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Intellectual Property Law

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Full-Text Articles in Law

What Notice Did, Jessica Litman May 2016

What Notice Did, Jessica Litman

Jessica Litman

In this article, I explore the effect of the copyright notice prerequisite on the law's treatment of copyright ownership. The notice prerequisite, as construed by the courts, encouraged the development of legal doctrines that herded the ownership of copyrights into the hands of publishers and other intermediaries, notwithstanding statutory provisions that seem to have been designed at least in part to enable authors to keep their copyrights. Because copyright law required notice, other doctrinal developments were shaped by and distorted by that requirement. The promiscuous alienability of U.S. copyrights may itself have been an accidental development deriving from courts' constructions …


3d Printing And Healthcare: Will Laws, Lawyers, And Companies Stand In The Way Of Patient Care?, Evan R. Youngstrom Apr 2016

3d Printing And Healthcare: Will Laws, Lawyers, And Companies Stand In The Way Of Patient Care?, Evan R. Youngstrom

Evan R. Youngstrom

Today, our society is on a precipice of significant advancement in healthcare because 3D printing will usher in the next generation of medicine. The next generation will be driven by customization, which will allow doctors to replace limbs and individualize drugs. However, the next generation will be without large pharmaceutical companies and their justifications for strong intellectual property rights. However, the current patent system (which is underpinned by a social tradeoff made from property incentives) is not flexible enough to cope with 3D printing’s rapid development. Very soon, the social tradeoff will no longer benefit society, so it must be …


The Myth Of The Trade Secret Troll: Why We Need A Federal Civil Claim For Trade Secret Misappropriation, James Pooley Jan 2016

The Myth Of The Trade Secret Troll: Why We Need A Federal Civil Claim For Trade Secret Misappropriation, James Pooley

James Pooley

Trade secret theft is a federal crime, but civil cases must be brought in state court. Because commerce is now global and most assets are information-based, misappropriation is easier, faster and quicker. State court processes are insufficient for interstate or international disputes. The proposed Defend Trade Secrets Act of 2015 would address the problem by adding a civil claim to the Economic Espionage Act. Arguments against it tend to be based on incorrect assumptions or speculation. The legislation provides sufficient safeguards against abuse, and would not inhibit labor mobility or lead to the appearance of "trade secret trolls."


Indigenous Peoples, Intangible Cultural Heritage And Participation In The United Nations, Ana Filipa Vrdoljak Jan 2016

Indigenous Peoples, Intangible Cultural Heritage And Participation In The United Nations, Ana Filipa Vrdoljak

Ana Filipa Vrdoljak

This chapter concentrates on the participation of indigenous peoples in multilateral initiatives to protect cultural heritage, with specific reference to intangible heritage. While an international instrument for the protection of intangible heritage was adopted over a decade ago, the importance of intangible heritage for indigenous peoples is evident in their work in various UN fora. I examine indigenous peoples’ interventions before UNESCO and bodies established to implement the Convention on the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage; within WIPO in respect of ongoing moves to adopt specialist instruments on traditional knowledge and cultural expressions; and finally, within UNEP and the implementation …


Fetishizing Copies, Jessica Litman Jan 2016

Fetishizing Copies, Jessica Litman

Jessica Litman

We have copyright laws to encourage authors to create new works and communicate them to the public, because we hope that people will read the books, listen to the music, see the art, watch the films, run the software, and build and inhabit the buildings. That is the way that copyright promotes the Progress of Science. Recently, that not-very-controversial principle has collided with copyright owners’ conviction that they should be able to control, or at least collect royalties from, all uses of their works. A particularly ill-considered manifestation of this conviction is what I have decided to call copy-fetish. This …


2033, Patent Rights, Property, Exclusivity And How A Newborn Reaching The Age Of Maturity Will Experience The Patent System, If There Is Still One, Severin De Wit Oct 2015

2033, Patent Rights, Property, Exclusivity And How A Newborn Reaching The Age Of Maturity Will Experience The Patent System, If There Is Still One, Severin De Wit

Severin de Wit

This article was published in a "Liber Amicorum" contributed to Charles Gielen at the law firm of Nauta Dutilh upon his departure as Professor of Intellectual Property of the University of Groningen (Netherlands). The essay reflects on how a 2015 newborn will look at intellectual property in 2033 - the year he reaches maturity at his 18th birthday. The book was presented to Charles at a special event at the offices of the law firm Nauta Dutilh on September 30, 2015. The Liber Amicorum under the titel "gIElen, een bekend begrip" is published by Wolters Kluwer.


Climate Change And Human Rights: Intellectual Property Challenges And Opportunities, Alexandra Phelan Sep 2015

Climate Change And Human Rights: Intellectual Property Challenges And Opportunities, Alexandra Phelan

Matthew Rimmer

Mitigating and adapting to the effects of climate change will require innovation and the development of new technologies. Intellectual property laws have a key part to play in the global transfer of climate technologies. However, failures to properly utilize flexibilities in intellectual property regimes or comply with technology transfer obligations under international climate change agreements calls for a human rights based analysis of climate technology transfer. Climate change is an unprecedented challenge and requires unprecedented strategies. Given the substantial impact of climate change on all of humanity and the ethical imperative to act, a complete rethink of traditional intellectual property …


Owning The New Economy: A Guide To Intellectual Property Management For Australia's Clean Technology Sector, Kane Wishart Sep 2015

Owning The New Economy: A Guide To Intellectual Property Management For Australia's Clean Technology Sector, Kane Wishart

Matthew Rimmer

Australia's history of developing and managing the intellectual property rights of domestic innovations is – at best – mixed. The relevant immaturity of Australia's public sector commercialisation infrastructure has, over recent decades, been the subject of both stinging academic commentary and not insubstantial juridical disbelief. That said, improvements have been observed, and increasingly, private sector involvement in public sector innovation has allowed for a deepening refinement of domestic approaches to IP retention and ongoing management. Rather than a bare critique of Australia's IP management track-record, or a call for specific law reform, this manual engages at a more practical level …


Doctrinal Approaches To The Animal Breeders’ Rights Granting, Diana V. Ivanova Dr., Julia A. Fedorova Aug 2015

Doctrinal Approaches To The Animal Breeders’ Rights Granting, Diana V. Ivanova Dr., Julia A. Fedorova

Diana V. Ivanova Dr.

In the paper we analyze foreign and national doctrinal approaches to the animal breeders’ rights granting. Its genesis, legal nature of animal breed, and location of related legal norms are considered. We try to justify the possibility of granting animal breeders’ rights in the Republic of Belarus.


If That’S The Way It Must Be, Okay: Campbell V. Acuff-Rose On Rewind, Thomas C. Irvin Aug 2015

If That’S The Way It Must Be, Okay: Campbell V. Acuff-Rose On Rewind, Thomas C. Irvin

Thomas C. Irvin

The 1994 Supreme Court case Campbell v. Acuff-Rose established broad protections for parody in U.S. copyright law. The decision has justifiably been hailed as a victory for free speech and artistic creativity. But while the case is well known, the facts behind the case are not. Those facts show that the case should have been decided differently by every court that heard it. In short, the case came out wrong—wonderfully wrong. This article is the first in-depth review of Campbell v. Acuff-Rose since the decision was handed down nearly 20 years ago, and is the first to examine the musical …


Traditional Knowledge Rights And Wrongs, Sean Pager Aug 2015

Traditional Knowledge Rights And Wrongs, Sean Pager

Sean Pager

SourceURL:file://localhost/Users/sean/Documents/Folklore%20TK/Unpacking%20ABSTRACT.doc

Traditional Knowledge Rights and Wrongs

Sean A. Pager, Michigan State University

ABSTRACT

Should the intangible heritage of indigenous people be subject to intellectual property rights? After years of effort, international delegates are poised to complete a pair of ambitious treaties that would accomplish this goal. This Article provides the first detailed analysis and critique of the draft treaties, which provide for exclusive rights in traditional knowledge and cultural expression, respectively. Proponents of such protection often invoke both cultural integrity and economic justice rationales. Yet, these rationales dictate conflicting imperatives. To resolve these conflicts, the Article argues for greater differentiation …


On Climate Change And Cyber Attacks: Leveraging Polycentric Governance To Mitigate Global Collective Action Problems, Scott J. Shackelford Aug 2015

On Climate Change And Cyber Attacks: Leveraging Polycentric Governance To Mitigate Global Collective Action Problems, Scott J. Shackelford

Scott Shackelford

Although the atmosphere and cyberspace are distinct arenas, they share similar problems of overuse, difficulties of enforcement, and the associated challenges of collective inaction and free riders. Moreover, “[m]illions of actors affect the global atmosphere[,]” just as they do the Internet. With weather patterns changing, global sea levels rising, and temperatures set to exceed 1.5 degrees Celsius by 2100, climate change is a problem affecting the entire world, but one in which the benefits are dispersed and the harms are often concentrated. Similarly, much of the cost of cyber attacks is focused in a relatively small number of nations even …


Copyright In Pantomime Aug 2015

Copyright In Pantomime

Brian L. Frye

Why does the Copyright Act specifically provide for the protection of “pantomimes”? This article shows that the Copyright Act of 1976 amended the subject matter of copyright to include pantomimes simply in order to conform it to the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works. It further shows that the Berlin Act of 1909 amended the Berne Convention to provide for copyright protection of “les pantomimes” and “entertainments in dumb show” in order to ensure copyright protection of silent motion pictures. Unfortunately, the original purpose of providing copyright protection to “pantomimes” was forgotten. This Article argues that …


International Trade V. Intellectual Property Lawyers: Globalization And The Brazilian Legal Profession, Vitor M. Dias Aug 2015

International Trade V. Intellectual Property Lawyers: Globalization And The Brazilian Legal Profession, Vitor M. Dias

Vitor M. Dias

No abstract provided.


The Evolution Of Internet Service Providers From Partners To Adversaries: Tracking Shifts In Interconnection Goals And Strategies In The Internet’S Fifth Generation, Rob Frieden Jul 2015

The Evolution Of Internet Service Providers From Partners To Adversaries: Tracking Shifts In Interconnection Goals And Strategies In The Internet’S Fifth Generation, Rob Frieden

Rob Frieden

At the Internet’s inception, carriers providing the bit switching and transmission function largely embraced expanding connections and users as a primary service goal. These ventures refrained from metering traffic and charging for carriage based on the assumption that traffic volumes roughly matched, or that traffic measurement was not worth the bother in light of external funding from government grants. Most Internet Service Providers (“ISPs”) bartered network access through a process known as peering in lieu of metering traffic and billing for network use. As governments removed subsidies and commercial carriers invested substantial funds to build larger and faster networks, identifying …


Déjà Vu All Over Again: Questions And A Few Suggestions On How The Fcc Can Lawfully Regulate Internet Access, Rob Frieden Jul 2015

Déjà Vu All Over Again: Questions And A Few Suggestions On How The Fcc Can Lawfully Regulate Internet Access, Rob Frieden

Rob Frieden

This paper will examine the FCC’s March, 2015 Open Internet Order with an eye to assessing whether and how the Commission can successfully defend its decision in an appellate court. On two prior occasions, the FCC failed to convince a reviewing court that proposed regulatory safeguards do not unlawfully impose common carrier duties on private carriers. The Commission now has opted to reclassify broadband Internet access as common carriage, a decision sure to trigger a third court appeal. The FCC Open Internet Order offers several, possibly contradictory, justifications for its decision to apply Title II of the Communications Act, subject …


El Rompecabezas Incompleto. La Omisión Normativa Y Jurisprudencial Sobre La Protección Por El Derecho De Autor De Personajes Y Objetos De La Obra, Javier André Murillo Chávez Jun 2015

El Rompecabezas Incompleto. La Omisión Normativa Y Jurisprudencial Sobre La Protección Por El Derecho De Autor De Personajes Y Objetos De La Obra, Javier André Murillo Chávez

Javier André Murillo Chávez

No abstract provided.


Campbell At 21/Sony At 31, Jessica Litman Jun 2015

Campbell At 21/Sony At 31, Jessica Litman

Jessica Litman

When copyright lawyers gather to discuss fair use, the most common refrain is its alarming expansion. Their distress about fair use’s enlarged footprint seems completely untethered from any appreciation of the remarkable increase in exclusive copyright rights. In the nearly 40 years since Congress enacted the 1976 copyright act, the rights of copyright owners have expanded markedly. Copyright owners’ demands for further expansion continue unabated. Meanwhile, they raise strident objections to proposals to add new privileges and exceptions to the statute to shelter non-infringing uses that might be implicated by their expanded rights. Copyright owners have used the resulting uncertainty …


Intellectual Property And Biofuels: The Energy Crisis, Food Security, And Climate Change, Matthew Rimmer, Griffith Hack May 2015

Intellectual Property And Biofuels: The Energy Crisis, Food Security, And Climate Change, Matthew Rimmer, Griffith Hack

Matthew Rimmer

In light of larger public policy debates over intellectual property and climate change, this article considers patent practice, law, and policy in respect of biofuels. This debate has significant implications for public policy discussions in respect of energy independence, food security, and climate change. The first section of the paper provides a network analysis of patents in respect of biofuels across the three generations. It provides empirical research in respect of patent subject matter, ownership, and strategy in respect of biofuels. The second section provides a case study of significant patent litigation over biofuels. There is an examination of the …


Network Neutrality And Consumer Demand For “Better Than Best Efforts” Traffic Management, Rob Frieden May 2015

Network Neutrality And Consumer Demand For “Better Than Best Efforts” Traffic Management, Rob Frieden

Rob Frieden

This paper assesses whether and how ISPs can offer quality of service enhancements, at premium prices for full motion video, while still complying with the new rules and regulations established by the Federal Communications Commission (“FCC”) in March, 2015. The paper explains that having made the controversial decision to reclassify all forms of Internet access as a telecommunications service, the FCC increases regulatory uncertainty. In particular, the FCC has failed to identify instances where “retail ISPs,” serving residential broadband subscribers, can offer quality of service enhancements that serve real consumer wants without harming competition and the ability of most content …


A Supplementary Submission On The Commonwealth's Treaty-Making Process, Matthew Rimmer May 2015

A Supplementary Submission On The Commonwealth's Treaty-Making Process, Matthew Rimmer

Matthew Rimmer

This supplementary submission highlights two new developments, which have arisen since the initial submission. First, it considers the publication of the draft Investment Chapter of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) by WikiLeaks. Second, it looks at the introduction of the fast-track trade promotion authority bill, the Bipartisan Congressional Priorities and Accountability Act of 2015, into the United States Congress. The two topics have been inter-linked to a certain extent.


A Practitioner's Guide To Patent Challenges At The U.S. Patent & Trademark Office: Chapter 4, Safet Metjahic May 2015

A Practitioner's Guide To Patent Challenges At The U.S. Patent & Trademark Office: Chapter 4, Safet Metjahic

Safet Metjahic

Anyone other than the owner of a patent may file a petition to institute an IPR of the patent in the USPTO. This Chapter provides a summary of the legal framework surrounding IPR practice and, more particularly, the framework for preparing and filing an IPR at the USPTO.


The World’S Laboratory: China’S Patent Boom, It Standards And The Implications For The Global Knowledge, Christopher Mcelwain, Dennis Fernandez Apr 2015

The World’S Laboratory: China’S Patent Boom, It Standards And The Implications For The Global Knowledge, Christopher Mcelwain, Dennis Fernandez

Christopher McElwain

Just as China’s factories disrupted the economics of IT hardware, its research labs have the potential to disrupt the economics of the technology itself. In 2014, China’s patent office received nearly 2.4 million patent applications, 93% from domestic applicants. China has also climbed to third place in terms of international applications, with over 21,000 WIPO PCT applications. Meanwhile, China has taken an assertive role in setting technology standards, both at the national and international levels. In the past, this has included developing and promoting alternatives to important IT standards as a means of challenging perceived monopolies by certain (foreign-dominated) technologies. …


Ninth Circuit Nine-Plus -- Settling The Law In Internet Keyword Advertising And Trademark Use, Andrew Leahey Apr 2015

Ninth Circuit Nine-Plus -- Settling The Law In Internet Keyword Advertising And Trademark Use, Andrew Leahey

Andrew Leahey

No abstract provided.


The Irrelevance Of Nanotechnology Patents, Emily Michiko Morris Apr 2015

The Irrelevance Of Nanotechnology Patents, Emily Michiko Morris

Emily Michiko Morris

Once the stuff of science fiction, nanotechnology is now expected to be the next technological revolution, but despite millions of dollars of investment, we still have yet to see the brave new world of cheap energy, cell-specific drug delivery systems, and self-replicating nanobots that nanotechnology promises. Instead, nanotechnology seems to be in a holding pattern, perpetually stuck in the status of “emerging science,” “immature field,” and “new technology” for over three decades now. Why? Professor Mark Lemley and a number of others have suggested that the answer to this puzzling question is simple: nanotechnology differs from the all of the …


From The Unforeseeability Exception To Foreseeability Estoppel: The Federal Circuit’S Effort To Limit The Doctrine Of Equivalents, Ping-Hsun Chen Apr 2015

From The Unforeseeability Exception To Foreseeability Estoppel: The Federal Circuit’S Effort To Limit The Doctrine Of Equivalents, Ping-Hsun Chen

Ping-Hsun Chen

A person can infringe a patent under the doctrine of equivalents (“DOE”) which may be limited by prosecution history estoppel (“PHE”). The Supreme Court in Festo Corp. v. Shoketsu Kinzoku Kogyo Kabushiki Co., 535 U.S. 722 (2002), finalized the basic doctrine of PHE in the context of claim amendment. A narrowing amendment of a claim results in a presumption that a patentee has surrendered the scope between the original claim and amended claim, but the patentee is allowed to rebut the presumption by proving any of three exceptions. Among those exceptions is the “unforeseeable” exception under which a patentee …


Invisible Labor, Invisible Play: Online Gold Farming And The Boundary Between Jobs And Games, Julian Dibbell Apr 2015

Invisible Labor, Invisible Play: Online Gold Farming And The Boundary Between Jobs And Games, Julian Dibbell

Julian Dibbell

When does work become play, and play work? Courts have considered the question in a variety of economic contexts, from student athletes seeking recognition as employees to professional blackjack players seeking to be treated by casinos just like casual players. Here I apply the question to a relatively novel context: that of online gold farming, a gray-market industry in which wage-earning workers, largely based in China, are paid to play online fantasy games (MMOs) that reward them with virtual items their employers sell for profit to the same games’ casual players. Gold farming is clearly a job (and under the …


A Federal Information Quality Act Challenge To The White House “Patent Troll” Report, Ron D. Katznelson Mar 2015

A Federal Information Quality Act Challenge To The White House “Patent Troll” Report, Ron D. Katznelson

Ron D. Katznelson

Government-disseminated information is unlike that of private parties or non-government entities’ information on the internet or in academic journals, with varying degrees of accuracy and reliability. Because the public disproportionately relies on information disseminated by the government, the government holds itself to substantially higher quality standards. Congress enacted the Information Quality Act (“IQA”) in order to ensure that information disseminated by government agencies meet the standards of “quality, objectivity, utility, and integrity.” 44 U.S.C. § 3516, note. Information disseminated by the government upon which the government and the public rely must be “presented in an accurate, clear, complete, and unbiased …


Problematic Approaches Of The Joinder Clause Under The America Invents Act By Federal District Courts, Ping-Hsun Chen Mar 2015

Problematic Approaches Of The Joinder Clause Under The America Invents Act By Federal District Courts, Ping-Hsun Chen

Ping-Hsun Chen

Before 35 U.S.C. § 299 was enacted, some minority district courts had permitted joinder of independent defendants only because the same patent was infringed. That gave a great incentive to non-practicing entities to sue as many defendants as possible in one suit. To resolve this problem, Congress created § 299(b) to abrogate the minority view of joinder. The Federal Circuit in In re EMC Corp. also created a test requiring finding of “an actual link between the facts underlying each claim of infringement.” The Federal Circuit provides six EMC factors for lower courts to determine permissive joinder. However, the Eastern …


Traditional Knowledge Rights And Wrongs, Sean Pager Mar 2015

Traditional Knowledge Rights And Wrongs, Sean Pager

Sean Pager

Should the intangible heritage of indigenous cultures be subject to intellectual property rights? After years of effort, international delegates are poised to complete a pair of ambitious treaties that would accomplish this goal. This Article provides the first detailed analysis and critique of the draft treaties, which provide for exclusive rights in traditional knowledge and cultural expression, respectively. Proponents of such protection often invoke both cultural integrity and economic justice rationales. Yet, these rationales dictate conflicting imperatives. To resolve these conflicts, the Article argues for greater differentiation between the two draft treaties based on subject matter. Just as copyright and …