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Full-Text Articles in Law

Desettling Fixation, Emily T. Behzadi Cárdenas Jan 2024

Desettling Fixation, Emily T. Behzadi Cárdenas

Faculty Scholarship

Scholars have long contemplated how the effects of colonialism have permeated even race “neutral” laws. This Article scrutinizes the ways Eurocentric copyright systems have failed to protect, and have even encouraged, the unauthorized uses of indigenous heritage in derivative subject matter, exposing how settler colonialism in copyright law has entrenched an unequal hierarchy among communities seeking copyright protection. Due to its ephemeral nature, intangible cultural heritage constantly faces the threat of exploitation by dominant cultures. The intangible heritage of indigenous groups has been particularly vulnerable to illicit and uncompensated commodification. Intangible heritage, such as oral histories and traditional dances, is …


Intellectual Property Piracy In The Time Of The Metaverse, James M. Cooper Jan 2023

Intellectual Property Piracy In The Time Of The Metaverse, James M. Cooper

Faculty Scholarship

The article explores ways in which companies, innovators, artists, and cultural workers can best protect their IP rights in the metaverse. Focusing on IP piracy and counterfeiting, long-time problems in both the real world and online, the article addresses the threats that these illicit activities pose to legitimate commerce, government tax revenues, public safety, and national security. It examines the implications that the metaverse poses for businesses going forward with respect to brand management and revenue source protection and details the manners in which IP rights can be best protected in the metaverse. It concludes with a review of the …


The Fiction Of Nfts And Copyright Infringement, Emily T. Behzadi Apr 2022

The Fiction Of Nfts And Copyright Infringement, Emily T. Behzadi

Faculty Scholarship

In the first quarter of 2021, the sales of art in the form of Non-Fungible Tokens (“NFTs”) reached over $200 billion dollars. The arrival of NFTs in the mainstream art market has profoundly shaped the way artists exploit their works. This sensational boom has attracted some of the world's biggest names across pop culture and sports, including celebrities such as Snoop Dogg, Paris Hilton, Post Malone, Tom Brady and Rob Gronkowski, to create their own NFT art. Director Quentin Tarantino has also capitalized on this craze through the creation of an NFT collection based on the film Pulp Fiction. However, …


New Media Rights' Internet & Media Law Clinic: California Western School Of Law, Art Neill Jan 2022

New Media Rights' Internet & Media Law Clinic: California Western School Of Law, Art Neill

Faculty Scholarship

This article looks at the critical need for legal services addressing new media rights and the types of cases that benefit from the New Media Rights’ Internet & Media Law Clinic at California Western School of Law (New Media Rights) in San Diego.

This article will discuss New Media Rights in four parts: 1. Why do we have IP, arts, and technology clinics like New Media Rights? 2. What is New Media Rights, and how do we benefit the students and the community? 3. What is the structure and pedagogy of the clinic? 4. What are our hopes looking forward?


Games Without Frontiers: The Increasing Importance Of Intellectual Property Rights In The People’S Republic Of China, James M. Cooper Oct 2021

Games Without Frontiers: The Increasing Importance Of Intellectual Property Rights In The People’S Republic Of China, James M. Cooper

Faculty Scholarship

Intellectual property (“IP”) protection in the People's Republic of China has been murky and amorphous. The country is currently enjoying a historic era with significant infrastructure and investment projects occurring as the Chinese consumer society substantially expands. These simultaneous trends require that China commit to the securitization and protection of IP rights to sustain its rapid economic growth.


Intellectual Property Through A Non-Western Lens: Patents In Islamic Law, Tabrez Y. Ebrahim Jan 2021

Intellectual Property Through A Non-Western Lens: Patents In Islamic Law, Tabrez Y. Ebrahim

Faculty Scholarship

The intersection of secular, Western intellectual property law and Islamic law is undertheorized in legal scholarship. Yet the nascent and developing non-Western law of one form of intellectual property—patents—in Islamic legal systems is profoundly important for transformational innovation and economic development initiatives of Muslim-majority countries that comprise nearly one-fifth of the world’s population.


Recent scholarship highlights the tensions of intellectual property in Islamic law because religious considerations in an Islamic society do not fully align with Western notions of patents. As Islamic legal systems have begun to embrace patents in recent decades, theories of patents have presented conceptual and theological …


Preserving The Fruits Of Labor: Impediments To University Inventor Mobility, Brenda M. Simon Jan 2021

Preserving The Fruits Of Labor: Impediments To University Inventor Mobility, Brenda M. Simon

Faculty Scholarship

Academic inventors must overcome numerous obstacles when they seek to leave their parent universities. The results of their work are often intertwined in what I call "innovation-essential components," which are important aspects of the. innovative process that create strong ties to the parent university, such as data, patents, trade secrets, grants, contracts, materials, and other agreements and restrictions. Innovation-essential components effectively bind university inventors to their parent institutions, making departure unworkable without the university's approval. Universities sometimes further complicate inventor mobility by entering into unlawful agreements with other academic institutions in their efforts to prevent inventor movement or by engaging …


Patents, Information, And Innovation, Brenda M. Simon Jan 2020

Patents, Information, And Innovation, Brenda M. Simon

Faculty Scholarship

Inventors and commercialization partners often rely on patents to facilitate the exchange of sensitive information. Most scholarship in this area has focused on the areas of software and biotechnology. To provide a richer description of the role of patents in the innovative process, this project evaluates the existing literature and sets forth examples drawn from a series of interviews with professionals from the largely-overlooked medical device industry. The limited analysis of the medical device industry has focused on the largest few dozen firms—as publicly-traded entities, a great deal of data about them is readily available. Small medical device companies are …


National Cybersecurity Innovation, Tabrez Y. Ebrahim Jan 2020

National Cybersecurity Innovation, Tabrez Y. Ebrahim

Faculty Scholarship

National cybersecurity plays a crucial role in protecting our critical infrastructure, such as telecommunication networks, the electricity grid, and even financial transactions. Most discussions about promoting national cybersecurity focus on governance structures, international relations, and political science. In contrast, this Article proposes a different agenda and one that promotes the use of innovation mechanisms for technological advancement. By promoting inducements for technological developments, such innovation mechanisms encourage the advancement of national cybersecurity solutions. In exploring possible solutions, this Article asks whether the government or markets can provide national cybersecurity innovation. This inquiry is a fragment of a much larger literature …


Traditional Knowledge In Taiwan: A Call For Greater Participation Of Indigenous Peoples In The Global Intellectual Property Marketplace, James M. Cooper Jan 2020

Traditional Knowledge In Taiwan: A Call For Greater Participation Of Indigenous Peoples In The Global Intellectual Property Marketplace, James M. Cooper

Faculty Scholarship

This Article explores the plight of the Aborigines of Taiwan and the legal protections that exist for their Traditional Knowledge. While Taiwan continues to face international isolation with a diminished number of states recognizing the Republic of China as the seat of China, the island's government has taken limited steps to recognize language, cultural, and economic rights of its Indigenous peoples. International law has not been helpful in protecting Traditional Knowledge, but Taiwan could use its vast economic resources and positive track record in protecting some of these rights to further its goals of international recognition. This Article details the …


Artificial Intelligence Inventions & Patent Disclosure, Tabrez Y. Ebrahim Jan 2020

Artificial Intelligence Inventions & Patent Disclosure, Tabrez Y. Ebrahim

Faculty Scholarship

Artificial intelligence (“AI”) has attracted significant attention and has imposed challenges for society. Yet surprisingly, scholars have paid little attention to the impediments AI imposes on patent law’s disclosure function from the lenses of theory and policy. Patents are conditioned on inventors describing their inventions, but the inner workings and the use of AI in the inventive process are not properly understood or are largely unknown. The lack of transparency of the parameters of the AI inventive process or the use of AI makes it difficult to enable a future use of AI to achieve the same end state. While …


Automation And Predictive Analytics In Patent Prosecution: Uspto Implications And Policy, Tabrez Y. Ebrahim Jan 2019

Automation And Predictive Analytics In Patent Prosecution: Uspto Implications And Policy, Tabrez Y. Ebrahim

Faculty Scholarship

Artificial-intelligence technological advancements bring automation and predictive analytics into patent prosecution. The information asymmetry between inventors and patent examiners is expanded by artificial intelligence, which transforms the inventor-examiner interaction to machine-human interactions. In response to automated patent drafting, automated office-action responses, "cloems" (computer-generated word permutations) for defensive patenting, and machine-learning guidance (based on constantly updated patent-prosecution big data), the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) should reevaluate patent-examination policy from economic, fairness, time, and transparency perspectives. By conceptualizing the inventor-examiner relationship as a "patenting market," economic principles suggest stronger efficiencies if both inventors and the USPTO have better information …


Computational Experimentation, Tabrez Y. Ebrahim Jan 2019

Computational Experimentation, Tabrez Y. Ebrahim

Faculty Scholarship

Experimentation conjures images of laboratories and equipment in biotechnology, chemistry, materials science, and pharmaceuticals. Yet modern day experimentation is not limited to only chemical synthesis, but is increasingly computational. Researchers in the unpredictable arts can experiment upon the functions, properties, reactions, and structures of chemical compounds with highly accurate computational techniques. These computational capabilities challenge the enablement and utility patentability requirements. The patent statute requires that the inventor explain how to make and use the invention without undue experimentation and that the invention have at least substantial and specific utility. These patentability requirements do not align with computational research capabilities, …


Data-Centric Technologies: Patent And Copyright Doctrinal Disruptions, Tabrez Y. Ebrahim Jan 2019

Data-Centric Technologies: Patent And Copyright Doctrinal Disruptions, Tabrez Y. Ebrahim

Faculty Scholarship

Data-centric technologies create information content that directly controls, modifies, or responds to the physical world. This information content resides in the digital world yet has profound economic and societal impact in the physical world. 3D printing and artificial intelligence are examples of data-centric technologies. 3D printing utilizes digital data for eventual printing of physical goods. Artificial intelligence learns from data sets to make predictions or automated decisions for use in physical applications and systems. 3D printing and artificial intelligence technologies are based on digital foundations, blur the digital and physical divide, and dramatically improve physical goods, objects, products, or systems. …


3d Bioprinting Patentable Subject Matter Boundaries, Tabrez Y. Ebrahim Jan 2017

3d Bioprinting Patentable Subject Matter Boundaries, Tabrez Y. Ebrahim

Faculty Scholarship

3D bioprinting combines emerging 3D printing technologies with synthetic biology. The promise of 3D bioprinting technology is to fabricate organs for transplantation, treat burn victims with in vivo skin repair, and create wearable microbiomes. 3D bioprinting can successively build, repair, or reproduce living human cells. This capability challenges eligible subject matter doctrine in U.S. patent law because the law has no brightline standard for patent eligibility for nature-based products. As 3D bioprinting technologies mature, U.S. patent law will need to respond to situations where living and nonliving worlds merge. This Article proposes a "Mixed-Scanned-Transformed" standard to supplement U.S. patent law's …


Patent "Trolls" And Claim Construction, Greg Reilly Jan 2016

Patent "Trolls" And Claim Construction, Greg Reilly

Faculty Scholarship

This Essay explores the largely overlooked relationship between claim construction and patent assertion entities (patent “trolls”), finding that claim construction problems and trends benefit patent assertion entities. First, the Federal Circuit is deeply divided as to the proper approach to claim construction. This split is a significant contributor to uncertain patent scope, which is widely-recognized as a core reason for the rise and success of patent assertion entities. Second, case law and commentary increasingly endorse an approach to claim construction that relies on the “general meaning” in the technical field with limited reliance on the patent itself. This approach increases …


Trademarks And Brands In 3d Printing, Tabrez Y. Ebrahim Jan 2016

Trademarks And Brands In 3d Printing, Tabrez Y. Ebrahim

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


3d Printing: Digital Infringement And Digital Regulation, Tabrez Y. Ebrahim Jan 2016

3d Printing: Digital Infringement And Digital Regulation, Tabrez Y. Ebrahim

Faculty Scholarship

3D printing is a rapidly-growing technology that enables creation of three dimensional solid objects made from a digital Computer Aided Design ("CAD") file. Patent law issues are particularly relevant and uncertain in the realm of 3D printing. Thus, analysis of the Patent Act is needed to better understand direct infringement (of either the use of a 3D printer, of a CAD file, or under the doctrine of equivalents), indirect infringement, and contributory infringement in the context of 3D printing. A key issue in this analysis is whether a CAD file should be viewed as making the object itself since 3D …


Linking Patent Reform And Civil Litigation Reform, Greg Reilly Jan 2015

Linking Patent Reform And Civil Litigation Reform, Greg Reilly

Faculty Scholarship

Patent reform increasingly focuses on discovery. Discovery is perceived as disproportionately expensive and burdensome in patent cases. Excessive discovery is said to fuel so-called “patent trolls” and impose an unhealthy tax on innovation and competition. These supposedly exceptional problems have led to exceptional patent-only reform proposals, such as delaying most discovery for over a year and reversing the seventy-five-year-old allocation of discovery costs.

Treating patent litigation as exceptional has a siloing effect. Patent reform debates ignore parallel debates over general civil litigation reform that raise the same arguments about disproportionately expensive and burdensome discovery and propose their own set of …


Promoting Contract Flexibility Through Trademarks: "Branded" Intellectual Property Licensing Practices, Nari Lee, Thomas D. Barton Jan 2015

Promoting Contract Flexibility Through Trademarks: "Branded" Intellectual Property Licensing Practices, Nari Lee, Thomas D. Barton

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Fair Use And Appropriation Art, Niels Schaumann Jan 2015

Fair Use And Appropriation Art, Niels Schaumann

Faculty Scholarship

Part I provides some background regarding aesthetic vocabulary in the arts, and traces the use of appropriated images in the twentieth- and twenty-first centuries. Part II discusses the general application of copyright law to appropriation art. Part III examines the current status of the fair use cases that address appropriation art and concludes that the fair use results are better than before, largely because of the ascendancy of “transformativeness” as an important fair use factor. It also concludes, however, that fair use remains insufficient to protect appropriation art. Finally, Part IV re-proposes a solution—an exception to copyright, limited to fine …


Aggregating Defendants, Greg Reilly Jan 2014

Aggregating Defendants, Greg Reilly

Faculty Scholarship

No procedural topic has garnered more attention in the past fifty years than the class action and aggregation of plaintiffs. Yet, almost nothing has been written about aggregating defendants. This topic is of increasing importance. Recent efforts by patent “trolls” and Bit- Torrent copyright plaintiffs to aggregate unrelated defendants for similar but independent acts of infringement have provoked strong opposition from defendants, courts, and even Congress. The visceral resistance to defendant aggregation is puzzling. The aggregation of similarly situated plaintiffs is seen as creating benefits for both plaintiffs and the judicial system. The benefits that justify plaintiff aggregation also seem …


Judicial Capacities And Patent Claim Construction: An Ordinary Reader Standard, Greg Reilly Jan 2014

Judicial Capacities And Patent Claim Construction: An Ordinary Reader Standard, Greg Reilly

Faculty Scholarship

Patent claim construction is a mess. The Federal Circuit’s failure to provide adequate guidance has created significant problems for the patent system. The problems with claim construction result from the Federal Circuit’s inability to resolve whether claim terms should be given (1) the general, acontextual meaning they would have to a skilled person in the field; (2) the specific meaning they have in the context of the patent; or (3) some combination of the two. The claim construction debate largely overlooks the generalist judges who must implement claim construction. This Article fills that gap, concluding that existing approaches are difficult, …


Completing The Picture Of Uncertain Patent Scope, Greg Reilly Jan 2014

Completing The Picture Of Uncertain Patent Scope, Greg Reilly

Faculty Scholarship

This Commentary addresses the intertwined relationship of claim construction, indefiniteness, and uncertain patent scope. Claim construction is a necessary threshold step and, if effective, can resolve uncertainties in claim scope, reducing the need to invalidate claims as indefinite, as discussed in Part II. Part III demonstrates how the Federal Circuit’s failed claim construction rules accentuate, rather than resolve, ambiguities in claim scope. Part IV explains how the ineffectiveness of claim construction increases the need for an effective indefiniteness doctrine, but, perversely, both decreased the effectiveness of the Federal Circuit’s pre-Nautilus standard and renders any stricter standard too draconian. Part IV …


Improvidently Granted: Why The En Banc Federal Circuit Chose The Wrong Claim Construction Issue, Greg Reilly Jan 2013

Improvidently Granted: Why The En Banc Federal Circuit Chose The Wrong Claim Construction Issue, Greg Reilly

Faculty Scholarship

The United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit recently granted en banc review in Lighting Ballast Control LLC v Philips Electronics North America Corp to decide whether to afford deference to a district court’s interpretation of patent claims, a step that has been heralded as potentially “lead[ing] to fundamental, far-reaching changes in patent law and patent litigation strategies.” Over the next few months, the parties, scores of amici, and commentators will spend reams of paper and untold amounts of money arguing whether claim construction—interpreting the short, numbered paragraphs at the end of the patent that define the patentee’s …


Symposium Introduction: Advancing Intellectual Property Goals Through Prevention And Alternative Dispute Resolution, Thomas Barton, James M. Cooper Jan 2012

Symposium Introduction: Advancing Intellectual Property Goals Through Prevention And Alternative Dispute Resolution, Thomas Barton, James M. Cooper

Faculty Scholarship

This essay offers a brief background to the issues that prompted a global exploration of alternative methods for preventing and resolving IP disputes. Part One describes the exploding importance of IP rights and law and consequent challenges to court adjudication. Part Two offers a snapshot of current IP enforcement methods: traditional and emerging, public and private, domestic and international. Part Three suggests factors toward matching IP problems with alternative procedures for their effective resolution. Finally, woven throughout this essay is a recommendation of stronger involvement by public domestic or international bodies in dispute prevention and ADR methods.


A Development Model Meets Piracy In Paraguay, James M. Cooper, Carlos Ruffinelli Jan 2012

A Development Model Meets Piracy In Paraguay, James M. Cooper, Carlos Ruffinelli

Faculty Scholarship

This essay will explore the dynamics behind Paraguay's economy, political stability, legal culture, and geopolitical conditions that make the protection of IP rights a major challenge. Part I of this essay details Paraguay's current condition in a socioeconomic, political, and developmental context. Part II of this essay explores how Paraguay's lack of economic opportunities, relaxed enforcement regime, and cultural tradition create conditions where the counterfeiting industry flourishes. Part III of this essay examines some of the international IP rights agreements to which Paraguay is a party, and it examines how these agreements might help strengthen the IP rights regime in …


The North American Free Trade Agreement And Its Legacy On The Resolution Of Intellectual Property Disputes, James Cooper Jan 2012

The North American Free Trade Agreement And Its Legacy On The Resolution Of Intellectual Property Disputes, James Cooper

Faculty Scholarship

This essay focuses on NAFTA and the contributions that this regional trade pact made to protect IPR and settle intellectual property (IP) disputes. It also explores the legacy of NAFTA in the context of the eventual WTO, and the rights provided by the TRIPS Agreement that was concluded as part of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) negotiations. Section II provides a brief historical background on how NAFTA fit into the world as countries began aligning themselves by creating various trade agreements. Section III surveys the provisions and legacy of NAFTA with respect to …


Transborder Licensing: A New Frontier For Job Creation, Andrea L. Johnson Jan 2010

Transborder Licensing: A New Frontier For Job Creation, Andrea L. Johnson

Faculty Scholarship

This Article explores why entrepreneurs should consider transborder licensing as a way to increase markets and create jobs. While transborder licensing can involve both goods and services, this Article focuses on exporting nondefense, non-security-related services and intellectual capital, and it explores how the U.S. government can facilitate the development of an industry of support professionals to help U.S. companies navigate through the regulatory complexities.

Part II of this Article will discuss exports generally and explain the life cycle of a typical patent. Part III will show how current population and foreign business ownership trends necessitate studying how trade is conducted …


Expanding The Scope Of The Principles Of The Law Of Software Contracts To Include Digital Content, Nancy Kim Jan 2010

Expanding The Scope Of The Principles Of The Law Of Software Contracts To Include Digital Content, Nancy Kim

Faculty Scholarship

The Principles of the Law of Software Contracts, or the "Principles," seek to "unify and clarify" the law of software transactions. The drafters, however, excluded "digital content" from the scope of their project. This Essay explains why the scope of the Principles should encompass digital content. The exclusion of digital content creates two different but related problems. The first problem is that it creates what I refer to as "classification confusion." Given the complexity and speed of technological innovation, the task of distinguishing digital content from software may be difficult for courts. The second problem is that it fails to …