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Intellectual Property Law

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Toward The Substitutionary Promise Of Ptab Review, Saurabh Vishnubhakat Apr 2024

Toward The Substitutionary Promise Of Ptab Review, Saurabh Vishnubhakat

Online Publications

Although administrative patent trial proceedings under the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act (AIA) have done much to improve the efficient reevaluation of patent validity, significant problems remain. Divergent burdens of proof among the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) and Patent Trial and Appeal Board (PTAB) and the U.S. district courts allow the agency to disregard prior judicial decisions about patent validity and for patents to be relitigated even after surviving judicial review. Divergent claim construction standards allow for similar arbitrage, and, although the USPTO has now aligned its claim construction approach with that of the courts through rulemaking, that …


Wipo Good Practice Toolkit For Collective Management Organisations 2021: Suggestions For Possible Amendment, Desmond Oriakhogba Apr 2024

Wipo Good Practice Toolkit For Collective Management Organisations 2021: Suggestions For Possible Amendment, Desmond Oriakhogba

Joint PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series

Drawing examples from national and international legal instruments, and based on existing studies, this comment makes suggestions for possible amendment of the World Intellectual Property Organization’s Good Practice Toolkit for Collective Management Organisations 2021 (CMO Toolkit). The suggestions are for inclusion of good practices in the CMO Toolkit that can inform the regulation of CMOs to prevent them from constituting obstacles to open access non-commercial licensing and L&Es-enabled access for education and research. The suggestion also covers good practices that will prevent CMOs from impeding the smooth and effective development of artificial intelligence systems. Recommendations include protecting rightholders' ability to …


Elaborating A Human Rights Friendly Copyright Framework For Generative Ai, Christophe Geiger Apr 2024

Elaborating A Human Rights Friendly Copyright Framework For Generative Ai, Christophe Geiger

Joint PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series

This paper analyses the copyright issues related to so-called “generative AI” systems and reviews the arguments currently advanced to change the copyright regime for AI-generated works from a human rights perspective. It argues that because of the applicable human rights framework for copyright but also the anthropocentric approach of human rights the protection of creators and human creativity must be considered the point of reference when assessing future reforms with regard to copyright and generative AI systems. Consequently, the copyrightability of AI-generated outputs should be considered with utmost care and only when AI is used as a technical tool for …


Bibliography For "Keeping The Rhythm Of Creativity: Celebrating The Performing Arts And Intellectual Property", Isabella Piechota, Arianna Tillman, Kalea Brown, Katherine Roth Apr 2024

Bibliography For "Keeping The Rhythm Of Creativity: Celebrating The Performing Arts And Intellectual Property", Isabella Piechota, Arianna Tillman, Kalea Brown, Katherine Roth

Library Displays and Bibliographies

A bibliography created to support a display about the performing arts and intellectual property at the Leatherby Libraries during April 2024 at the Leatherby Libraries at Chapman University.


Building A Text And Data Mining Limitation: The Brazilian Case, Luca Schirru, Allan Rocha De Souza, Claudia Chamas Mar 2024

Building A Text And Data Mining Limitation: The Brazilian Case, Luca Schirru, Allan Rocha De Souza, Claudia Chamas

Joint PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series

In recent years, there has been a growing body of legal regulation of

TDM. Since 2018, Japan, the European Union, Singapore and others have

promoted changes to their copyright law and included specific limitations and

exceptions for TDM. These changes have been slow in the Global South and

the developing world, even though they are urgently needed there. This report

aims to present the Brazilian copyright legal framework and the policy

documents related to Intellectual Property, Artificial Intelligence and

innovation influencing political and public debate. This set of policies and

legislative texts provides the grounds for the discussion on the …


Briefing Note: 45th Meeting Of The Wipo Standing Committee On Copyright And Related Rights, Sean Flynn Mar 2024

Briefing Note: 45th Meeting Of The Wipo Standing Committee On Copyright And Related Rights, Sean Flynn

Joint PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series

This analysis provides a historical and legal overview of the principle agenda items to be discussed at the 45th meeting of the Standing Committee on Copyright and Related Rights.


Calculating The Harms Of Political Use Of Popular Music, Jake Linford, Aaron Perzanowski Feb 2024

Calculating The Harms Of Political Use Of Popular Music, Jake Linford, Aaron Perzanowski

Articles

When Donald Trump descended the escalator of Trump Tower to announce his 2016 presidential bid, Neil Young’s “Rockin’ in the Free World” blared from the loudspeakers. Almost immediately, Young’s management made clear that the campaign’s use of the song was unauthorized. Neil Young was not alone. Trump drew similar objections from dozens of artists during his first two presidential bids. But as a matter of copyright law, it is unclear whether artists can prevent their songs from being played at campaign rallies.


Govt Publications Must Give Credit Where Due, Aparajita Lath Feb 2024

Govt Publications Must Give Credit Where Due, Aparajita Lath

Popular Media

Extract:

...[The] concept of moral rights applies not only to highly creative works of art or fiction but also to any original work, including original policy and academic writing, whether legal, economic, political, or any other. This concept of moral rights applies not only to highly creative works of art or fiction but also to any original work, including original policy and academic writing, whether legal, economic, political, or any other. In the recent past, several government bodies have borrowed from research published by individuals in newspapers in their reports and policy decisions.... While the government has benefited from individual …


Antisocial Innovation, Christopher Buccafusco, Samuel N. Weinstein Jan 2024

Antisocial Innovation, Christopher Buccafusco, Samuel N. Weinstein

Articles

Innovation is a form of civic religion in the United States. In the popular imagination, innovators are heroic figures. Thomas Edison, Steve Jobs, and (for a while) Elizabeth Holmes were lauded for their vision and drive, and seen to embody the American spirit of invention and improvement. For their part, politicians rarely miss a chance to trumpet their vision for boosting innovative activity. Popular and political culture alike treat innovation as an unalloyed good. And the law is deeply committed to fostering innovation, spending billions of dollars a year to make sure society has enough of it. But this sunny …


The Right To Research As Guarantor For Sustainability, Innovation And Justice In Eu Copyright Law, Christophe Geiger, Bernd Justin Jütte Jan 2024

The Right To Research As Guarantor For Sustainability, Innovation And Justice In Eu Copyright Law, Christophe Geiger, Bernd Justin Jütte

Joint PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series

Research is essential for scientific, cultural, and social advancement and will be crucial for the economic and societal recovery in a post-pandemic world. Restrictions to access and use of information contained in copyright-protected expression however can constitute significant hindrances to conducting research efficiently, especially since modern research methods rely on accessing, storing and processing large amounts of digitized data. Over the last decade, copyright in the European Union (EU) has undergone a process of constitutionalization, which saw a growing importance of fundamental rights arguments in policy- and law-making, as well as in the jurisprudence of the Court of Justice of …


Copyright And Covid, Sean Flynn Jan 2024

Copyright And Covid, Sean Flynn

Joint PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series

During the COVID-19 pandemic it became widely recognized that speedier access to patent rights should be enabled to speed global scale-up of vaccine production. This understanding was expressed in a proposal by India and South Africa that the World Trade Organization suspend multilateral intellectual property rules on COVID vaccines, treatment and containment. The original waiver proposal proposed a suspension of WTO rules on all forms of intellectual property needed for a broad range of COVID-19 response measures, including “vaccination,” “treatment,” and “containment.” The final “TRIPS Waiver,” however, was ultimately limited to a minor provision of TRIPS permitting greater use of …


The Second Digital Transformation Of Scholarly Publishing: Strategic Context And Shared Infrastructure, Tracy Bergstrom, Oya Y. Rieger, Roger C. Schonfeld Jan 2024

The Second Digital Transformation Of Scholarly Publishing: Strategic Context And Shared Infrastructure, Tracy Bergstrom, Oya Y. Rieger, Roger C. Schonfeld

Copyright, Fair Use, Scholarly Communication, etc.

Today, the scholarly publishing sector is undergoing its second digital transformation. The first digital transformation saw a massive shift from paper to digital, but otherwise publishing retained many of the structures, workflows, incentives, and outputs that characterized the print era. A variety of shared infrastructure was developed to serve the needs of this first digital transformation. In this current second digital transformation, many of the structures, workflows, incentives, and outputs that characterized the print era are being revamped in favor of new approaches that bring tremendous opportunities, and also non-trivial risks, to scholarly communication. The second digital transformation requires shared …


Royster Receives Lifetime Achievement Award, Retires From Nebraska Jan 2024

Royster Receives Lifetime Achievement Award, Retires From Nebraska

Copyright, Fair Use, Scholarly Communication, etc.

Paul Royster, coordinator for scholarly communication, completes his 19-year career at the University of Nebraska- Lincoln Libraries with a Lifetime Achievement Award from Elsevier Digital Commons for work on behalf of the faculty and students in the growth of the Universityʼs institutional repository (IR) and his innovations that have shaped the development of the platform.


The Ncaa's Challenge In Determining Nil Market Value, Meg Penrose Jan 2024

The Ncaa's Challenge In Determining Nil Market Value, Meg Penrose

Faculty Scholarship

This Article proceeds in three parts. Part II discusses the changes that NIL has wrought in college athletics. It briefly explains collectives and their impact on NIL. Part III discusses the impossibility of limiting athletes’ “fair market value” given market value depends on what the market is willing to pay. Congress has failed to pass national legislation. Yet the mosaic of state laws is simply unfit to stand in for national legislation. And, following multiple litigation losses, the NCAA cannot be trusted to “value” the athletes themselves. Market value, if one is to be established, must be uniform and assessed …


Beyond Trade Secrecy: Confidentiality Agreements That Act Like Noncompetes, Camilla A. Hrdy, Christopher B. Seaman Jan 2024

Beyond Trade Secrecy: Confidentiality Agreements That Act Like Noncompetes, Camilla A. Hrdy, Christopher B. Seaman

Scholarly Articles

There is a substantial literature on noncompete agreements and their adverse impact on employee mobility and innovation. But a far more common restraint in employment contracts has been underexplored: confidentiality agreements, sometimes called nondisclosure agreements (NDAs). A confidentiality agreement is not a blanket prohibition on competition. Rather, it is simply a promise not to use or disclose specific information. Confidentiality agreements encompass trade secrets, as defined by state and federal laws, but confidentiality agreements almost always go beyond trade secrecy, encompassing any information the employer imparted to the employee in confidence.

Despite widespread use, confidentiality agreements have received little attention. …


The Subsistence And Enforcement Of Copyright And Trademark Rights In The Metaverse, Cheng Lim Saw, Zheng Wen Samuel Chan Jan 2024

The Subsistence And Enforcement Of Copyright And Trademark Rights In The Metaverse, Cheng Lim Saw, Zheng Wen Samuel Chan

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

The metaverse has been widely hailed as a symbol of technological progress, presenting an immersive virtual realm that has the potential to transform how individuals engage in social and commercial activities. However, this conception of a borderless virtual world - which purportedly transcends the capabilities and reach of Web 2.0 - sits uncomfortably with the territorial nature of intellectual property rights. This chapter examines the complexities surrounding the subsistence and enforcement of intellectual property rights within the metaverse, with a specific focus on copyright and trademarks. Especial attention is paid to issues concerning choice of law and jurisdiction. Finally, the …


War & Ip, Peter K. Yu Jan 2024

War & Ip, Peter K. Yu

Faculty Scholarship

On February 24, 2022, war broke out between Russia and Ukraine, sparking concerns among government leaders, intergovernmental bodies and the public at large. A month later, the Russian government issued Decree 299, which reduced to zero the royalty rate for national security-based compulsory licenses to intellectual property rights held by individuals or entities originating from the United States or other "unfriendly" nations. Meanwhile, the United States and other members of the international community imposed sanctions on Russia, raising questions about whether those sanctions would prevent U.S. companies and individuals from engaging with Russian intellectual property agencies. Many multinational corporations also …


Editing Classic Books: A Threat To The Public Domain?, Cathay Y. N. Smith Jan 2024

Editing Classic Books: A Threat To The Public Domain?, Cathay Y. N. Smith

Faculty Law Review Articles

Over the past few years, there has been a growing trend in the publishing industry of hiring sensitivity readers to review books for offensive tropes or racial, gender, or sexual stereotypes. In February 2023, for instance, reports that Puffin Books had edited several classics by Roald Dahl—in consultation with sensitivity readers—generated immediate backlash from the public and several renowned authors and politicians. While most of that backlash focused on accusations of “censorship” and “cancel culture,” this Essay examines an actual legal consequence of revising classic books: the creation of copyrightable derivative works in updated editions. Derivative works are new works …


Antisocial Innovation, Christopher Buccafusco, Samuel N. Weinstein Jan 2024

Antisocial Innovation, Christopher Buccafusco, Samuel N. Weinstein

Faculty Scholarship

Innovation is a form of civic religion in the United States. In the popular imagination, innovators are heroic figures. Thomas Edison, Steve Jobs, and (for a while) Elizabeth Holmes were lauded for their vision and drive and seen to embody the American spirit of invention and improvement. For their part, politicians rarely miss a chance to trumpet their vision for boosting innovative activity. Popular and political culture alike treat innovation as an unalloyed good. And the law is deeply committed to fostering innovation, spending billions of dollars a year to make sure society has enough of it. But this sunny …


Patent Term Tailoring, Sarah R. Wasserman Rajec Jan 2024

Patent Term Tailoring, Sarah R. Wasserman Rajec

Faculty Publications

Patent rights are designed to encourage innovation with both the promise of a patent and with its expiration. Currently, patent term lasts from issuance until twenty years from the application date, with minor exceptions. The patent term is limited so that rewards for past invention do not overly hinder future progress. Although the goal is laudable, a uniform patent term is a blunt instrument to achieve such a nuanced balance. Historically, the patent system was not averse to tailoring terms through, for example, individually granted extensions to undercompensated inventors or term curtailment when a foreign patent holder failed to “work” …


Anti-Patents, Roy Baharad, Stuart Minor Benjamin, Ehud Gutte Jan 2024

Anti-Patents, Roy Baharad, Stuart Minor Benjamin, Ehud Gutte

Faculty Scholarship

Conventional wisdom has long perceived the patent and tort systems as separate legal entities, each tasked with a starkly different mission. Patent law rewards novel ideas; tort law deters harmful conduct. Against this backdrop, this Essay uncovers the opposing effects of patent and tort law on innovation, introducing the "injurer-innovator problem." Patent law incentivizes injurers --often uniquely positioned to make technological breakthroughs--by allowing them to profit from licensing their inventions to competitors. Yet tort law, by imposing liability for failures to invest in care, forces injurers to incur the cost of implementing their own innovations. When the cost of self-implementation …


Competition And Congestion In Trademark Law, Christopher Buccafusco, Jonathan S. Masur, Mark P. Mckenna Jan 2024

Competition And Congestion In Trademark Law, Christopher Buccafusco, Jonathan S. Masur, Mark P. Mckenna

Faculty Scholarship

Trademark law exists to promote competition. If consumers know which companies make which products, they can more easily find the products they actually want to purchase. Trademark law has long treated “source significance”—the fact that a particular trademark is identified with a particular producer—as both necessary and sufficient for establishing a valid trademark. That is, trademark law has traditionally viewed source significance as the only necessary precondition for a trademark being pro-competitive. In this Article, we argue that this equation of source significance and pro-competitiveness is misguided. Some marks use words that are so closely connected with the product being …


Unpatenting Product Hops, Michael S. Sinha Jan 2024

Unpatenting Product Hops, Michael S. Sinha

All Faculty Scholarship

On July 9, 2021, President Joseph R. Biden signed Executive Order 14036 (“Promoting Competition in the American Economy”), which directed the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) to collaborate on new approaches to increasing competition and lowering prices in the pharmaceutical marketplace. In response, the USPTO outlined several new initiatives, among them an intent to improve the robustness and reliability of issued patents.

A major impetus for the Executive Order was the pervasive nature of pharmaceutical product hopping, which occurs when manufacturers introduce new follow-on versions of lucrative pharmaceutical products to the …


Increasing Transparency Within City Government Using Blockchain Technology, Jennifer Ayala Jan 2024

Increasing Transparency Within City Government Using Blockchain Technology, Jennifer Ayala

Featured Student Work

When the news or a friend mentions blockchain technology, is it typically always referenced in the context of cryptocurrency? While cryptocurrencies do rely on blockchain technology to record financial transactions between people and businesses,

1 government agencies have begun testing how blockchain technology could improve the lives of constituents.2 A notable advantage of implementing blockchain technology within government, however, is that it has the possibility to prevent corruption due to its very nature.3 The City and County of San Francisco has been the latest victim of government corruption in recent years,

4 with the most recent scandal involving the indictment …


The Trade Origins Of Privacy Law, Anupam Chander Jan 2024

The Trade Origins Of Privacy Law, Anupam Chander

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The desire for trade propelled the growth of data privacy law across the world. Countries with strong privacy laws sought to ensure that their citizens’ privacy would not be compromised when their data traveled to other countries. Even before this vaunted Brussels Effect pushed privacy law across the world through the enticement of trade with the European Union, Brussels had to erect privacy law within the Union itself. And as the Union itself expanded, privacy law was a critical condition for accession.

But this coupling of privacy and trade leaves a puzzle: how did the U.S. avoid a comprehensive privacy …


Unavoidability In U.S. Privacy Law, Laura M. Moy Jan 2024

Unavoidability In U.S. Privacy Law, Laura M. Moy

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Why is U.S. privacy law structured the way it is, with a series of sectoral laws rather than a cross-sectoral law or laws? Why does U.S. privacy law protect information shared in certain contexts—such as information shared with an attorney, a healthcare provider, or a financial provider—rather than particular types of information? One possibility is that sectoral laws apply to contexts in which people typically share highly “sensitive” information containing intimate secrets or with the potential to harm them financially or psychologically.

But this Article argues that there is something else at play—that in fact, an under-discussed and underappreciated factor …


Open Source Perfume, Amanda Levendowski Jan 2024

Open Source Perfume, Amanda Levendowski

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

ABRIDGED ABSTRACT: Perfume is a powerful art and technology, but its secrets are closely held by a privileged few - by some counts, there are more astronauts than there are perfumers. As critics have noted increasingly since 2020, those select few perfumers often share similar backgrounds. As interviews with American, British, and French perfumemakers reveal, intellectual property (IP) also plays a gatekeeping role in perfumery. Drawing on work by perfumer and educator Saskia Wilson-Brown, this Article suggests that perfumery is overdue for a transformation. One is emerging: open source perfume. For those seeking ways to share scents and signal commitment …


Ai, Artists, And Anti-Moral Rights, Derek E. Bambauer, Robert W. Woods Jan 2024

Ai, Artists, And Anti-Moral Rights, Derek E. Bambauer, Robert W. Woods

UF Law Faculty Publications

Generative artificial intelligence (AI) tools are increasingly used to imitate the distinctive characteristics of famous artists, such as their voice, likeness, and style. In response, legislators have introduced bills in Congress that would confer moral rights protections, such as control over attribution and integrity, upon artists. This Essay argues such measures are almost certain to fail because of deep-seated, pervasive hostility to moral rights measures in U.S. intellectual property law. It analyses both legislative measures and judicial decisions that roll back moral rights, and explores how copyright’s authorship doctrines manifest a latent hostility to these entitlements. The Essay concludes with …


Desettling Fixation, Emily T. Behzadi Cárdenas Jan 2024

Desettling Fixation, Emily T. Behzadi Cárdenas

Faculty Scholarship

Scholars have long contemplated how the effects of colonialism have permeated even race “neutral” laws. This Article scrutinizes the ways Eurocentric copyright systems have failed to protect, and have even encouraged, the unauthorized uses of indigenous heritage in derivative subject matter, exposing how settler colonialism in copyright law has entrenched an unequal hierarchy among communities seeking copyright protection. Due to its ephemeral nature, intangible cultural heritage constantly faces the threat of exploitation by dominant cultures. The intangible heritage of indigenous groups has been particularly vulnerable to illicit and uncompensated commodification. Intangible heritage, such as oral histories and traditional dances, is …


A Matter Of Facts: The Evolution Of Copyright’S Fact-Exclusion And Its Implications For Disinformation And Democracy, Jessica Silbey Jan 2024

A Matter Of Facts: The Evolution Of Copyright’S Fact-Exclusion And Its Implications For Disinformation And Democracy, Jessica Silbey

Faculty Scholarship

The Article begins with a puzzle: the curious absence of an express fact-exclusion from copyright protection in both the Copyright Act and its legislative history despite it being a well-founded legal principle. It traces arguments in the foundational Supreme Court case (Feist Publications v. Rural Telephone Service) and in the Copyright Act’s legislative history to discern a basis for the fact-exclusion. That research trail produces a legal genealogy of the fact-exclusion based in early copyright common law anchored by canonical cases, Baker v. Selden, Burrow-Giles v. Sarony, and Wheaton v. Peters. Surprisingly, none of them …