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Full-Text Articles in Law

Brief Of Human Rights And Labor Rights Organizations And Experts As Amici Curiae In Support Of Petitioners, Janie A. Chuang Nov 2022

Brief Of Human Rights And Labor Rights Organizations And Experts As Amici Curiae In Support Of Petitioners, Janie A. Chuang

Amicus Briefs

Since Congress first enacted the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, it has expanded and strengthened it through successive reauthorizations. Congress has broadened the scope of the TVPRA in order to impose criminal and civil liability on individuals, corporations, and other legal persons who use, or knowingly benefit from ventures that use, forced labor, as well as those who aid and abet these practices. Through this legislation, Congress has bolstered efforts to hold traffickers accountable, opening the courthouse doors to victims of these egregious crimes.

The Ninth Circuit's decision below undermined the very statutory scheme Congress put in place to …


Human Rights In The Era Of Artificial Intelligence “Figures, Opinions And Solutions”, Dr. Heidi Issa Hassan Nov 2022

Human Rights In The Era Of Artificial Intelligence “Figures, Opinions And Solutions”, Dr. Heidi Issa Hassan

مجلة جامعة الإمارات للبحوث القانونية UAEU LAW JOURNAL

Technology has cast its shadow on us in most aspects of our lives and nothing has escaped its grip even human intelligence. Human intelligence now has a major rival known as "artificial intelligence" (AI). The main question is can machines think like humans?!

Since AI involves, in part, the dispensation with humans, then it is a matter that affects human rights, regardless of the manifestations, consequences or even scope of this dispensation.

Accordingly, this study has several problems to tackle: 1) the absence of adequate binding national and international provisions governing AI, 2) AI systems involve changing the way businesses …


Testimony, Free Speech Under Attack: The Legal Assault On Environmental Activists And The First Amendment, Anita Ramasastry Sep 2022

Testimony, Free Speech Under Attack: The Legal Assault On Environmental Activists And The First Amendment, Anita Ramasastry

Presentations

No abstract provided.


Rurality As An Intersecting Axis Of Inequality In The Work Of The U.N. Treaty Bodies, Amanda Lyons Jul 2022

Rurality As An Intersecting Axis Of Inequality In The Work Of The U.N. Treaty Bodies, Amanda Lyons

Washington and Lee Law Review

Rurality intersects with other identities, power dynamics, and structural inequalities—including those related to gender, race, disability, and age—to create unique patterns of human rights deprivations, violations, and challenges in rural spaces. Therefore, accurately assessing human rights and duties in rural spaces requires attention to the dynamics of rurality in a particular context, the unique nature of diverse rural identities and livelihoods, the systemic forces operating in and on those spaces, and the intersections with other forms of structural discrimination and inequality.

Although much of the work of the U.N. treaty bodies has in fact addressed human rights situations in rural …


Biometrics And An Ai Bill Of Rights, Margaret Hu Jul 2022

Biometrics And An Ai Bill Of Rights, Margaret Hu

Faculty Publications

This Article contends that an informed discussion on an AI Bill of Rights requires grappling with biometric data collection and its integration into emerging AI systems. Biometric AI systems serve a wide range of governmental purposes, including policing, border security and immigration enforcement, and biometric cyberintelligence and biometric-enabled warfare. These systems are increasingly categorized as "high-risk" when deployed in ways that may impact fundamental constitutional rights and human rights. There is growing recognition that high-risk biometric AI systems, such as facial recognition identification, can pose unprecedented challenges to criminal procedure rights. This Article concludes that a failure to recognize these …


Gender-Based Violence In Pakistan And Public Health Measures: A Call To Action, Azza Sarfraz, Zouina Sarfraz, Muzna Sarfraz, Zul Qarnain Jul 2022

Gender-Based Violence In Pakistan And Public Health Measures: A Call To Action, Azza Sarfraz, Zouina Sarfraz, Muzna Sarfraz, Zul Qarnain

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

No abstract provided.


"In Countless Ways And On An Unprecedented Scale": Reflections On The Stockholm Declaration At 50, Rebecca Bratspies Jun 2022

"In Countless Ways And On An Unprecedented Scale": Reflections On The Stockholm Declaration At 50, Rebecca Bratspies

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Conference: The 1972 Stockholm Declaration At Fifty: Reflecting On A Half-Century Of International Environmental Law / International Environmental Law At Its Semicentennial: The Stockholm Legacy / Hosted By The Dean Rusk International Law Center And The Georgia Journal Of International And Comparative Law On October 8, 2021 In Athens, Georgia And Online, Melissa J. Durkee Jun 2022

Conference: The 1972 Stockholm Declaration At Fifty: Reflecting On A Half-Century Of International Environmental Law / International Environmental Law At Its Semicentennial: The Stockholm Legacy / Hosted By The Dean Rusk International Law Center And The Georgia Journal Of International And Comparative Law On October 8, 2021 In Athens, Georgia And Online, Melissa J. Durkee

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Three Observations About Justice Alito's Draft Opinion In Dobbs - Commentary, John M. Greabe May 2022

Three Observations About Justice Alito's Draft Opinion In Dobbs - Commentary, John M. Greabe

Law Faculty Scholarship

[Excerpt] "There is much to say about Justice Samuel Alito's draft opinion in Dobbs v. Jackson Women's Health Organization, which was leaked from the United States Supreme Court on May 2 [2022].

Obviously, the most significant direct consequence of the proposed decision, which overrules Roe v. Wade (1973) and Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992) while upholding the constitutionality of a Mississippi law that outlaws most abortions after 15 weeks of pregnancy, would be the restriction or elimination of abortion services throughout much of the nation. This will have all sorts of attendant consequences, large and smaller, many of which …


The Iachr’S Comprehensive Response To The Covid-19 Pandemic And Its Intersectional Impacts On Human Rights, Antonia Urrejola Noguera, Soledad Garcia Muñoz May 2022

The Iachr’S Comprehensive Response To The Covid-19 Pandemic And Its Intersectional Impacts On Human Rights, Antonia Urrejola Noguera, Soledad Garcia Muñoz

University of Miami International and Comparative Law Review

The region of the Americas is facing unprecedented humanitarian and social challenges as a consequence of the Covid-19 pandemic. As such, the regional institutions need to deliver rapid and effective responses to the region’s inhabitants. In this way, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (hereinafter IACHR or the Commission) has aimed to deliver a timely answer so that States, the Civil Society, and stakeholders can assure individuals that the treatment of the pandemic incorporates a human rights approach from the Inter-American System’s framework. The purpose of this work will be to give a brief takeaway on how the IACHR has …


The Duty To Protect Survivors Of Gender-Based Violence In The Age Of Covid-19: An Expanded Human Rights Framework, Caroline Bettinger-Lopez, R. Denisse Córdova Montes, Max Zoberman May 2022

The Duty To Protect Survivors Of Gender-Based Violence In The Age Of Covid-19: An Expanded Human Rights Framework, Caroline Bettinger-Lopez, R. Denisse Córdova Montes, Max Zoberman

University of Miami International and Comparative Law Review

Many commentators have referred to domestic violence and other forms of gender-based violence (GBV) in the age of COVID-19 as a “double pandemic.” Based on results of a mixed-methods study on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on GBV in South Florida, conducted by the Human Rights Clinic of the University of Miami School of Law, in close collaboration with community-based organizations,1 this article offers a proposal for an expanded normative human rights framework to address domestic violence and other forms of GBV. The local study sought to elucidate the pathways that link pandemics such as COVID-19 and GBV, highlight …


The Right To Food Comes To America, Wendy Heipt Apr 2022

The Right To Food Comes To America, Wendy Heipt

Journal of Food Law & Policy

The people of Maine recently exercised an opportunity no citizen of this country has ever had before: the ability to vote on whether to enshrine a right to food in their state constitution. This Essay provides an overview of Maine’s experience with food rights in order to explain how the state came to occupy this unique position.


Irregular Migration In Morocco: A Case For Constructionism, Mourad Khalil Apr 2022

Irregular Migration In Morocco: A Case For Constructionism, Mourad Khalil

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Separated by only 14 kilometers of water from Spain, Morocco has become a common destination for many sub-Saharan irregular migrants trying to reach Europe. With a large population of these migrants, Morocco has had to make important decisions on how to manage its irregular migrant population. However, the terrible conditions and regular violations of human rights that irregular migrants in Morocco are subject to lead one to ponder the role that international relations has and the extent to which human rights is a consideration in the policymaking of irregular migration. Applied to the three primary theories of international relations, liberalism, …


Transnational Migrant Deterrence, Anita Sinha Apr 2022

Transnational Migrant Deterrence, Anita Sinha

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

The governance of global migration increasingly relies on what critical migration scholarship refers to as externalized control. Externalization encompasses limiting human mobility through the imposition of migration control measures by transit states, as well as by states that are geographically proximate to destination states. Destination states are at a minimum complicit in the creation and operation of these externalized migration control systems. To capture this phenomenon, this Article offers a reconceptualization of externalization as transnational migration deterrence. The objective ofthis nomenclature is to provide a framework that highlights the role of destination states, to build a lexicon of accountability for …


Canadian Corporations Bound By The Phoenix: Setting The Path For The United States, Kelly Brickman Mar 2022

Canadian Corporations Bound By The Phoenix: Setting The Path For The United States, Kelly Brickman

The Global Business Law Review

This Note argues that the United States courts have jurisdiction to consider corporate liability for international law violations of human rights under the reasoning of the Supreme Court of Canada, in Nevsun Resources Ltd. v. Araya. The United States Supreme Court has escaped holding such liability exists, but Canada has outlined how countries, such as the United States, no longer can avoid holding corporations liable under customary international law. Corporate liability for human rights violations committed abroad is a cutting-edge issue. The United States Supreme Court has considered the issue before, but the Court used different analyses and was …


The Human Rights Due Diligence Standard-Setting In The European Union: Bridging The Gap Between Ambition And Reality, Jernej Letnar Černič Mar 2022

The Human Rights Due Diligence Standard-Setting In The European Union: Bridging The Gap Between Ambition And Reality, Jernej Letnar Černič

The Global Business Law Review

Globalization has, over the past decades, erased borders between continents and countries. It has propelled international trade to previously unforeseen heights. Nonetheless, it has brought about not only positive impact, but also negative consequences for individuals and communities worldwide. Businesses have often been alleged to have been directly or indirectly involved in human rights violations. On the other hand, rights-holders have often found it difficult to enforce corporate human rights obligations and accountability either at home or abroad. Nonetheless, the field of business and human rights has in recent years witnessed seminal developments from the adoption of binding laws in …


History Repeating Itself: The Resurgence Of The Taliban And The Abandonment Of Afghan Women, Hannah Bogaert Mar 2022

History Repeating Itself: The Resurgence Of The Taliban And The Abandonment Of Afghan Women, Hannah Bogaert

Immigration and Human Rights Law Review

For two decades the United States and its allies fought against the Taliban in Afghanistan. After the U.S. withdrawal from Afghanistan in late 2021, the Taliban has once again claimed the power of the country. The Taliban has already begun to implement restrictions that deny Afghan women their human rights. This article will outline the Taliban’s disregard for the International Bill of Human Rights, analyzing the Taliban’s observance of human rights before the U.S. invasion in 2001, post- U.S. withdrawal expressions by the Taliban in 2021, and post-U.S. withdrawal actions in 2021. Finally, this article will analyze different actions available …


Neuroscience, Criminal Sentencing, And Human Rights, Elizabeth Shaw Mar 2022

Neuroscience, Criminal Sentencing, And Human Rights, Elizabeth Shaw

William & Mary Law Review

This Article discusses ways in which neuroscience should inform criminal sentencing in the future. Specifically, it compares the ethical permissibility of traditional forms of punishment, such as incarceration, on the one hand, and rehabilitative “neurointerventions” on the other. Rehabilitative neurointerventions are interventions that aim directly to modify brain activity in order to reduce reoffending. Various jurisdictions are already using techniques that could be classed as neurointerventions, and research suggests that, potentially, an even wider range of rehabilitative neurointerventions may be developed. This Article examines the role of human rights (in particular, the moral right to mental integrity and the legal …


Ccsi’S Consolidated Feedback On The Wba Draft Nature Benchmark Methodology, Columbia Center On Sustainable Investment Mar 2022

Ccsi’S Consolidated Feedback On The Wba Draft Nature Benchmark Methodology, Columbia Center On Sustainable Investment

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment Staff Publications

Private sector actors are paying more attention to their negative impacts on climate, nature, and biodiversity. CCSI engages with private sector initiatives, frameworks, and benchmarks in this area to ensure the core corporate responsibility to respect human rights is prioritized and addressed.

As part of this work, in March and April 2022, CCSI submitted comments to and engaged with the World Benchmarking Alliance on their Draft Methodology for their Nature and Biodiversity Benchmark. The World Benchmarking Alliance is a leading multi-stakeholder organization which creates benchmarks to publicly assess and rank the world's most influential companies on their contributions to …


Justice For All? Impeding The Villainization Of Human Trafficking Victims Via The Expansion Of Vacatur Laws, Sarah Devaney Feb 2022

Justice For All? Impeding The Villainization Of Human Trafficking Victims Via The Expansion Of Vacatur Laws, Sarah Devaney

Pepperdine Law Review

It is common for human trafficking victims to acquire a criminal record as a result of the activities they are forced to engage in whilst being trafficked. Once these victims become survivors, their criminal record hinders them from wholly reacclimating to society. The current state of human trafficking laws provides little to no relief for human trafficking survivors in regard to alleviating their criminal records. Accordingly, human trafficking survivors are perpetually victimized by the United States criminal justice system. This Article explores the current state of human trafficking laws and their enduring effect on survivors. Specifically, the Article examines California’s …


One Of The Greatest Human Tragedies Of Our Time: The U.N., Biden, And A Missed Opportunity To Abolish Immigration Prisons, Lauren E. Bartlett Jan 2022

One Of The Greatest Human Tragedies Of Our Time: The U.N., Biden, And A Missed Opportunity To Abolish Immigration Prisons, Lauren E. Bartlett

Mitchell Hamline Law Journal of Public Policy and Practice

No abstract provided.


Never Again? The United Nations And Genocide: A Doomed Mission?, Maria Terrinoni Jan 2022

Never Again? The United Nations And Genocide: A Doomed Mission?, Maria Terrinoni

Capstone Showcase

Despite their commitment to international peace and security and to the concept of “never again,” the United Nations has failed to end the many genocides of the late 20th century. In this thesis, I use the genocides in Rwanda (1994) and in the Yugoslav Wars (1991-1999) as case studies to understand the UN’s response to genocide and to attempt to understand why the UN cannot effectively respond to and end genocide. I discover that issues such as the limitations of the Genocide Convention, the importance of state sovereignty, and overall institutional failures of the United Nation make any attempt to …


Disaggregating Slavery And The Slave Trade, Jocelyn Getgen Kestenbaum Jan 2022

Disaggregating Slavery And The Slave Trade, Jocelyn Getgen Kestenbaum

FIU Law Review

International law prohibits slavery and the slave trade as peremptory norms, customary international law prohibitions and crimes, humanitarian law prohibitions, and non-derogable human rights. Human rights bodies, however, focus on human trafficking, even when slavery and the slave trade—and not human trafficking—are enumerated within their mandates. International human rights law has conflated human trafficking with slavery and the slave trade. Consequently, human trafficking has subsumed the slave trade and, at times, slavery prohibitions, increasing perpetrator impunity for slavery and the slave trade abuses and denying full expressive justice to survivors. This Article disaggregates slavery from the slave trade and slavery …


White Supremacy, Police Brutality, And Family Separation: Preventing Crimes Against Humanity Within The United States, Elena Baylis Jan 2022

White Supremacy, Police Brutality, And Family Separation: Preventing Crimes Against Humanity Within The United States, Elena Baylis

Articles

Although the United States tends to treat crimes against humanity as a danger that exists only in authoritarian or war-torn states, in fact, there is a real risk of crimes against humanity occurring within the United States, as illustrated by events such as systemic police brutality against Black Americans, the federal government’s family separation policy that took thousands of immigrant children from their parents at the southern border, and the dramatic escalation of White supremacist and extremist violence culminating in the January 6, 2021 attack on the U.S. Capitol. In spite of this risk, the United States does not have …


Voices From Below—Africa’S Contribution To The Development Of The Norm Of Corporate Responsibility To Respect Human Rights, Akinwumi Olawuyi Ogunranti Jan 2022

Voices From Below—Africa’S Contribution To The Development Of The Norm Of Corporate Responsibility To Respect Human Rights, Akinwumi Olawuyi Ogunranti

PhD Dissertations

The long conversations about corporate responsibility predominantly take place in forums and conferences in the Global North. Yet, the majority of the human rights abuses and their impacts are felt by peasants, farmers, children, and women in local communities in the Global South who do not have a voice in the institutionalized governance systems that animate global affairs. This thesis answers the question of how norms and human rights institutions in Africa can influence the corporate responsibility to respect (CR2R) norm as embedded in pillar II of the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights. Through the theory …


Revisiting A Jurisprudence Of Obligation, Ariel Evan Mayse, Kenneth A. Bamberger Jan 2022

Revisiting A Jurisprudence Of Obligation, Ariel Evan Mayse, Kenneth A. Bamberger

Touro Law Review

Through his landmark exploration of obligation as the conceptual touchstone of what he describes as the “Jewish jurisprudence of the social order,” Robert Cover offered an alternate language for legal regimes grounded in a rhetoric of individual rights. The present essay revisits Cover’s account of the socially embedded nature of law and juridical process, taking seriously both its claims, as well as the cautions of its critics. The essay thus neither abandons the concept of rights as key to jurisprudence nor seeks to present a naïve or romantic characterization of Jewish legal thought, and proceeds wary of the pitfalls inherent …


Judicial Activism In Transnational Business And Human Rights Litigation, Hassan M. Ahmad Jan 2022

Judicial Activism In Transnational Business And Human Rights Litigation, Hassan M. Ahmad

All Faculty Publications

This article explores a more expansive adjudicative role for domestic judiciaries in the U.S., U.K., and Canada in private law disputes that concern personal and environmental harm by multinational corporations that operate in the Global South. This expansive role may confront—although not necessarily upend—existing understandings around the separation of powers in common law jurisdictions. I canvass existing literature on judicial activism. Then, I detail legality gaps in the selected common law home states, which can be broken down into four categories: i) failed legislation; ii) deficient legislation; iii) judicial restraint; and iv) judicial deference.

I suggest three ways to actualize …


The Anti-Human Rights Machine: Digital Authoritarianism And The Global Assault On Human Rights, Richard Ashby Wilson Jan 2022

The Anti-Human Rights Machine: Digital Authoritarianism And The Global Assault On Human Rights, Richard Ashby Wilson

Faculty Articles and Papers

Across the world, governments and state-aligned actors increasingly target human rights defenders online using techniques such as surveillance, censorship, harassment, and incitement, which together have been termed “digital authoritarianism.” We currently know little about the concrete effects on human rights defenders of digital authoritarianism as researchers have focused primarily on hate speech targeting religious, national, and ethnic minority groups. This article analyzes the effects of digital authoritarianism in two countries with among the highest rates of killings of human rights defenders in the world; Colombia and Guatemala. Anti-human rights speech in these countries portrays defenders as Marxist terrorists who are …


Examining The Social Security Tribunal’S Navigator Service: Access To Administrative Justice For Marginalized Communities, Laverne Jacobs, Sule Tomkinson Jan 2022

Examining The Social Security Tribunal’S Navigator Service: Access To Administrative Justice For Marginalized Communities, Laverne Jacobs, Sule Tomkinson

Law Publications

An accessible MS Word version of this document is available for download at the bottom of this screen under "Additional files."

This report provides the findings, analysis and recommendations of a research study conducted on the federal Social Security Tribunal’s Navigator Service (SST Navigator Service). The SST Navigator Service was established in 2019 for tribunal users without a professional representative. The study examines the use of the Navigator Service for Canada Pension Plan–Disability (CPP–Disability) appeals heard by the Income Security - General Division of the Social Security Tribunal.

This research study focuses on access to administrative justice on the …


A Lineage Of Family Separation, Anita Sinha Jan 2022

A Lineage Of Family Separation, Anita Sinha

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

This article is rooted in the belief that the articulation of shared narrative histories advances the pursuit of justice. Acknowledging shared histories, including narratives that justify unjust practices has been a shortcoming in the United States, particularly when it comes to racial injustice. Included in this oversight is the history of executing and sanctioning family separation. The US government's separation of families under the "zero tolerance" policy, which was in effect over approximately two and a half months, drew national and international criticism.