the economy and society. Scientists and policymakers together are facing some of the hardest problems with the advancement of machine learning, cryptology and data protection. This paper is very helpful for policymakers, economists, lawyers and technocrats in the aspect of the ethical use of AI in data protection, privacy, security and social corners turns into very relevant issues …


Robots As Pirates, Henry H. Perritt Jr. Jan 2024

Robots As Pirates, Henry H. Perritt Jr.

Catholic University Law Review

Generative AI has created much excitement over its potential to create new works of authorship in the literary and graphical realms. Its underling machine-learning technology works by analyzing the relations among elements of preexisting material in enormous databases assembled from publicly available and licensed sources. Its algorithms “learn” to predict “what comes next” in different types of expression. A complete system thus can become glib in creating new factual summaries, essays, fictional stories and images.

A number of authors of the raw material used by Generative AI engines claim that the machine learning process infringes their copyrights. Careful evaluation of …


Tools Do Not Create: Human Authorship In The Use Of Generative Artificial Intelligence, Michael D. Murray Jan 2024

Tools Do Not Create: Human Authorship In The Use Of Generative Artificial Intelligence, Michael D. Murray

Journal of Law, Technology, & the Internet

Artistic tools, from brushes to complex algorithms, don’t create art; human artists do. The advent of generative AI tools like Midjourney, DALL-E, and Stable Diffusion has blurred this understanding, causing observers to believe these tools are the authors of the artworks they produce, even so far as to imagine that the artworks are “created” by the AI in the copyright sense of the word. Not so.

The U.S. Copyright Office recently issued guidance on the copyrightability of works produced using generative AI tools. The Office has accepted the narrative that AI tools perform the steps of authorship, conceiving of the …


The Subsistence And Enforcement Of Copyright And Trademark Rights In The Metaverse, Cheng Lim Saw, Zheng Wen Samuel Chan Jan 2024

The Subsistence And Enforcement Of Copyright And Trademark Rights In The Metaverse, Cheng Lim Saw, Zheng Wen Samuel Chan

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

The metaverse has been widely hailed as a symbol of technological progress, presenting an immersive virtual realm that has the potential to transform how individuals engage in social and commercial activities. However, this conception of a borderless virtual world - which purportedly transcends the capabilities and reach of Web 2.0 - sits uncomfortably with the territorial nature of intellectual property rights. This chapter examines the complexities surrounding the subsistence and enforcement of intellectual property rights within the metaverse, with a specific focus on copyright and trademarks. Especial attention is paid to issues concerning choice of law and jurisdiction. Finally, the …


Open Source Perfume, Amanda Levendowski Jan 2024

Open Source Perfume, Amanda Levendowski

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

ABRIDGED ABSTRACT: Perfume is a powerful art and technology, but its secrets are closely held by a privileged few - by some counts, there are more astronauts than there are perfumers. As critics have noted increasingly since 2020, those select few perfumers often share similar backgrounds. As interviews with American, British, and French perfumemakers reveal, intellectual property (IP) also plays a gatekeeping role in perfumery. Drawing on work by perfumer and educator Saskia Wilson-Brown, this Article suggests that perfumery is overdue for a transformation. One is emerging: open source perfume. For those seeking ways to share scents and signal commitment …


Editing Classic Books: A Threat To The Public Domain?, Cathay Y. N. Smith Jan 2024

Editing Classic Books: A Threat To The Public Domain?, Cathay Y. N. Smith

Faculty Law Review Articles

Over the past few years, there has been a growing trend in the publishing industry of hiring sensitivity readers to review books for offensive tropes or racial, gender, or sexual stereotypes. In February 2023, for instance, reports that Puffin Books had edited several classics by Roald Dahl—in consultation with sensitivity readers—generated immediate backlash from the public and several renowned authors and politicians. While most of that backlash focused on accusations of “censorship” and “cancel culture,” this Essay examines an actual legal consequence of revising classic books: the creation of copyrightable derivative works in updated editions. Derivative works are new works …


Virtually Identical: A Case For Maintaining Architectural Copyright Protections In The Metaverse, Stephen Mcpaul Jan 2024

Virtually Identical: A Case For Maintaining Architectural Copyright Protections In The Metaverse, Stephen Mcpaul

Cybaris®

No abstract provided.


Applying Current Copyright Law To Artificial Intelligence Image Generators In The Context Of Anderson V. Stability Ai, Ltd., Matthew Lindberg Jan 2024

Applying Current Copyright Law To Artificial Intelligence Image Generators In The Context Of Anderson V. Stability Ai, Ltd., Matthew Lindberg

Cybaris®

No abstract provided.


Ai-Ip? Copyright In An Age Of Internet Propaganda With Artificial Intelligence, Sonya Saepoff Jan 2024

Ai-Ip? Copyright In An Age Of Internet Propaganda With Artificial Intelligence, Sonya Saepoff

Cybaris®

No abstract provided.


The Generative Ai Pirate? The Intersection Of Copyrights And Generative Ai In Literary Works, Brianne M. Culliton Jan 2024

The Generative Ai Pirate? The Intersection Of Copyrights And Generative Ai In Literary Works, Brianne M. Culliton

Cybaris®

No abstract provided.


A Matter Of Facts: The Evolution Of Copyright’S Fact-Exclusion And Its Implications For Disinformation And Democracy, Jessica Silbey Jan 2024

A Matter Of Facts: The Evolution Of Copyright’S Fact-Exclusion And Its Implications For Disinformation And Democracy, Jessica Silbey

Faculty Scholarship

The Article begins with a puzzle: the curious absence of an express fact-exclusion from copyright protection in both the Copyright Act and its legislative history despite it being a well-founded legal principle. It traces arguments in the foundational Supreme Court case (Feist Publications v. Rural Telephone Service) and in the Copyright Act’s legislative history to discern a basis for the fact-exclusion. That research trail produces a legal genealogy of the fact-exclusion based in early copyright common law anchored by canonical cases, Baker v. Selden, Burrow-Giles v. Sarony, and Wheaton v. Peters. Surprisingly, none of them …


Ai, Artists, And Anti-Moral Rights, Derek E. Bambauer, Robert W. Woods Jan 2024

Ai, Artists, And Anti-Moral Rights, Derek E. Bambauer, Robert W. Woods

UF Law Faculty Publications

Generative artificial intelligence (AI) tools are increasingly used to imitate the distinctive characteristics of famous artists, such as their voice, likeness, and style. In response, legislators have introduced bills in Congress that would confer moral rights protections, such as control over attribution and integrity, upon artists. This Essay argues such measures are almost certain to fail because of deep-seated, pervasive hostility to moral rights measures in U.S. intellectual property law. It analyses both legislative measures and judicial decisions that roll back moral rights, and explores how copyright’s authorship doctrines manifest a latent hostility to these entitlements. The Essay concludes with …


Fair Use V. Free Use: A Comparative Study Of American And Russian Copyright Exemptions, Eduard Bershitskiy Jan 2024

Fair Use V. Free Use: A Comparative Study Of American And Russian Copyright Exemptions, Eduard Bershitskiy

LL.M. Essays & Theses

Many U.S. lawyers are under the well-deserved, but still not entirely accurate, impression that copyright infringement in Russia is a huge free-for-all. This comparative paper, which juxtaposes Russian and American copyright exemptions, seeks to partially refute that skeptic view by showing that, in fact, Russian copyright law has developed a relatively coherent system of exceptions and limitations to exclusive rights. This paper begins with a brief overview of Russian copyright law and general remarks on its exemptions. It then focuses on statutory and, where appropriate, case-law comparison of particular copyright exemptions in the Part 4 of the Russian Civil Code …


Pocket Castles And Custom Skin: Championing Transparency In The Monetization Of User-Generated Content In Video Games, Jakob Stokes Jan 2024

Pocket Castles And Custom Skin: Championing Transparency In The Monetization Of User-Generated Content In Video Games, Jakob Stokes

Cybaris®

No abstract provided.


Legislative Report: Protecting Lawful Streaming Act Of 2020, Melissa Rezzag Jan 2024

Legislative Report: Protecting Lawful Streaming Act Of 2020, Melissa Rezzag

Cybaris®

No abstract provided.


Desettling Fixation, Emily T. Behzadi Cárdenas Jan 2024

Desettling Fixation, Emily T. Behzadi Cárdenas

Faculty Scholarship

Scholars have long contemplated how the effects of colonialism have permeated even race “neutral” laws. This Article scrutinizes the ways Eurocentric copyright systems have failed to protect, and have even encouraged, the unauthorized uses of indigenous heritage in derivative subject matter, exposing how settler colonialism in copyright law has entrenched an unequal hierarchy among communities seeking copyright protection. Due to its ephemeral nature, intangible cultural heritage constantly faces the threat of exploitation by dominant cultures. The intangible heritage of indigenous groups has been particularly vulnerable to illicit and uncompensated commodification. Intangible heritage, such as oral histories and traditional dances, is …


Deconstructing The Blueprint For Infringement: Remedying Flawed Interpretations Of The § 120(A) Exception To Architecture Copyrights, Margalit Zimand Jan 2024

Deconstructing The Blueprint For Infringement: Remedying Flawed Interpretations Of The § 120(A) Exception To Architecture Copyrights, Margalit Zimand

Kernochan Center for Law, Media, and the Arts

Drafting the Architectural Works Copyright Protection Act of 1990 (“AWCPA”) consisted of a bizarre hodgepodge of considerations. Ostensibly, the goal of the Act was to bring the United States unquestionably into compliance with the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, which the United States had just recently joined, with as minimal an impact on U.S. law as possible. In reality, this goal — itself not without built-in tensions — was but one of several competing forces at play in the drafting process. The other forces generally fell into three camps. There were the proponents of preserving …


From Andy Warhol To Barbie: Copyright’S Fair Use Doctrine After Andy Warhol Foundation V. Goldsmith, Niki Kuckes Jan 2024

From Andy Warhol To Barbie: Copyright’S Fair Use Doctrine After Andy Warhol Foundation V. Goldsmith, Niki Kuckes

Roger Williams University Law Review

No abstract provided.