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An Analysis Of The Human Rights Approach To Climate Change: The Right To A Healthy Environment, Intergenerational Equity And Climate Litigation, Unwana Emmanuel Udo Oct 2020

An Analysis Of The Human Rights Approach To Climate Change: The Right To A Healthy Environment, Intergenerational Equity And Climate Litigation, Unwana Emmanuel Udo

LLM Theses

Climate change litigation is a viable tool in the fight against climate change. For the past 2 decades, climate litigation has largely been based on torts and administrative law. However, courts have recently been quite receptive to human rights arguments in climate cases, thereby necessitating recognition of the human rights approach as an important facet of climate litigation. It is important for intergenerational equity to be integrated into the human rights approach to climate change. One of the major benefits of intergenerational equity to the human rights approach is its potential to catalyze the recognition of the right to a …


Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez Dec 2016

Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez

Carmen G. Gonzalez


Environmental justice scholars and activists coined the terms “environmental racism” to describe the disproportionate concentration of environmental hazards in neighborhoods populated by racial and ethnic minorities. Having exhausted domestic legal remedies (or having concluded that these remedies are unavailable), communities of color in the United States are increasingly turning to international human rights law and institutions to challenge environmental racism.

 

However, the United States has ratified only a handful of human rights treaties, and has limited the domestic application of these treaties through reservations and declarations that preclude judicial enforcement in the absence of implementing legislation. Indeed, …


Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez Dec 2016

Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez

Carmen G. Gonzalez


Environmental justice scholars and activists coined the terms “environmental racism” to describe the disproportionate concentration of environmental hazards in neighborhoods populated by racial and ethnic minorities. Having exhausted domestic legal remedies (or having concluded that these remedies are unavailable), communities of color in the United States are increasingly turning to international human rights law and institutions to challenge environmental racism.

 

However, the United States has ratified only a handful of human rights treaties, and has limited the domestic application of these treaties through reservations and declarations that preclude judicial enforcement in the absence of implementing legislation. Indeed, …


Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez Dec 2016

Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez

Carmen G. Gonzalez


Environmental justice scholars and activists coined the terms “environmental racism” to describe the disproportionate concentration of environmental hazards in neighborhoods populated by racial and ethnic minorities. Having exhausted domestic legal remedies (or having concluded that these remedies are unavailable), communities of color in the United States are increasingly turning to international human rights law and institutions to challenge environmental racism.

 

However, the United States has ratified only a handful of human rights treaties, and has limited the domestic application of these treaties through reservations and declarations that preclude judicial enforcement in the absence of implementing legislation. Indeed, …


Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez Dec 2016

Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez

Carmen G. Gonzalez


Environmental justice scholars and activists coined the terms “environmental racism” to describe the disproportionate concentration of environmental hazards in neighborhoods populated by racial and ethnic minorities. Having exhausted domestic legal remedies (or having concluded that these remedies are unavailable), communities of color in the United States are increasingly turning to international human rights law and institutions to challenge environmental racism.

 

However, the United States has ratified only a handful of human rights treaties, and has limited the domestic application of these treaties through reservations and declarations that preclude judicial enforcement in the absence of implementing legislation. Indeed, …


Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez Dec 2016

Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez

Carmen G. Gonzalez


Environmental justice scholars and activists coined the terms “environmental racism” to describe the disproportionate concentration of environmental hazards in neighborhoods populated by racial and ethnic minorities. Having exhausted domestic legal remedies (or having concluded that these remedies are unavailable), communities of color in the United States are increasingly turning to international human rights law and institutions to challenge environmental racism.

 

However, the United States has ratified only a handful of human rights treaties, and has limited the domestic application of these treaties through reservations and declarations that preclude judicial enforcement in the absence of implementing legislation. Indeed, …


Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez Dec 2016

Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez

Carmen G. Gonzalez


Environmental justice scholars and activists coined the terms “environmental racism” to describe the disproportionate concentration of environmental hazards in neighborhoods populated by racial and ethnic minorities. Having exhausted domestic legal remedies (or having concluded that these remedies are unavailable), communities of color in the United States are increasingly turning to international human rights law and institutions to challenge environmental racism.

 

However, the United States has ratified only a handful of human rights treaties, and has limited the domestic application of these treaties through reservations and declarations that preclude judicial enforcement in the absence of implementing legislation. Indeed, …


Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez Dec 2016

Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez

Carmen G. Gonzalez


Environmental justice scholars and activists coined the terms “environmental racism” to describe the disproportionate concentration of environmental hazards in neighborhoods populated by racial and ethnic minorities. Having exhausted domestic legal remedies (or having concluded that these remedies are unavailable), communities of color in the United States are increasingly turning to international human rights law and institutions to challenge environmental racism.

 

However, the United States has ratified only a handful of human rights treaties, and has limited the domestic application of these treaties through reservations and declarations that preclude judicial enforcement in the absence of implementing legislation. Indeed, …


Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez Dec 2016

Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez

Carmen G. Gonzalez


Environmental justice scholars and activists coined the terms “environmental racism” to describe the disproportionate concentration of environmental hazards in neighborhoods populated by racial and ethnic minorities. Having exhausted domestic legal remedies (or having concluded that these remedies are unavailable), communities of color in the United States are increasingly turning to international human rights law and institutions to challenge environmental racism.

 

However, the United States has ratified only a handful of human rights treaties, and has limited the domestic application of these treaties through reservations and declarations that preclude judicial enforcement in the absence of implementing legislation. Indeed, …


Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez Dec 2016

Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez

Carmen G. Gonzalez


Environmental justice scholars and activists coined the terms “environmental racism” to describe the disproportionate concentration of environmental hazards in neighborhoods populated by racial and ethnic minorities. Having exhausted domestic legal remedies (or having concluded that these remedies are unavailable), communities of color in the United States are increasingly turning to international human rights law and institutions to challenge environmental racism.

 

However, the United States has ratified only a handful of human rights treaties, and has limited the domestic application of these treaties through reservations and declarations that preclude judicial enforcement in the absence of implementing legislation. Indeed, …


Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez Dec 2016

Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez

Carmen G. Gonzalez


Environmental justice scholars and activists coined the terms “environmental racism” to describe the disproportionate concentration of environmental hazards in neighborhoods populated by racial and ethnic minorities. Having exhausted domestic legal remedies (or having concluded that these remedies are unavailable), communities of color in the United States are increasingly turning to international human rights law and institutions to challenge environmental racism.

 

However, the United States has ratified only a handful of human rights treaties, and has limited the domestic application of these treaties through reservations and declarations that preclude judicial enforcement in the absence of implementing legislation. Indeed, …


Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez Dec 2016

Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez

Carmen G. Gonzalez


Environmental justice scholars and activists coined the terms “environmental racism” to describe the disproportionate concentration of environmental hazards in neighborhoods populated by racial and ethnic minorities. Having exhausted domestic legal remedies (or having concluded that these remedies are unavailable), communities of color in the United States are increasingly turning to international human rights law and institutions to challenge environmental racism.

 

However, the United States has ratified only a handful of human rights treaties, and has limited the domestic application of these treaties through reservations and declarations that preclude judicial enforcement in the absence of implementing legislation. Indeed, …


Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez Dec 2016

Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez

Carmen G. Gonzalez


Environmental justice scholars and activists coined the terms “environmental racism” to describe the disproportionate concentration of environmental hazards in neighborhoods populated by racial and ethnic minorities. Having exhausted domestic legal remedies (or having concluded that these remedies are unavailable), communities of color in the United States are increasingly turning to international human rights law and institutions to challenge environmental racism.

 

However, the United States has ratified only a handful of human rights treaties, and has limited the domestic application of these treaties through reservations and declarations that preclude judicial enforcement in the absence of implementing legislation. Indeed, …


Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez Dec 2016

Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez

Carmen G. Gonzalez


Environmental justice scholars and activists coined the terms “environmental racism” to describe the disproportionate concentration of environmental hazards in neighborhoods populated by racial and ethnic minorities. Having exhausted domestic legal remedies (or having concluded that these remedies are unavailable), communities of color in the United States are increasingly turning to international human rights law and institutions to challenge environmental racism.

 

However, the United States has ratified only a handful of human rights treaties, and has limited the domestic application of these treaties through reservations and declarations that preclude judicial enforcement in the absence of implementing legislation. Indeed, …


Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez Dec 2016

Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez

Carmen G. Gonzalez


Environmental justice scholars and activists coined the terms “environmental racism” to describe the disproportionate concentration of environmental hazards in neighborhoods populated by racial and ethnic minorities. Having exhausted domestic legal remedies (or having concluded that these remedies are unavailable), communities of color in the United States are increasingly turning to international human rights law and institutions to challenge environmental racism.

 

However, the United States has ratified only a handful of human rights treaties, and has limited the domestic application of these treaties through reservations and declarations that preclude judicial enforcement in the absence of implementing legislation. Indeed, …


Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez Dec 2016

Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez

Carmen G. Gonzalez


Environmental justice scholars and activists coined the terms “environmental racism” to describe the disproportionate concentration of environmental hazards in neighborhoods populated by racial and ethnic minorities. Having exhausted domestic legal remedies (or having concluded that these remedies are unavailable), communities of color in the United States are increasingly turning to international human rights law and institutions to challenge environmental racism.

 

However, the United States has ratified only a handful of human rights treaties, and has limited the domestic application of these treaties through reservations and declarations that preclude judicial enforcement in the absence of implementing legislation. Indeed, …


Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez Dec 2016

Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez

Carmen G. Gonzalez


Environmental justice scholars and activists coined the terms “environmental racism” to describe the disproportionate concentration of environmental hazards in neighborhoods populated by racial and ethnic minorities. Having exhausted domestic legal remedies (or having concluded that these remedies are unavailable), communities of color in the United States are increasingly turning to international human rights law and institutions to challenge environmental racism.

 

However, the United States has ratified only a handful of human rights treaties, and has limited the domestic application of these treaties through reservations and declarations that preclude judicial enforcement in the absence of implementing legislation. Indeed, …


Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez Dec 2016

Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez

Carmen G. Gonzalez


Environmental justice scholars and activists coined the terms “environmental racism” to describe the disproportionate concentration of environmental hazards in neighborhoods populated by racial and ethnic minorities. Having exhausted domestic legal remedies (or having concluded that these remedies are unavailable), communities of color in the United States are increasingly turning to international human rights law and institutions to challenge environmental racism.

 

However, the United States has ratified only a handful of human rights treaties, and has limited the domestic application of these treaties through reservations and declarations that preclude judicial enforcement in the absence of implementing legislation. Indeed, …


Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez Dec 2016

Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez

Carmen G. Gonzalez


Environmental justice scholars and activists coined the terms “environmental racism” to describe the disproportionate concentration of environmental hazards in neighborhoods populated by racial and ethnic minorities. Having exhausted domestic legal remedies (or having concluded that these remedies are unavailable), communities of color in the United States are increasingly turning to international human rights law and institutions to challenge environmental racism.

 

However, the United States has ratified only a handful of human rights treaties, and has limited the domestic application of these treaties through reservations and declarations that preclude judicial enforcement in the absence of implementing legislation. Indeed, …


Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez Dec 2016

Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez

Carmen G. Gonzalez


Environmental justice scholars and activists coined the terms “environmental racism” to describe the disproportionate concentration of environmental hazards in neighborhoods populated by racial and ethnic minorities. Having exhausted domestic legal remedies (or having concluded that these remedies are unavailable), communities of color in the United States are increasingly turning to international human rights law and institutions to challenge environmental racism.

 

However, the United States has ratified only a handful of human rights treaties, and has limited the domestic application of these treaties through reservations and declarations that preclude judicial enforcement in the absence of implementing legislation. Indeed, …


Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez Dec 2016

Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez

Carmen G. Gonzalez


Environmental justice scholars and activists coined the terms “environmental racism” to describe the disproportionate concentration of environmental hazards in neighborhoods populated by racial and ethnic minorities. Having exhausted domestic legal remedies (or having concluded that these remedies are unavailable), communities of color in the United States are increasingly turning to international human rights law and institutions to challenge environmental racism.

 

However, the United States has ratified only a handful of human rights treaties, and has limited the domestic application of these treaties through reservations and declarations that preclude judicial enforcement in the absence of implementing legislation. Indeed, …


Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez Dec 2016

Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez

Carmen G. Gonzalez


Environmental justice scholars and activists coined the terms “environmental racism” to describe the disproportionate concentration of environmental hazards in neighborhoods populated by racial and ethnic minorities. Having exhausted domestic legal remedies (or having concluded that these remedies are unavailable), communities of color in the United States are increasingly turning to international human rights law and institutions to challenge environmental racism.

 

However, the United States has ratified only a handful of human rights treaties, and has limited the domestic application of these treaties through reservations and declarations that preclude judicial enforcement in the absence of implementing legislation. Indeed, …


Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez Dec 2016

Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez

Carmen G. Gonzalez


Environmental justice scholars and activists coined the terms “environmental racism” to describe the disproportionate concentration of environmental hazards in neighborhoods populated by racial and ethnic minorities. Having exhausted domestic legal remedies (or having concluded that these remedies are unavailable), communities of color in the United States are increasingly turning to international human rights law and institutions to challenge environmental racism.

 

However, the United States has ratified only a handful of human rights treaties, and has limited the domestic application of these treaties through reservations and declarations that preclude judicial enforcement in the absence of implementing legislation. Indeed, …


Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez Dec 2016

Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez

Carmen G. Gonzalez


Environmental justice scholars and activists coined the terms “environmental racism” to describe the disproportionate concentration of environmental hazards in neighborhoods populated by racial and ethnic minorities. Having exhausted domestic legal remedies (or having concluded that these remedies are unavailable), communities of color in the United States are increasingly turning to international human rights law and institutions to challenge environmental racism.

 

However, the United States has ratified only a handful of human rights treaties, and has limited the domestic application of these treaties through reservations and declarations that preclude judicial enforcement in the absence of implementing legislation. Indeed, …


Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez Dec 2016

Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez

Carmen G. Gonzalez


Environmental justice scholars and activists coined the terms “environmental racism” to describe the disproportionate concentration of environmental hazards in neighborhoods populated by racial and ethnic minorities. Having exhausted domestic legal remedies (or having concluded that these remedies are unavailable), communities of color in the United States are increasingly turning to international human rights law and institutions to challenge environmental racism.

 

However, the United States has ratified only a handful of human rights treaties, and has limited the domestic application of these treaties through reservations and declarations that preclude judicial enforcement in the absence of implementing legislation. Indeed, …


Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez Dec 2016

Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez

Carmen G. Gonzalez


Environmental justice scholars and activists coined the terms “environmental racism” to describe the disproportionate concentration of environmental hazards in neighborhoods populated by racial and ethnic minorities. Having exhausted domestic legal remedies (or having concluded that these remedies are unavailable), communities of color in the United States are increasingly turning to international human rights law and institutions to challenge environmental racism.

 

However, the United States has ratified only a handful of human rights treaties, and has limited the domestic application of these treaties through reservations and declarations that preclude judicial enforcement in the absence of implementing legislation. Indeed, …


Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez Dec 2016

Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez

Carmen G. Gonzalez


Environmental justice scholars and activists coined the terms “environmental racism” to describe the disproportionate concentration of environmental hazards in neighborhoods populated by racial and ethnic minorities. Having exhausted domestic legal remedies (or having concluded that these remedies are unavailable), communities of color in the United States are increasingly turning to international human rights law and institutions to challenge environmental racism.

 

However, the United States has ratified only a handful of human rights treaties, and has limited the domestic application of these treaties through reservations and declarations that preclude judicial enforcement in the absence of implementing legislation. Indeed, …


Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez Dec 2016

Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez

Carmen G. Gonzalez


Environmental justice scholars and activists coined the terms “environmental racism” to describe the disproportionate concentration of environmental hazards in neighborhoods populated by racial and ethnic minorities. Having exhausted domestic legal remedies (or having concluded that these remedies are unavailable), communities of color in the United States are increasingly turning to international human rights law and institutions to challenge environmental racism.

 

However, the United States has ratified only a handful of human rights treaties, and has limited the domestic application of these treaties through reservations and declarations that preclude judicial enforcement in the absence of implementing legislation. Indeed, …


Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez Dec 2016

Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez

Carmen G. Gonzalez


Environmental justice scholars and activists coined the terms “environmental racism” to describe the disproportionate concentration of environmental hazards in neighborhoods populated by racial and ethnic minorities. Having exhausted domestic legal remedies (or having concluded that these remedies are unavailable), communities of color in the United States are increasingly turning to international human rights law and institutions to challenge environmental racism.

 

However, the United States has ratified only a handful of human rights treaties, and has limited the domestic application of these treaties through reservations and declarations that preclude judicial enforcement in the absence of implementing legislation. Indeed, …


Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez Dec 2016

Environmental Racism, American Exceptionalism, And Cold War Human Rights, Carmen G. Gonzalez

Carmen G. Gonzalez


Environmental justice scholars and activists coined the terms “environmental racism” to describe the disproportionate concentration of environmental hazards in neighborhoods populated by racial and ethnic minorities. Having exhausted domestic legal remedies (or having concluded that these remedies are unavailable), communities of color in the United States are increasingly turning to international human rights law and institutions to challenge environmental racism.

 

However, the United States has ratified only a handful of human rights treaties, and has limited the domestic application of these treaties through reservations and declarations that preclude judicial enforcement in the absence of implementing legislation. Indeed, …