Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 16 of 16

Full-Text Articles in Law

Creative Commons: An Explainer, Kincaid C. Brown Jan 2018

Creative Commons: An Explainer, Kincaid C. Brown

Law Librarian Scholarship

Copyright protection attaches automatically to original works you create, whether a poem, photograph, painting, song, video, or essay. Copyright limits what others can do with your creative work and protects your original work from, for example, being compiled or reused and sold for profit. If you hold the copyright—and didn’t, say, create the original work in an employment context where it may be subject to being a work for hire—you may want to allow others to use your work for particular purposes. You could individually negotiate a license granting rights to each person, which would undoubtedly take more and more …


Creative Commons: An Explainer, Kincaid C. Brown Jan 2018

Creative Commons: An Explainer, Kincaid C. Brown

Law Librarian Scholarship

Copyright protection attaches automatically to original works you create, whether a poem, photograph, painting, song, video, or essay. Copyright limits what others can do with your creative work and protects your original work from, for example, being compiled or reused and sold for profit. If you hold the copyright—and didn’t, say, create the original work in an employment context where it may be subject to being a work for hire—you may want to allow others to use your work for particular purposes. You could individually negotiate a license granting rights to each person, which would undoubtedly take more and more …


Insterstitial Exclusivities After Association For Molecular Pathology, Mary Mitchell, Dana A. Remus Sep 2010

Insterstitial Exclusivities After Association For Molecular Pathology, Mary Mitchell, Dana A. Remus

Michigan Law Review First Impressions

The high profile cases Bilski v. Kappos and Association for Molecular Pathology v. United States Patent and Trademark Office have renewed public debate about the proper scope of patentable subject matter. The subject matter inquiry has traditionally been treated as a threshold inquiry in patent law, serving a gate-keeping function by defining the types of inventions that are eligible for patent protection. The Patent Office and courts have approached the subject matter inquiry both by determining whether an invention falls into a statutory category-processes, machines, manufactures, or compositions of matter-as well as by determining whether an invention falls into a …


The Copyright Principles Project: Directions For Reform, Jessica D. Litman, Pamela Samuelson, The Copyright Principles Project Jan 2010

The Copyright Principles Project: Directions For Reform, Jessica D. Litman, Pamela Samuelson, The Copyright Principles Project

Articles

Copyright law performs a number of important functions. It facilitates public access to knowledge and a wide range of uses of creative works of authorship, and, in so doing, it helps educate our populace, enrich our culture, and promote free speech, free expression, and democratic values. It provides opportunities for rights holders to recoup investments in creating and disseminating their works and to enjoy the fruits of whatever success arises from the public's uses of their works. In the process, copyright also plays a role in regulating new technologies and services through which creative works may be accessed. A well-functioning …


An Orphan Works Affirmative Defense To Copyright Infringement Actions, Jerry Brito, Bridget Dooling Sep 2005

An Orphan Works Affirmative Defense To Copyright Infringement Actions, Jerry Brito, Bridget Dooling

Michigan Telecommunications & Technology Law Review

Laurence Peter once said that "[o]riginality is the fine art of remembering what you hear but forgetting where you heard it." Yet that clever quip is itself unoriginal. Although there may be nothing new under the sun--the arrangement of different bits of existing cultural matter in new and interesting combinations is the source of much originality. Yet today much of our cultural raw material is outside the reach of creators because of the orphan works problem. This problem renders untouchable a large swath of existing artistic, literary, and other works because if a work's copyright owner cannot be found to …


Eldred's Aftermath: Tradition, The Copyright Clause, And The Constitutionalization Of Fair Use, Stephen M. Mcjohn Oct 2003

Eldred's Aftermath: Tradition, The Copyright Clause, And The Constitutionalization Of Fair Use, Stephen M. Mcjohn

Michigan Telecommunications & Technology Law Review

Eldred v. Ashcroft offered the Supreme Court broad issues about the scope of Congress's constitutional power to legislate in the area of intellectual property. In 1998, Congress added twenty years to the term of all copyrights, both existing and future copyrights. But for this term extension, works created during the 1920s and 1930s would be entering the public domain. Now such works will remain under copyright until 2018 and beyond. Eldred v. Ashcroft rejected two challenges to the constitutionality of the copyright extension. The first challenge contended that Congress had exceeded its power to grant copyrights for "limited Times" in …


Copyright And Time: A Proposal, Joseph P. Liu Nov 2002

Copyright And Time: A Proposal, Joseph P. Liu

Michigan Law Review

This Article makes a very specific and concrete proposal: it argues that courts should adjust the scope of copyright protection to account for the passage of time by expressly considering time as a factor in fair use analysis. More specifically, this Article argues that the older a copyrighted work is, the greater the scope of fair use should be - that is, the greater the ability of others to re-use, critique, transform, and adapt the copyrighted work without permission of the copyright owner. Conversely, the newer the work, the narrower the scope of fair use. Or, even more concretely, this …


Public Vs. Proprietary Science: A Fruitful Tension?, Rebecca S. Eisenberg, Richard R. Nelson Jan 2002

Public Vs. Proprietary Science: A Fruitful Tension?, Rebecca S. Eisenberg, Richard R. Nelson

Articles

What should be public and what should be private in scientific research? The competitive sprint of public and private laboratories to complete the sequence of the human genome has brought this question to the fore. The same question frames the developing struggle over terms of access to human embryonic stem cell lines and the conflict between Microsoft and the open source movement over how best to promote software development. We expect such conflicts to become more widespread as the role of for-profit research expands in a broader range of scientific fields. Will science progress more swiftly and fruitfully if its …


Intellectual Property Issues In Genomics, Rebecca S. Eisenberg Aug 1996

Intellectual Property Issues In Genomics, Rebecca S. Eisenberg

Articles

Controversy over intellectual property rights in the results of large-scale cDNA sequencing raises intriguing questions about the roles of the public and private sectors in genomics research, and about who stands to benefit (and who stands to lose) from the private appropriation of genomic information. While the US Patent and Trademark Office has rejected patent applications on cDNA fragments of unknown function from the National Institutes of Health, private firms have pursued three distinct strategies for exploiting unpatented cDNA sequence information: exclusive licensing, non-exclusive licensing and dedication to the public domain.


Intellectual Property At The Public-Private Divide: The Case Of Large-Scale Cdna Sequencing, Rebecca S. Eisenberg Jan 1996

Intellectual Property At The Public-Private Divide: The Case Of Large-Scale Cdna Sequencing, Rebecca S. Eisenberg

Articles

The Human Genome Project provides fertile ground for studying the role of intellectual property at the wavering boundary between public and private research science. It involves a major commitment of both public and private research funds in an area that is of significant interest both to research scientists working in university and government laboratories and to commercial firms. It thus provides a wealth of new scientific discoveries that are simultaneously potential candidates for commercial development and inputs into further research. Its obvious implications for human health raise the stakes of getting the balance between private property and public access right, …


Public Research And Private Development: Patents And Technology Transfer In Government-Sponsored Research, Rebecca S. Eisenberg Jan 1996

Public Research And Private Development: Patents And Technology Transfer In Government-Sponsored Research, Rebecca S. Eisenberg

Articles

This article revisits the logical and empirical basis for current government patent policy in order to shed light on the competing interests at stake and to begin to assess how the system is operating in practice. Such an inquiry is justified in part by the significance of federally-sponsored research and development to the overall U.S. research effort. Although the share of national expenditures for research and development borne by the federal government has declined since 1980, federal funding in 1995 still accounted for approximately thirty-six percent of total national outlays for research and development' and nearly fifty-eight percent of outlays …


Limiting The Role Of Patents In Technology Transfer, Rebecca S. Eisenberg Jan 1994

Limiting The Role Of Patents In Technology Transfer, Rebecca S. Eisenberg

Other Publications

Federal policy since 1980 has reflected an increasingly confident presumption that patenting discoveries made in the course of government-sponsored research is the most effective way to promote technology transfer and commercial development of those discoveries in the private sector. Policymakers in the past may have thought that the best way to achieve widespread use of government-sponsored research was to make the results freely available to the public; the new pro-patent policy stresses the need for exclusive rights as an incentive for industry to invest in bringing new products to market.


A Technology Policy Perspective On The Nih Gene Patenting Controversy, Rebecca S. Eisenberg Jan 1994

A Technology Policy Perspective On The Nih Gene Patenting Controversy, Rebecca S. Eisenberg

Articles

This article will use the NIH patent controversy as a focal point for considering when the results of government-sponsored research should be patented and when they should be dedicated to the public domain. First, this article will review the recent history of federal government policy on patenting the results of government-sponsored research. Next, this article will highlight some of the complexities involved in achieving technology transfer from the public sector to the private sector that current policy may oversimplify. With this background, this article will return to a more detailed analysis of the NIH cDNA patenting controversy and consider the …


Patents--Prior Publication-Application Of Section 102(B) To Plant Patents, Ira J. Jaffe S.Ed. Mar 1963

Patents--Prior Publication-Application Of Section 102(B) To Plant Patents, Ira J. Jaffe S.Ed.

Michigan Law Review

Appellant applied for a plant patent on two roses which he had developed. The Patent Office Board of Appeals affirmed the final rejection of the application on the basis of section 102(b) of the patent statute. Pictures and classifications of the varieties of roses sought to be patented had appeared in printed publications more than one year before appellant's application. On appeal, held, reversed. In order to bar issuance of a plant patent, a description in a printed publication must convey such knowledge as to place the invention within the public domain. In re LeGrice, 301 F.2d 929 …


The Compulsory Manufacturing Provision-An Anachronism In The Copyright Act, Clinton R. Ashford S. Ed. Jan 1951

The Compulsory Manufacturing Provision-An Anachronism In The Copyright Act, Clinton R. Ashford S. Ed.

Michigan Law Review

The protection afforded foreign authors under the United States Copyright Act at the present time is subject to stringent restrictions. Copyright will not be granted to a person who is neither a citizen nor a resident of the United States unless he complies with a great many formalities, and, in addition, conforms with the compulsory manufacturing requirement. It is the object of this comment to examine the manufacturing provision, section 16 of the Copyright Law, and to show why it should be deleted from the act.


Trade Marks And Trade Names - Mark Used On Patented Article - Effect Of Expiration Of Patent, William J. Isaacson Mar 1937

Trade Marks And Trade Names - Mark Used On Patented Article - Effect Of Expiration Of Patent, William J. Isaacson

Michigan Law Review

P company had distributed patented razor-blades marked Enders, and, upon the expiration of its patent, registered the word as a trade mark. It also used the term Keen-Kutter, as part of its mark, but the use of this term on other goods antedated the patent by several years. P now seeks to enjoin the D company from using either term as part of its trademark. Held, (1) the word Enders having become descriptively designative of this type of razor and blade, D was entitled to use it upon expiration of P's patent; (2) as to Keen-Kutter …