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Human trafficking

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Brief Of Human Rights And Labor Rights Organizations And Experts As Amici Curiae In Support Of Petitioners, Janie A. Chuang Nov 2022

Brief Of Human Rights And Labor Rights Organizations And Experts As Amici Curiae In Support Of Petitioners, Janie A. Chuang

Amicus Briefs

Since Congress first enacted the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, it has expanded and strengthened it through successive reauthorizations. Congress has broadened the scope of the TVPRA in order to impose criminal and civil liability on individuals, corporations, and other legal persons who use, or knowingly benefit from ventures that use, forced labor, as well as those who aid and abet these practices. Through this legislation, Congress has bolstered efforts to hold traffickers accountable, opening the courthouse doors to victims of these egregious crimes.

The Ninth Circuit's decision below undermined the very statutory scheme Congress put in place to …


Justice For All? Impeding The Villainization Of Human Trafficking Victims Via The Expansion Of Vacatur Laws, Sarah Devaney Feb 2022

Justice For All? Impeding The Villainization Of Human Trafficking Victims Via The Expansion Of Vacatur Laws, Sarah Devaney

Pepperdine Law Review

It is common for human trafficking victims to acquire a criminal record as a result of the activities they are forced to engage in whilst being trafficked. Once these victims become survivors, their criminal record hinders them from wholly reacclimating to society. The current state of human trafficking laws provides little to no relief for human trafficking survivors in regard to alleviating their criminal records. Accordingly, human trafficking survivors are perpetually victimized by the United States criminal justice system. This Article explores the current state of human trafficking laws and their enduring effect on survivors. Specifically, the Article examines California’s …


Disaggregating Slavery And The Slave Trade, Jocelyn Getgen Kestenbaum Jan 2022

Disaggregating Slavery And The Slave Trade, Jocelyn Getgen Kestenbaum

FIU Law Review

International law prohibits slavery and the slave trade as peremptory norms, customary international law prohibitions and crimes, humanitarian law prohibitions, and non-derogable human rights. Human rights bodies, however, focus on human trafficking, even when slavery and the slave trade—and not human trafficking—are enumerated within their mandates. International human rights law has conflated human trafficking with slavery and the slave trade. Consequently, human trafficking has subsumed the slave trade and, at times, slavery prohibitions, increasing perpetrator impunity for slavery and the slave trade abuses and denying full expressive justice to survivors. This Article disaggregates slavery from the slave trade and slavery …


Trafficking And The Shallow State, Julie A. Dahlstrom Nov 2021

Trafficking And The Shallow State, Julie A. Dahlstrom

Faculty Scholarship

More than two decades ago, the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) established new, robust protections for immigrant victims of trafficking. In particular, Congress created the T visa, a special form of immigration status, to protect immigrant victims from deportation. Despite lofty ambitions, the annual cap of 5,000 T visas has never been reached, with fewer than 1,200 approved each year. In recent years, denial rates also have climbed. For example, in fiscal year 2020, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services denied 42.79% of the T visa applications that the agency adjudicated, compared with just 28.12% in fiscal year 2015. These developments …


Failed Interventions: Domestic Violence, Human Trafficking, And The Criminalization Of Survival, Alaina Richert Nov 2021

Failed Interventions: Domestic Violence, Human Trafficking, And The Criminalization Of Survival, Alaina Richert

Michigan Law Review

Over the last decade, state legislators have enacted statutes acknowledging the link between criminal behavior and trauma resulting from domestic violence and human trafficking. While these interventions take a step in the right direction, they still have major shortcomings that prevent meaningful relief for survivor-defendants. Until now, there has been no systematic overview of the statutes that require courts to consider a defendant’s history of trauma in the contexts of domestic violence and human trafficking. There has also been no attempt to explore how these statutes relate to each other. This Note fills those gaps. It also identifies essential elements …


Dossier: The Stateless Rohingya—Practical Consequences Of Expulsion, Fiza Lee-Winter, Tonny Kirabira Oct 2021

Dossier: The Stateless Rohingya—Practical Consequences Of Expulsion, Fiza Lee-Winter, Tonny Kirabira

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

The international community has been called upon to ramp up efforts to end statelessness and provided with a guiding framework of 10 Actions. This dossier presents the practical consequences of expulsion, both direct and indirect outcomes of collective violence, directed towards the Rohingyas. Touching upon the nexus between children's rights, human trafficking, and practical challenges associated on-the-ground, the dossier also discusses the imperative need for the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) states—collectively as a region—to take steps in fulfilling Action 7 of the Global Action Plan through the birth registration of Rohingya children as part of their existing efforts …


Early Survivor Voices And Primary Sources. Modern Slavery: A Documentary And Reference Guide By Laura J. Lederer, Sandra Morgan Jun 2021

Early Survivor Voices And Primary Sources. Modern Slavery: A Documentary And Reference Guide By Laura J. Lederer, Sandra Morgan

Dignity: A Journal of Analysis of Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


Sexual Slavery As A War Crime: A Reform Proposal, Alessandro Storchi Apr 2021

Sexual Slavery As A War Crime: A Reform Proposal, Alessandro Storchi

Michigan Journal of International Law

For the first time in the history of international criminal law, the ICC Elements of Crimes included a statutory definition of sexual slavery as a war crime and as a crime against humanity. Such definition is derived from, and in fact almost identical to, the definition of enslavement in the same text. In July 2019, that language for the first time was adopted and applied in the conviction of general Bosco Ntaganda, the first ever conviction for sexual slavery as a war crime and as a crime against humanity at the ICC, as part of the situation in the Democratic …


The Fallacy Of Contract In Sexual Slavery: A Response To Ramseyer's "Contracting For Sex In The Pacific War", Yong-Shik Lee, Natsu Taylor Saito, Jonathan Todres Apr 2021

The Fallacy Of Contract In Sexual Slavery: A Response To Ramseyer's "Contracting For Sex In The Pacific War", Yong-Shik Lee, Natsu Taylor Saito, Jonathan Todres

Michigan Journal of International Law

Over seven decades have passed since the end of the Second World War, but the trauma from the cruelest war in human history continues today, perpetuated by denial of responsibility for the war crimes committed and unjust attempts to rewrite history at the expense of dignity, life, and justice for the victims of the most serious human rights violations. The latest such attempt is a troubling recharacterization of the sexual slavery enforced by Japan during the Second World War as a legitimate contractual arrangement. A recent paper authored by J. Mark Ramseyer, entitled “Contracting for Sex in the Pacific War,” …


Sorting Out Concern: European Attitudes Toward Human Trafficking, Jennifer A. Cheek, Lindsey Peterson Feb 2021

Sorting Out Concern: European Attitudes Toward Human Trafficking, Jennifer A. Cheek, Lindsey Peterson

Societies Without Borders

Human trafficking is a global phenomenon, which is sometimes conflated with other cross-national social problems. While trafficking certainly occurs within countries, much of it occurs across borders. In this paper we examine one of the only available datasets that addresses individual concern about human trafficking: the Eurobarometer 2003. Individual concern about human trafficking matters, especially in democracies, because government policy is in part shaped by citizen preferences. When democratic governments are not responsive to citizens, they risk being voted out in the next election cycle. What we find is that concern for human trafficking varies by gender, age, marital status, …


A Bibliometric Analysis Of Human Trafficking In The Wake Of Natural Disasters, Shashikala Gurpur Dr, Manika Kamthan Dr, Vartika Tiwari Ms. Feb 2021

A Bibliometric Analysis Of Human Trafficking In The Wake Of Natural Disasters, Shashikala Gurpur Dr, Manika Kamthan Dr, Vartika Tiwari Ms.

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

This study is based on the bibliometric analysis of research publications that focus on highlighting the interlinkages between natural disasters and human trafficking as its aftermath. The main objectives of the study are to determine the frequency of such publications and also to establish that the problem of trafficking as a result of natural disasters has not received enough attention from the researchers. The data was collected from the Scopus database using VOSviewer software. Literature written from 2000 to October 2020 were perused. The study consisted of a total of 66 documents which are classified into articles, letters, editorials conference …


Is Human Trafficking A Crime That Should Not Be Subject To Any Statute Of Limitations, Maria Barraco Jan 2021

Is Human Trafficking A Crime That Should Not Be Subject To Any Statute Of Limitations, Maria Barraco

Human Rights Brief

No abstract provided.


Reforming The Legal Process: An End To Human Trafficking In Latin America, Miranda Carnes Jan 2021

Reforming The Legal Process: An End To Human Trafficking In Latin America, Miranda Carnes

Human Rights Brief

No abstract provided.


Increasing Case Traffic: Expanding The International Criminal Court's Focus On Human Trafficking Cases, Nadia Alhadi Aug 2020

Increasing Case Traffic: Expanding The International Criminal Court's Focus On Human Trafficking Cases, Nadia Alhadi

Michigan Journal of International Law

Human trafficking falls within the jurisdictional competence of the International Criminal Court (“ICC”) as one of the article 7 crimes against humanity, whether committed in an atmosphere of conflict or in times of relative peace. Despite the ICC’s jurisdiction, as well as the globally pervasive nature of peacetime trafficking in particular, the ICC has not yet heard a human trafficking case.

Accountability at the international level, however, is crucial, and the ICC’s oversight has the potential to fill gaps in the current anti-trafficking regime. This note explores this potential, and then examines whether the text of the Rome Statute or …


Oppression Or Occupation: Conflicting Views On The Nature Of Sex Work In France And Under International Law, Carver Wolfe Jul 2020

Oppression Or Occupation: Conflicting Views On The Nature Of Sex Work In France And Under International Law, Carver Wolfe

Politics and International Relations Presentations

Although there is some debate over the exact number of victims of sex trafficking, it is agreed upon that it is an issue that affect primarily women and girls around the world. This paper will examine modern day slavery and the unresolved, century-old debate surrounding sex trafficking and sex work. While abolitionists advocate for total eradication of all sex work, whether it is consensual or not, libertarians support the right to voluntary sex work while condemning the coercion and exploitation that surrounds all forms of trafficking. I will use an analysis of international conventions and will begin a comparative analysis …


Oppression Or Occupation: An International Analysis Of Sex Work And Sex Trafficking, Carver Wolfe Jul 2020

Oppression Or Occupation: An International Analysis Of Sex Work And Sex Trafficking, Carver Wolfe

International Relations Summer Fellows

Although there is some debate over the exact number of victims of sex trafficking, it is agreed that it is an issue that affects primarily women and girls around the world. This paper will examine modern-day slavery and the unresolved, century-old debate surrounding sex trafficking and sex work. While abolitionists advocate for the total eradication of all sex work, whether it is consensual or not, libertarians support the right to voluntary sex work while condemning the coercion and exploitation that surrounds all forms of trafficking. I will use an analysis of international conventions and will begin a comparative analysis by …


The Public Health Approach To Human Trafficking Prevention, Jordan Greenbaum Md Jun 2020

The Public Health Approach To Human Trafficking Prevention, Jordan Greenbaum Md

Georgia State University Law Review

Sex and labor trafficking of adults and children are global public health issues that demand a public health approach to eradication. Rigorous scientific research is needed to create an evidence base that drives multi-sector collaborative prevention efforts addressing trafficking at all levels of the socioecological model. Programs need to be evaluated carefully and modified accordingly, then scaled up to disseminate critical information to the large body of people at risk of exploitation. Legal professionals have an important role to play in combatting human trafficking by educating themselves, their colleagues and clients, and the public, as well as advocating for legislative …


Uncovering The "Hidden Crime" Of Human Trafficking By Empowering Individuals To Respond, Laura Shoop Jun 2020

Uncovering The "Hidden Crime" Of Human Trafficking By Empowering Individuals To Respond, Laura Shoop

Georgia State University Law Review

This Note will examine current state law promoting awareness of human trafficking and identification of trafficking survivors in the United States and make recommendations as to what further measures, if any, state legislators should take to increase awareness, identification, and reporting of human trafficking. Part I explains the history and development of human trafficking legislation at the federal and state levels. Part II analyzes the methods that states currently use to promote public awareness and identification. Part III discusses a proposal for amending current state law to better encourage and facilitate awareness of human trafficking and the identification and reporting …


Preventing Trafficking Through New Global Governance Over Labor Migration, Janie A. Chuang Jun 2020

Preventing Trafficking Through New Global Governance Over Labor Migration, Janie A. Chuang

Georgia State University Law Review

This Article offers initial thoughts on the possible impacts the GCM might have on global efforts to prevent and address trafficking, focusing on the newly elevated role of the IOM in this endeavor. Based on arguments I have made elsewhere, my analysis takes as a given that a normative, rights-based approach to migrant work is necessary to prevent migrant worker exploitation and abuse from escalating into trafficking. From that perspective, the Article explores the possibility that, in advising States on GCM implementation, the IOM could take a more proactive role in advancing workers’ rights in furtherance of the longer-term goal …


Understanding Risk And Prevention In Midwestern Antitrafficking Efforts: Service Providers' Perspectives, Hannah E. Britton Ph.D. Jun 2020

Understanding Risk And Prevention In Midwestern Antitrafficking Efforts: Service Providers' Perspectives, Hannah E. Britton Ph.D.

Georgia State University Law Review

Since the 2000 passage of both the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) and the U.N.’s Palermo Protocols, human trafficking has gained a notable global presence as a human rights concern. Community organizations, nonprofits, scholars, policymakers, and service providers have developed programs to identify and address human trafficking. Despite these efforts, finding reliable methods to document and quantify the instances of human trafficking continues to challenge researchers. Moreover, many believe trafficking is a problem primarily located in urban areas or along national borders.

Drawing from seven years of interviews with service providers who work in this sector, combined with survey results …


Toward Trauma-Informed Professional Practices: What Legal Advocates And Journalists Can Learn From Each Other And Survivors Of Human Trafficking, Kirsten Foot Ph.D. Jun 2020

Toward Trauma-Informed Professional Practices: What Legal Advocates And Journalists Can Learn From Each Other And Survivors Of Human Trafficking, Kirsten Foot Ph.D.

Georgia State University Law Review

Developments in the fields of law and journalism during the last two decades have led to greater awareness of the need for trauma-informed practices vis-à-vis survivors of violence, and correspondingly, the emergence of pedagogical resources for legal advocates and journalists. Due to traditional disciplinary silos, extant resources on trauma-informed practices in each field have been authored in relative isolation from each other, i.e., guides for legal advocates have been blind to guides for journalists and vice versa. This Article demonstrates that despite the obvious differences between lawyering and journalism, professionals in these two fields share some of the same aims …


Medical-Legal Collaboration And Community Partnerships: Prioritizing Prevention Of Human Trafficking In Federally Qualified Health Centers, Kimberly S.G. Chang Md, Mph, Hamida Yusufzai, Anna Marjavi Jun 2020

Medical-Legal Collaboration And Community Partnerships: Prioritizing Prevention Of Human Trafficking In Federally Qualified Health Centers, Kimberly S.G. Chang Md, Mph, Hamida Yusufzai, Anna Marjavi

Georgia State University Law Review

Human trafficking (HT) is increasingly recognized as a public health issue, and its severe consequences affect some of society’s most vulnerable members. Prioritizing prevention is a critical component of a public health framework when addressing HT, and the health care delivery system plays a crucial role in operationalizing primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention interventions. As a significant part of the primary care system in the U.S., Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) are uniquely positioned to be the first point of contact with the health care system for people at risk for and affected by HT. FQHCs provide many preventive services, …


The Limits And Possibilities Of Data-Driven Antitrafficking Efforts, Jennifer Musto Ph.D. May 2020

The Limits And Possibilities Of Data-Driven Antitrafficking Efforts, Jennifer Musto Ph.D.

Georgia State University Law Review

An examination of technology in the countertrafficking space reveals recurring tensions between law enforcement and rights-based approaches. It also illuminates assumptions, such as the one that posits more law enforcement-focused, nonstate-actor-supported data-driven efforts are necessary to securing justice for people in trafficking situations. However, a closer look at how technology is used and by whom also invites us to ask different questions and to leverage the power of our all-too-human creative potential in thinking about how to value and prioritize data ethics, transparency, and accountability in future countertrafficking work.


Prosecuting Human Trafficking In The Wake Of Epstein: A Proposal For The Implementation Of Aggravated Human Trafficking Statutes, Katherine F. Erickson, Lynette A. Dalley Apr 2020

Prosecuting Human Trafficking In The Wake Of Epstein: A Proposal For The Implementation Of Aggravated Human Trafficking Statutes, Katherine F. Erickson, Lynette A. Dalley

Brigham Young University Prelaw Review

In June of 2008, Jeffrey Epstein plead guilty in a Florida court on

two counts of felony prostitution for nonconsensual sex acts against

two girls under eighteen. Evidence showed, however, that the true

scope of his crime encompassed dozens of underage girls. He

was sentenced to eighteen months in jail but ended up only serving

thirteen. Because of the terms of his prison sentence, Epstein

was allowed to leave the jail during the day for work release.


The Elastic Meaning(S) Of Human Trafficking, Julie A. Dahlstrom Apr 2020

The Elastic Meaning(S) Of Human Trafficking, Julie A. Dahlstrom

Faculty Scholarship

What is human trafficking? When is an expansive definition of trafficking justifiable? How does trafficking relate to other concepts—like domestic violence, sexual assault, labor exploitation, and prostitution—with which it often overlaps? These questions have become increasingly salient after the U.S. Congress defined the crime of human trafficking in the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 (“TVPA”). Since then, all fifty states have passed legislation with varying definitions of the crime. Congress also has re-entered the field with subsequent legislation, expanding the crime to capture new conduct.

As a result of legislative advocacy and judicial interpretation, the legal …


Special Coverage Jan 2020

Special Coverage

Human Rights Brief

No abstract provided.


Prevention And Protection Interventions For Stateless Non-Refugee And Force Displaced Children, Tanya Herring Nov 2019

Prevention And Protection Interventions For Stateless Non-Refugee And Force Displaced Children, Tanya Herring

New England Journal of Public Policy

This article advances a general theory of law and justice that would expand the Palermo Trafficking and Smuggling Protocols to a wider application in human rights jurisprudence. The aim of the research reported here is to close the gaps in member-state policy and scholarship that addresses prevention measures and protection mechanisms for forcibly displaced children seeking self-determination in states that have not ratified the UN Convention on Refugees and the UN Conventions on Statelessness. The research is based on the premise that a stateless nonrefugee status constructs an extremely vulnerable state for children during forced migration and when they are …


Up To The Task: Utilizing Collaboration To Combat Trafficking In Persons, Claire Schalin Jun 2019

Up To The Task: Utilizing Collaboration To Combat Trafficking In Persons, Claire Schalin

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

In this article, I will define trafficking and dispel some common myths that people believe about trafficking. This section will explain trafficking’s many forms and will demonstrate how trafficking can be a stationary crime rather than one requiring movement. Next, I will give a history of the legislation surrounding trafficking and common approaches to curbing the trafficking problem including arguments on both sides of decriminalization. In this section, I will present a country comparison on how different countries approach traffickers and victims of trafficking in their efforts to reduce trafficking in general. In addition to analyzing how varying countries address …


Bound By Silence: Psychological Effects Of The Traditional Oath Ceremony Used In The Sex Trafficking Of Nigerian Women And Girls, Jennifer Millett-Barrett Jun 2019

Bound By Silence: Psychological Effects Of The Traditional Oath Ceremony Used In The Sex Trafficking Of Nigerian Women And Girls, Jennifer Millett-Barrett

Dignity: A Journal of Analysis of Exploitation and Violence

Nigerian women and children have been trafficked to Italy over the last 30 years for commercial sexual exploitation with an alarming increase in the past three years. The Central Mediterranean Route that runs from West African countries to Italy is rife with organized crime gangs that have created a highly successful trafficking operation. As part of the recruitment process, the Nigerian mafia and its operatives exploit victims by subjecting them to a traditional religious juju oath ceremony, which is an extremely effective control mechanism to silence victims and trap them in debt bondage. This study explores the psychological effects of …


Human Rights Violations Consequent To Transshipment Practices In Fisheries, Chelsey F. Marto Jan 2019

Human Rights Violations Consequent To Transshipment Practices In Fisheries, Chelsey F. Marto

Ocean and Coastal Law Journal

Transshipment, the process of transferring catch from a small fishing vessel onto a larger fishing vessel far off shore, has been used to commit a variety of human rights abuses on the sea. Companies can get away with this because there is little to no oversight over the activities. Yet, there has been little to no incentive to change these practices, because companies are generally not penalized for these actions. The author proposes a variety of tactics be implemented in addressing these concerns. These include imposition of sanctions upon countries who allow for nefarious activities, increased video surveillance on board …