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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Distinction Between Refugee Populations In Lebanon: A Look Into Lebanon's Treatment Of Palestinian Refugees Since 1948 Versus Its Treatment Of Syrian Refugees Since 2011, Mia Bodell Dec 2022

The Distinction Between Refugee Populations In Lebanon: A Look Into Lebanon's Treatment Of Palestinian Refugees Since 1948 Versus Its Treatment Of Syrian Refugees Since 2011, Mia Bodell

Refugee Law & Migration Studies Brief

No abstract provided.


Lessons Of The Past And The Humanitarian Outreach Of Poland To Ukrainian Refugees, Karin Mika Jun 2022

Lessons Of The Past And The Humanitarian Outreach Of Poland To Ukrainian Refugees, Karin Mika

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

The reaction of Poland and its people is a refreshing departure from the historic blood rivalries of the past. This is similarly true of both Romania and Hungary; however, it is Poland that has absorbed the majority of Ukrainian refugees and Poland that has the most historically contentious relationship with Ukraine. Poland’s current humanitarian efforts with respect to its Ukrainian neighbors is evidence that some lessons have been learned from the past. Perhaps there is hope that some of the centuries old blood feuding can come to an end and countries can better work toward cooperative relationships in the future.


The Right To Remain, Timothy E. Lynch Apr 2022

The Right To Remain, Timothy E. Lynch

Faculty Works

No abstract provided.


A Comparative Perspective On Safe Third And First Country Of Asylum Policies In The United Kingdom And North America: Legal Norms, Principles And Lessons Learned, Susan M. Akram, Elizabeth Ruddick Apr 2022

A Comparative Perspective On Safe Third And First Country Of Asylum Policies In The United Kingdom And North America: Legal Norms, Principles And Lessons Learned, Susan M. Akram, Elizabeth Ruddick

Faculty Scholarship

Wealthy refugee-receiving countries across the global north have recently been experimenting with systems that they believe will allow them lawfully to remove or turn back asylum-seekers reaching their borders, without considering their claims for international protection. These include the Trump administration's Asylum Cooperation Agreements (ACAs), the United Kingdom's Nationality and Borders Act, and the recent amendments to Denmark's Aliens Act that will allow asylum-seekers to be transferred to third countries for processing. Although these systems have many important differences, they rest on a shared premise that neither the Refugee Convention nor international, regional or domestic human rights laws prohibit such …


Suffering To Save Lives: Torture, Cruelty, And Moral Disengagement In Australia’S Offshore Detention Centres, Jamal Barnes Jan 2022

Suffering To Save Lives: Torture, Cruelty, And Moral Disengagement In Australia’S Offshore Detention Centres, Jamal Barnes

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Since Australia re-established offshore processing on Manus Island and Nauru in 2012, there have been ongoing reports that asylum seekers and refugees are being subjected to torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment (CIDT). People in detention have endured indefinite detention, inadequate provision of health care, and sexual, physical, and mental harm as the government attempts to ‘stop the boats’ and prevent deaths at sea. How can Australia continue to violate the UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, while at the same time, promote its offshore detention policies worldwide? This article …


Refugee Homes And The Right To Property: Sunk Costs And Networked Mobility, Jordan Hayes Dec 2021

Refugee Homes And The Right To Property: Sunk Costs And Networked Mobility, Jordan Hayes

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

For refugees outside their state of origin, access to humanitarian protection can come at the cost of the right to own a home. Following Anneke Smit’s scholarship on the possible contradictions between humanitarian protection and property rights, this paper explores the case of refugee homes built in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI) by Syrian asylum seekers. Interviews with Syrian refugees collected in Iraq from 2018-2019 reveal the paradoxical situation faced by refugees who invest time, expertise, memory, hope, and money in a house—yet do not own it. While non-citizens in the KRI rarely have the chance to secure legal …


Dossier: The Stateless Rohingya—Practical Consequences Of Expulsion, Fiza Lee-Winter, Tonny Kirabira Oct 2021

Dossier: The Stateless Rohingya—Practical Consequences Of Expulsion, Fiza Lee-Winter, Tonny Kirabira

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

The international community has been called upon to ramp up efforts to end statelessness and provided with a guiding framework of 10 Actions. This dossier presents the practical consequences of expulsion, both direct and indirect outcomes of collective violence, directed towards the Rohingyas. Touching upon the nexus between children's rights, human trafficking, and practical challenges associated on-the-ground, the dossier also discusses the imperative need for the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) states—collectively as a region—to take steps in fulfilling Action 7 of the Global Action Plan through the birth registration of Rohingya children as part of their existing efforts …


Memory And Identity: Inter-Generational Resilience And Construction Of Diasporic Identities Among Somali Refugees, Hamida Dahir Sheikh Ahmed May 2021

Memory And Identity: Inter-Generational Resilience And Construction Of Diasporic Identities Among Somali Refugees, Hamida Dahir Sheikh Ahmed

Master's Theses

The violence and displacement many refugees face often create a lifelong trauma that manifests in many ways within themselves, their families, and communities. The Somali refugee community in the United States is no different. Since their resettlement in America started in the 1990s following the civil war, the community has struggled with different manifestations of that trauma; substance abuse and gang violence among the youth, prominence of depression and suicide rates, rise of domestic violence, as well as other direct and indirect results associated with mental health. This is the reality of many refugee and immigrant communities, coming directly from …


The Role Of Nations-State In Protecting And Supporting Internally Displaced Persons, Daisy Byers May 2021

The Role Of Nations-State In Protecting And Supporting Internally Displaced Persons, Daisy Byers

Master's Theses

The rising increase of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) has become a global problem. There are over 40 million internally displaced people globally, and 15.9 million are displaced in Africa. These displacements come into place due to war/conflict, corruption, massive human rights violations, natural disasters, urban renewal projects (at the hands of powerful nations such as America, China, France, UK, etc.), and large-scale development projects. According to UNHCR, refugees are people who have international cross-border. In contrast, internally displaced persons must stay within their own country and stay under the protection of their government, even if the government is the reason …


Colombia, Un Refugio Cercano Pero No Accesible Para Los Venezolanos, Diana Maria Tovar Rojas May 2021

Colombia, Un Refugio Cercano Pero No Accesible Para Los Venezolanos, Diana Maria Tovar Rojas

Master's Theses

The non-application of the International Protection mechanisms, such as the non-recognition of the determination of refugee status to the migrant population victims of forced migration, not only aggravates the conditions of vulnerability of the migrants because the State does not respond adequately to their specific needs but also because the State is violating what is stipulated in the International Human Rights Law and ignoring its responsibilities acquired by having signed instruments of the International Protection Regime. Despite the fact that Colombia is the largest recipient of Venezuelan migrants in Latin America due to its geographical proximity, it is also one …


21st Century Refugees: Uncovering The Human Rights Gap, J. Mauricio Gaona Jan 2021

21st Century Refugees: Uncovering The Human Rights Gap, J. Mauricio Gaona

Human Rights Brief

No abstract provided.


How A Universal Definition May Shape The Looming Climate Refugee Crisis, Alexandra Haris Jan 2021

How A Universal Definition May Shape The Looming Climate Refugee Crisis, Alexandra Haris

Human Rights Brief

No abstract provided.


Shadow Pandemic: Covid-19 Lockdown Brings Increased Risk Of Violence For Rohingya Women And Girls, Sara Edwards Jan 2021

Shadow Pandemic: Covid-19 Lockdown Brings Increased Risk Of Violence For Rohingya Women And Girls, Sara Edwards

Law in a Post-Pandemic World

This blog is a reflection on the increases in gender-based violence (GBV) against Rohingya women in Bangladesh due to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Global Apathy And The Need For A New, Cooperative International Refugee Response, Emily Gleichert Dec 2020

Global Apathy And The Need For A New, Cooperative International Refugee Response, Emily Gleichert

Northwestern Journal of Law & Social Policy

While an increasing number of nations move toward isolationist, nationalist policies, the number of refugees worldwide is climbing to its highest levels since World War II. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is the international body tasked with protecting this population. However, the office’s traditional solutions for refugees – local integration, resettlement in a third country, and voluntary repatriation – have mostly eluded refugees who spend an average of twenty years in exile. The limitations UNHCR’s structure imposes on the office, specifically in its ability to fund its operations and compel nations to act, have contributed to its …


Revisiting Immutability: Competing Frameworks For Adjudicating Asylum Claims Based On Membership In A Particular Social Group, Talia Shiff May 2020

Revisiting Immutability: Competing Frameworks For Adjudicating Asylum Claims Based On Membership In A Particular Social Group, Talia Shiff

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

The Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) defines a refugee as any person who has a “well-founded fear of persecution on account of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion.” An emerging issue in U.S. asylum law is how to define the category “membership of a particular social group.” This question has become ever-more pressing in light of the fact that the majority of migrants seeking asylum at the U.S.-Mexico border are claiming persecution on account of their “membership in a particular social group.” The INA does not define the meaning of “particular social group” and …


Series Editor's Preface, James C. Hathaway Mar 2020

Series Editor's Preface, James C. Hathaway

Other Publications

Could we – should we – think differently about the ways in which refugees are assisted and protected? Is it possible to turn traditional thinking on its head by seeing refugees not as the objects of protection and assistance, but instead as the architects and managers of solutions?


Refugee Resettlement In The U.S.: The Hidden Realities Of The U.S. Refugee Integration Process, Bienvenue Konsimbo Dec 2019

Refugee Resettlement In The U.S.: The Hidden Realities Of The U.S. Refugee Integration Process, Bienvenue Konsimbo

Master of Science in Conflict Management Final Projects

From the 1946 to the 1980 Act, more than two million refugees have resettled in the U.S. (Eby, Iverson, Smyers, & Kekic, 2011p.). This has made the U.S. the largest of the 10 resettlement countries (Xu, 2007, p. 38). The U.S. department of state (DOS)’ hope is to give “the refugee a leg up on their journey to self-sufficiency” (Darrow, 2015, p. 92). For these millions of refugees, their expectations are to find “employment, education, to provide a better environment for their children, and to integrate into the community” (Xu, 2007p.38).

However, this pre-package deal is not without repercussions or …


Self-Determination And Psychological Adaptation In Forcibly Displaced People, Numan Turan, Bediha İpekçi, Mehmet Yalçın Yılmaz Nov 2019

Self-Determination And Psychological Adaptation In Forcibly Displaced People, Numan Turan, Bediha İpekçi, Mehmet Yalçın Yılmaz

New England Journal of Public Policy

According to the UN Refugee Agency, as of 2018 approximately 70 million people were forcibly displaced because of intrastate and interstate conflicts. A majority of those people endured significant hardships, and a consensus is growing among researchers that forcibly displaced people have gone through potentially traumatic experiences that challenge their well-being and health. Consequently, a large amount of research focuses on their mental health concerns, whereas research focusing on their will to normalize their lives and grow after a traumatic migration is scarce. In this article, we highlight the efforts by forcibly displaced people to normalize their lives, pointing out …


The Supreme Court And Refugees At The Southern Border: 5 Questions Answered, Karla Mckanders Oct 2019

The Supreme Court And Refugees At The Southern Border: 5 Questions Answered, Karla Mckanders

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

I sat in a small room in Tijuana, Mexico with a 13-year-old indigenous Mayan Guatemalan girl.

She left Guatemala after a cartel murdered her friend and threatened to rape her. Her mother wanted her to live and believed the only way for her to survive was to send her daughter alone to the U.S., to apply for asylum Now she was alone and stuck in Mexico. Every morning, the Guatemalan girl, along with other asylum seekers, would frantically gather at the Tijuana-U.S. border where they waited to hear their name or their number called so the Mexican government could escort …


The Promise And Challenge Of Humanitarian Protection In The United States: Making Temporary Protected Status Work As A Safe Haven, Andrew I. Schoenholtz Oct 2019

The Promise And Challenge Of Humanitarian Protection In The United States: Making Temporary Protected Status Work As A Safe Haven, Andrew I. Schoenholtz

Northwestern Journal of Law & Social Policy

The humanitarian program Congress created in 1990 to allow war refugees and those affected by significant natural disasters to live and work legally in the United States has only partially achieved its goals. More than 400,000 individuals have received temporary protected status (TPS). In many cases, the crisis ended, along with temporary protection. However, in about half of the designated nationalities—including the largest groups—conflict and instability continued, making this humanitarian protection program anything but temporary. Unfortunately, Congress did not provide the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) with the tools it needed to address such long-term crises. That was purposeful—Congress worried …


The Past As Present, Unlearned Lessons And The (Non-) Utility Of International Law, Susan M. Akram Jul 2019

The Past As Present, Unlearned Lessons And The (Non-) Utility Of International Law, Susan M. Akram

Faculty Scholarship

The contemporary moment provides an acute illustration of the dangers of historical amnesia—as if the Trump Administration’s policies of exclusion, extremist nationalism, and presidential imperialism were singular to ‘now,’ and entirely reversible in the next election. This Article argues to the contrary; that we have been down this road before, and the current crisis in immigration and refugee policies is the inevitable development of trends of racism, including anti-Arab, anti-Muslim racism and xenophobia, that have only become normalized by the populist resurgence of Trumpism. If this premise is correct—that we are experiencing a culmination of a historical trajectory—what lessons from …


Who Takes Action To Promote The Health Of Refugees And Migrants, Lawrence O. Gostin, Ibrahim Abubakar, Ranieri Guerra, Sabina F. Rashid, Eric A. Friedman, Zsuzsanna Jakab May 2019

Who Takes Action To Promote The Health Of Refugees And Migrants, Lawrence O. Gostin, Ibrahim Abubakar, Ranieri Guerra, Sabina F. Rashid, Eric A. Friedman, Zsuzsanna Jakab

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Migration is a defining issue of our time, with 1 billion migrants globally, of whom 258 million have crossed borders. Climate change and political instability propel ever-greater displacement, with major detriments to health. Policies that fail to prevent human trafficking or guarantee essential services undermine Universal Health Coverage (UHC) and the global pledge to “leave no one behind.” The World Health Assembly should robustly implement WHO’s Global Action Plan (GAP) on the Health of Refugees and Migrants.ugees and Migrants.


Elusive Justice: The Rohingya Chronic Crisis And The Responsibility To Protect, Sumangala Bhattacharya Apr 2019

Elusive Justice: The Rohingya Chronic Crisis And The Responsibility To Protect, Sumangala Bhattacharya

Loyola of Los Angeles International and Comparative Law Review

No abstract provided.


Assigning Protection: Can Refugee Rights And State Preferences Be Reconciled?, James C. Hathaway Mar 2019

Assigning Protection: Can Refugee Rights And State Preferences Be Reconciled?, James C. Hathaway

Articles

The theoretically global responsibility to protect refugees is today heavily skewed, with just ten countries – predominantly very poor – hosting more than half of the world’s refugee population. Refugee protection has moreover become tantamount to warehousing for most refugees, with roughly half of the world’s refugees stuck in “protracted refugee situations” for decades with their lives on hold. Both concerns – the unprincipled allocation of responsibility based on accidents of geography and the desperate need for greater attention to resettlement as a core protection response – cry out for a global, managed system to protect refugees.


Critiquing Matter Of A-B-: An Uncertain Future In Asylum Proceedings For Women Fleeing Intimate Partner Violence, Theresa A. Vogel Jan 2019

Critiquing Matter Of A-B-: An Uncertain Future In Asylum Proceedings For Women Fleeing Intimate Partner Violence, Theresa A. Vogel

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

The #MeToo movement has brought renewed attention to the impact of gender inequality on our society’s ability to provide protection to women from physical and sexual violence, including intimate partner violence. Despite advances in legal protections and increased resources to prevent, prosecute, and bring an end to intimate partner violence, in the absence of true efforts to combat gender inequality as a whole, intimate partner violence will continue to pervade our society. The discussion of gender inequality’s impact on the treatment of intimate partner violence must expand beyond the violence that occurs in the United States to gender inequality’s impact …


Borders Rules, Beth A. Simmons Jan 2019

Borders Rules, Beth A. Simmons

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

International political borders have historically performed one overriding function: the delimitation of a state’s territorial jurisdiction, but today they are sites of intense security scrutiny and law enforcement. Traditionally they were created to secure peace through territorial independence of political units. Today borders face new pressures from heightened human mobility, economic interdependence (legal and illicit), and perceived challenges from a host of nonstate threats. Research has only begun to reveal what some of these changes mean for the governance of interstate borders. The problems surrounding international borders today go well-beyond traditional delineation and delimitation. These problems call for active forms …


An Attempt To Evade Liability: Australia's Role In Detention Center Abuse And The Refoulement Of Sri Lankan Asylum Seekers In The Context Of The Convention Against Torture, Carson Masters May 2018

An Attempt To Evade Liability: Australia's Role In Detention Center Abuse And The Refoulement Of Sri Lankan Asylum Seekers In The Context Of The Convention Against Torture, Carson Masters

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Justice In Syria: Individual Criminal Liability For Highest Officials In The Assad Regime, Seema Kassab May 2018

Justice In Syria: Individual Criminal Liability For Highest Officials In The Assad Regime, Seema Kassab

Michigan Journal of International Law

Seven years have passed since revolution broke out in Syria in March of 2011. During those six years, hundreds of thousands of Syrians lost their lives, millions of Syrians were internally displaced or left the country seeking refuge, and a beautiful and diverse country was hijacked and terrorized by civil war. Every day in Syria, people are detained, tortured, raped, and killed. Attacks on homes, hospitals, markets, and schools are common occurrences. At this stage of the conflict, there is little doubt that it is the most horrific and dire humanitarian crisis since World War II. The conflict began as …


Climate Change And Human Trafficking After The Paris Agreement, Michael B. Gerrard Mar 2018

Climate Change And Human Trafficking After The Paris Agreement, Michael B. Gerrard

University of Miami Law Review

At least 21 million people globally are victims of human trafficking, typically involving either sexual exploitation or forced labor. This form of modern-day slavery tends to increase after natural disasters or conflicts where large numbers of people are displaced from their homes and become highly vulnerable. In the decades to come, climate change will very likely lead to a large increase in the number of people who are displaced and thus vulnerable to trafficking. The Paris Climate Agreement of 2015 established objectives to limit global temperature increases, but the voluntary pledges made by nearly every country fall far short of …


The Michigan Guidelines On Refugee Freedom Of Movement Jan 2018

The Michigan Guidelines On Refugee Freedom Of Movement

Michigan Journal of International Law

Despite the clear legal foundation of refugee freedom of movement at international law, states are also committed to the deterrence of human smuggling and trafficking, to the maintenance of effective general border controls, to safeguarding the critical interests of receiving communities, and to effectuating safe and dignified repatriation when refugee status comes to an end. Legal obligations to respect refugee freedom of movement therefore co-exist with, and must be reconciled to, other important commitments.