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Full-Text Articles in Law

Human Rights, Human Duties: Making A Rights-Based Case For Community-Based Restorative Justice, Aparna Polavarapu Oct 2024

Human Rights, Human Duties: Making A Rights-Based Case For Community-Based Restorative Justice, Aparna Polavarapu

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

Restorative justice is often framed as an alternative to the criminal legal system, and thus justifications of restorative justice tend to be rooted in the language of the criminal system. However, this approach limits our way of thinking about the practice of restorative justice, especially non-state, community-based practices. This Article argues for an independent, rights-based justification to support these community-based practices. By offering an in-depth analysis originating from a rights-based perspective, this Article engages with two underdeveloped areas of scholarly literature and suggests a new way of thinking about the day-to-day practice of restorative justice through a human rights lens. …


The World Health Organization Was Born As A Normative Agency: Seventy-Five Years Of Global Health Law Under Who Governance, Lawrence O. Gostin, Benjamin Mason Meier, Safura Abdool Karim, Judith Bueno De Mesquita, Gian Luca Burci, Danwood Chirwa, Alexandra Finch, Eric A. Friedman, Roojin Habibi, Sam F. Halabi, Tsung-Ling Lee, Brigit Toebes, Pedro Villarreal Apr 2024

The World Health Organization Was Born As A Normative Agency: Seventy-Five Years Of Global Health Law Under Who Governance, Lawrence O. Gostin, Benjamin Mason Meier, Safura Abdool Karim, Judith Bueno De Mesquita, Gian Luca Burci, Danwood Chirwa, Alexandra Finch, Eric A. Friedman, Roojin Habibi, Sam F. Halabi, Tsung-Ling Lee, Brigit Toebes, Pedro Villarreal

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The World Health Organization (WHO) was born as a normative agency and has looked to global health law to structure collective action to realize global health with justice. Framed by its constitutional authority to act as the directing and coordinating authority on international health, WHO has long been seen as the central actor in the development and implementation of global health law. However, WHO has faced challenges in advancing law to prevent disease and promote health over the past 75 years, with global health law constrained by new health actors, shifting normative frameworks, and soft law diplomacy. These challenges were …


Evaluating The Administrative Detention Policy Between International Standards And Situation In The Occupied Palestinian Territory: The Role Of The Israeli Supreme Court In Consolidating Administrative Detention Against Palestinians, Ahmed Tareq Beshtawi, Nourhan Barahmi, Muath Madmouj Apr 2024

Evaluating The Administrative Detention Policy Between International Standards And Situation In The Occupied Palestinian Territory: The Role Of The Israeli Supreme Court In Consolidating Administrative Detention Against Palestinians, Ahmed Tareq Beshtawi, Nourhan Barahmi, Muath Madmouj

An-Najah University Journal for Research - B (Humanities)

The series of Israeli violations of human rights began with the start of Israel's occupation of Palestinian territories and continues until now. The occupying authorities have committed numerous violations and racist policies against the Palestinian people, which constitute a clear and explicit violation of international law. One of the most significant policies is the policy of administrative detention, systematically and continuously practiced by the occupying authorities against the Palestinian people. As every individual has the right to freedom and protection against arbitrary arrest, the policy of administrative detention deviates from the general norm. Therefore, it has been subjected to various …


The Overlooked Communities Of Forced Displacement In The United States: Humanizing The Relocation Of Indigenous Tribes In The Face Of Climate Change, Jennifer O'Rourke Mar 2024

The Overlooked Communities Of Forced Displacement In The United States: Humanizing The Relocation Of Indigenous Tribes In The Face Of Climate Change, Jennifer O'Rourke

University of Cincinnati Law Review

No abstract provided.


Rethinking Female Genital Cutting Through Postcolonial Lens, Erika Carvalho Feb 2024

Rethinking Female Genital Cutting Through Postcolonial Lens, Erika Carvalho

Theses and Dissertations

Due to global instabilities, the resulting international displacement and rising inter- cultural tensions within Western societies have relocated gendered cultural practicesat the center of contemporary debates on multiculturalism, social cohesion and migration. In this context, female genital cutting (FGC) has re-emerged as a symbol of savagery, portrayed as a symbol of “otherness”, a true global violation of women’s rights. While the increasing attention given to these practices is a testament to reinvigorated feminist activism, FGC has also been harnessed for the purposes of reproducing colonial discourses about the “Third World”, which have been integral to the revival of many policies …


Rethinking Female Genital Cutting Through Postcolonial Lens, Erika Carvalho Feb 2024

Rethinking Female Genital Cutting Through Postcolonial Lens, Erika Carvalho

Theses and Dissertations

Due to global instabilities, the resulting international displacement and rising inter- cultural tensions within Western societies have relocated gendered cultural practices at the center of contemporary debates on multiculturalism, social cohesion and migration. In this context, female genital cutting (FGC) has re-emerged as a symbol of savagery, portrayed as a symbol of “otherness”, a true global violation of women’s rights. While the increasing attention given to these practices is a testament to reinvigorated feminist activism, FGC has also been harnessed for the purposes of reproducing colonial discourses about the “Third World”, which have been integral to the revival of many …


Energy Justice And Renewable Rikers, Rebecca Bratspies Jan 2024

Energy Justice And Renewable Rikers, Rebecca Bratspies

University of Miami Law Review

Unsustainable energy practices generate the lion’s share of global carbon emissions as well as staggering levels of deadly particulate pollution. Replacing the current dirty, fossil fuel-based system with affordable, clean energy is both a human rights imperative and a climate change necessity. This transition, which has already begun, creates the opportunity to do things differently. By confronting the structural racism embedded in existing energy structures, we can build a just transition rather than just a transition. This Article uses New York City’s Renewable Rikers project as a case study to explore how we might take advantage of the intersections between …


Human Rights Without Borders, Christian Gonzalez Chacon Jan 2024

Human Rights Without Borders, Christian Gonzalez Chacon

Northwestern Journal of Human Rights

In the current global context, millions of people are forced to migrate

yearly for reasons ranging from persecution and violence, internal armed

conflicts, and forced displacement, to lack of employment and climate

change. In the Americas, we recently witnessed the phenomenon of the

“migrant caravans,” where thousands of people, mostly from the Northern

Triangle of Central America—El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala—

were willing to walk hundreds of miles to enter the U.S.-Mexico border to

escape poverty and violence in their countries. Another caravan of close to

10,000 migrants from the Northern Triangle of Central America including

Guatemala, El Salvador and …


Calming The Waters: The International Atomic Energy Agency As A Viable Model To Address Water Weaponization, Jenna Beasley Jan 2024

Calming The Waters: The International Atomic Energy Agency As A Viable Model To Address Water Weaponization, Jenna Beasley

Emory International Law Review

No abstract provided.


Where Custom Dictates: A Comparison Of The Integration Of Customary Law In Nigeria And South Africa As Applicable To Custody And Family Law Dispute, Madelyn Cameron Jan 2024

Where Custom Dictates: A Comparison Of The Integration Of Customary Law In Nigeria And South Africa As Applicable To Custody And Family Law Dispute, Madelyn Cameron

Emory International Law Review

No abstract provided.


How The International Investment Law Regime Undermines Access To Justice For Investment-Affected Stakeholders, Ladan Mehranvar Jan 2024

How The International Investment Law Regime Undermines Access To Justice For Investment-Affected Stakeholders, Ladan Mehranvar

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment

For over a decade now, the international investment law regime, which includes investment treaties and their central pillar, the investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) mechanism, has been facing sustained calls for reform. These have largely centered on the concerns regarding the high costs of ISDS, the restrictions placed by the investment treaty regime on the right—or duty—of states to regulate in the public interest, and the questionable benefits arising from these treaties in the first place. Several states have taken proactive measures: some have revised investment treaty standards to better protect their regulatory powers; others have introduced new approaches to investment …


Breaking Cultural And Financial Barriers In Olympic Sports, Maureen A. Weston, Professor Of Law Jan 2024

Breaking Cultural And Financial Barriers In Olympic Sports, Maureen A. Weston, Professor Of Law

Vanderbilt Journal of Entertainment & Technology Law

Nelson Mandela has said that “[s]port has the power to change the world. It has the power to inspire. It has the power to unite people in a way that little else does . . . . It is more powerful than governments in breaking down barriers.” Sports can have tremendous value, not only to the individual participants in promoting physical and mental health, skills, and teamwork, but also to society in fostering community, civic pride, and a sense of belonging, even among the fans. Sports have significant economic, political and cultural impacts at the local, national, and international spheres. …


Pandemics Of Limitation Of Rights, Rinat Kitai-Sangero Jan 2024

Pandemics Of Limitation Of Rights, Rinat Kitai-Sangero

Touro Law Review

This Article discusses the limitation of rights due to pandemics. It analyzes from a constitutional standpoint the holding of the German Federal Constitutional Court (Das BUNDESVERFASSUNGSGERICHT) from April 2022 as a symptom of moral panic disguised through an analytical process. Though it focuses on this case, it sheds light on the moral panic that characterized many countries’ approaches during the COVID-19 pandemic. On April 27, 2022, the German Federal Constitutional Court held that a provision to provide proof of vaccination against COVID-19, recovery from COVID-19, or a medical exemption to COVID-19 vaccination as a condition of employment in the health …


Human Rights In Hospitals: An End To Routine Shackling, Neil Singh Bedi, Nisha Mathur, Judy D. Wang, Avital Rech, Nancy Gaden, George J. Annas, Sondra S. Crosby Jan 2024

Human Rights In Hospitals: An End To Routine Shackling, Neil Singh Bedi, Nisha Mathur, Judy D. Wang, Avital Rech, Nancy Gaden, George J. Annas, Sondra S. Crosby

Faculty Scholarship

Medical students (NSB, NM, JDW) spearheaded revision of the policy and clinical practice for shackling incarcerated patients at Boston Medical Center (BMC), the largest safety net hospital in New England. In American hospitals, routine shackling of incarcerated patients with metal restraints is widespread—except for perinatal patients—regardless of consciousness, mobility, illness severity, or age. The modified policy includes individualized assessments and allows incarcerated patients to be unshackled if they meet defined criteria. The students also formed the Stop Shackling Patients Coalition (SSP Coalition) of clinicians, public health practitioners, human rights advocates, and community members determined to humanize the inpatient treatment of …


Looted Cultural Objects, Elena Baylis Jan 2024

Looted Cultural Objects, Elena Baylis

Articles

In the United States, Europe, and elsewhere, museums are in possession of cultural objects that were unethically taken from their countries and communities of origin under the auspices of colonialism. For many years, the art world considered such holdings unexceptional. Now, a longstanding movement to decolonize museums is gaining momentum, and some museums are reconsidering their collections. Presently, whether to return such looted foreign cultural objects is typically a voluntary choice for individual museums to make, not a legal obligation. Modern treaties and statutes protecting cultural property apply only prospectively, to items stolen or illegally exported after their effective dates. …


A Critical Juncture For Human Rights In Global Health: Strengthening Human Rights Through Global Health Law Reforms, Benjamin Mason Meier, Luciano Bottini Filho, Judith Bueno De Mesquita, Roojin Habibi, Sharifah Sekalala, Lawrence O. Gostin Dec 2023

A Critical Juncture For Human Rights In Global Health: Strengthening Human Rights Through Global Health Law Reforms, Benjamin Mason Meier, Luciano Bottini Filho, Judith Bueno De Mesquita, Roojin Habibi, Sharifah Sekalala, Lawrence O. Gostin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), establishing a human rights foundation under the United Nations (UN), has become a cornerstone of global health, central to public health policies throughout the world. As the world commemorates the 75th anniversary of the UDHR on 10 December, this “Human Rights Day” celebration arrives at a critical juncture for human rights in global health, raising an imperative for World Health Organization (WHO) reforms to strengthen the right to health and health-related human rights.


Slapp Suits: An Encroachment On Human Rights Of A Global Proportion And What Can Be Done About It, Laura Lee Prather Dec 2023

Slapp Suits: An Encroachment On Human Rights Of A Global Proportion And What Can Be Done About It, Laura Lee Prather

Northwestern Journal of Human Rights

Freedom of expression is the underpinning of all other freedoms. Yet, increasingly, journalists, citizens, advocacy groups, whistleblowers, academics, and media organizations are being targeted and subjected to judicial harassment for informing the public about matters of public concern, denouncing authoritarian regimes, and exposing wrongdoing. These meritless lawsuits do not seek to right a wrong, but rather to silence and intimidate critics. They are known as “Strategic Lawsuits Against Public Participation” (“SLAPP” suits) and are on the rise globally. Because SLAPP suits are designed to inhibit ongoing investigations, stifle informed public debate, and prevent legitimate public interest reporting, they present a …


Environmental (In)Justice: Evaluating The Factors That Led To The Jackson Water Crisis & Proposing A Solution For Environmental Justice In Mississippi, Emily Brennan Oct 2023

Environmental (In)Justice: Evaluating The Factors That Led To The Jackson Water Crisis & Proposing A Solution For Environmental Justice In Mississippi, Emily Brennan

Mississippi College Law Review

40,000. That is the number of residents that were left without potable water for nearly five weeks during Jackson, Mississippi’s February 2021 water crisis. An unusual cold front rolled through, freezing plant equipment, bursting water pipes, and causing many in Jackson to lose access to running water. This was not, however, the first time that Jackson residents had endured hardships with regard to their drinking water—it was just the first time that national attention turned to, and has seemed to remain on, Mississippi’s capital city. Those in Jackson are all too familiar with water pipes bursting, low water pressure, boil …


To Have And To Be: An International Human Right To Clean, Healthy, And Sustainable Environment, Deepa Badrinarayana Oct 2023

To Have And To Be: An International Human Right To Clean, Healthy, And Sustainable Environment, Deepa Badrinarayana

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

In July 2022, the United Nations General Assembly passed Resolution 76/300 (“the Resolution”)—affirming a human right to clean, healthy, and sustainable environment (“environmental human rights”). The Resolution essentially affirms a linkage between environmental human rights and “other rights and existing international law,” and “calls upon States, international organizations, business enterprises and other relevant stakeholders to adopt policies, to enhance international cooperation, strengthen capacity-building and continue to share good practices,” to achieve environmental human rights.

[...]

This Article offers a glass half-full perspective on the Resolution, with the caveat that the glass could rapidly become empty unless the right is internalized …


Exploring The African Regional Human Rights Standards As The Basis For An Enabling Environment For Self-Managed Abortion, Lucia Berro Pizzarossa, Michelle Maziwisa, Ebenezer Durojaye Oct 2023

Exploring The African Regional Human Rights Standards As The Basis For An Enabling Environment For Self-Managed Abortion, Lucia Berro Pizzarossa, Michelle Maziwisa, Ebenezer Durojaye

Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice

Self-managed abortion holds great promise to save lives and promote reproductive autonomy, particularly in Africa. Indeed, the African region records very high numbers of unsafe abortions, and the burden of abortion-related mortality is the highest globally. Abortion remains generally criminalized in violation of numerous internationally and regionally recognized human rights standards. The advent of abortion medicines and the increased grassroots energy geared towards curbing the harms of unsafe abortion evince medical abortion holds great promise for revolutionizing people’s access to high-quality reproductive care. This study discusses regional human rights frameworks, policy, case law, and a few representative domestic legislative frameworks …


The Rejection Of The Anti-Corruption Principle And Its Effect On Human Rights At Home, Juliet S. Sorensen Sep 2023

The Rejection Of The Anti-Corruption Principle And Its Effect On Human Rights At Home, Juliet S. Sorensen

Northwestern Journal of Human Rights

21st century scholarship analyzing the Framers’ treatment of corruption asserts that their incorporation of anti-corruption means in the Constitution should be interpreted as a framework to inform contemporary judicial review and jurisprudence. Led by Zephyr Teachout’s article “The Anti-Corruption Principle,” this school of thought asserts that the anti-corruption principle should be on par with separation of powers and freedom of expression, a guiding lodestar in interpreting the Constitution.

This article submits that the anti-corruption principle of constitutional interpretation is, in fact, a rights-based approach to corruption, equating freedom from corruption with the other rights and liberties enshrined in the Constitution. …


Promises And Pitfalls In Un Regulation Of Judicial Independence, Martha Kiela Sep 2023

Promises And Pitfalls In Un Regulation Of Judicial Independence, Martha Kiela

Northwestern Journal of Human Rights

This article investigates the current mechanisms and power of the UN to ensure judicial independence in the UN Member States. First, it surveys the UN bodies which play a role in creating international regulations for judicial independence and monitoring Member States’ compliance with them. Second, it analyzes the responses of these bodies to challenges to judicial independence by conducting case studies of Venezuela and Poland, and how these actions compare to those of other international organizations and tribunals. The central questions it seeks to answer are which mechanisms of review and enforcement have so far been the most effective in …


Improving Recommendations From The Un's Universal Periodic Review: A Case Study On Domestic Abuse In The Uk, Alice Storey Aug 2023

Improving Recommendations From The Un's Universal Periodic Review: A Case Study On Domestic Abuse In The Uk, Alice Storey

Pace International Law Review

Hailed as an international human rights innovation, the UN Human Rights Council’s Universal Periodic Review (“UPR”) is a peer-review mechanism that assesses the protection and promotion of human rights in all 193 UN Member States, including intergovernmental and civil society input. Importantly, within the UPR, other Member States provide recommendations to each state under review on how it can improve human rights on the ground. States can decide to accept or note recommendations and should then go on to implement those that are accepted. The recommendations are a fundamental part of the UPR process, yet they are not always formulated …


Direito, Saneamento E Sustentabilidade: Uma Análise Comparativa Entre Municípios Do Estado De Santa Catarina, Brasil, E Da Província De Ontário, Canadá À Luz Dos Objetivos Do Desenvolvimento Sustentável 6 E 11, Claudio Antonio Klaus Junior Aug 2023

Direito, Saneamento E Sustentabilidade: Uma Análise Comparativa Entre Municípios Do Estado De Santa Catarina, Brasil, E Da Província De Ontário, Canadá À Luz Dos Objetivos Do Desenvolvimento Sustentável 6 E 11, Claudio Antonio Klaus Junior

University of the Pacific, McGeorge School of Law Dissertations

The relevance of sanitation and sustainability is manifested in the promotion of public health, improvement of quality of life, and ensuring access to basic services as essential human rights. The comparative analysis between the cities of Caçador, Videira, and Concórdia, in Santa Catarina, in Brasil, and Sault Ste. Marie, Thunder Bay, North Bay, Chatham-Kent, Woodstock, and Kenora, in Ontário, in Canadá, allows for the identification of differences and similarities in sanitation systems, understanding of challenges and opportunities, and consequently, the foundation for effective public policies aimed at improving access to sanitation. The present study aims to analyze the situation of …


Corporate Law’S Threat To Human Rights: Why Human Rights Due Diligence Might Not Be Enough, Barnali Choudhury Aug 2023

Corporate Law’S Threat To Human Rights: Why Human Rights Due Diligence Might Not Be Enough, Barnali Choudhury

Articles & Book Chapters

The take-up of mandatory human rights due diligence (HRDD) initiatives by states is continuously gaining momentum. There are now numerous states adopting some form of HRDD laws. While corporations being duly diligent in respecting human rights is a positive step towards addressing problems of business and human rights, these HRDD initiatives on their own may only be a form of window-dressing, that is, enabling states to put a smart spin on their efforts to address business and human rights issues without addressing some of the root causes of that predicament. As a result, HRDD laws are likely to be a …


International Agreements Shaping Migration Solutions, Camilo Mantilla Aug 2023

International Agreements Shaping Migration Solutions, Camilo Mantilla

Refugee Law & Migration Studies Brief

In an increasingly complex and interdependent state of international relations, international treaty negotiation, adoption, and implementation constitute an important component of global foreign policy and activity of states. International agreements embody sovereign and state-to-state relations and behavior in a global forum. International agreements manifest in ways that vary in form, subject, formalities, parties, scope, forum and many other elements.


Nefarious Notarios: Responding To Immigration Scams As White Collar Crime As A Matter Of Public Policy, Sarah Cossman Aug 2023

Nefarious Notarios: Responding To Immigration Scams As White Collar Crime As A Matter Of Public Policy, Sarah Cossman

Refugee Law & Migration Studies Brief

Immigration scams targeting non-citizens can have devastating impacts on an individual's status and ability to remain in the United States legally. The phenomenon of notario fraud occurs when an individual misrepresents themself as a notario publico in an effort to defraud immigrants seeking legal services. In Spanish-speaking countries, a notario publico is a highly trained legal professional, akin to an attorney, who provides legal advice and drafts legal documents. The term is a false cognate. The English equivalent, a notary, is an individual with narrow witnessing duties and much less discretion. Problems arise when individuals obtain a notary public license …


Anti-Corruption’S Next Great Migration?: Strengthening U.S. Refugee And Asylum Law Under Existing U.S. Anti-Corruption Commitments, Bianka Ukleja Aug 2023

Anti-Corruption’S Next Great Migration?: Strengthening U.S. Refugee And Asylum Law Under Existing U.S. Anti-Corruption Commitments, Bianka Ukleja

Refugee Law & Migration Studies Brief

First, this paper will describe the U.S.’s anticorruption commitments under international law. Next, it will present the general features of current U.S. refugee and asylum law, pertaining to particular social group (PSG) and political opinion claims. Last, this paper will discuss how the Biden Anti-Corruption Memo provides fertile ground for DHS to initiate an informal rulemaking process under the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) to engage civil society on how U.S. refugee and asylum laws can better support a pathway to citizenship for anti-corruption activists in pursuit of key U.S. foreign policy interests abroad and who find themselves unable to seek …


Can Bilateral Agreements On Migration Control Be A New Way For The Global Compact On Refugees (Gcr) And The Global Compact On Safe, Orderly And Regular Migration (Gcm)?, Ayse Yildiz-Demir Aug 2023

Can Bilateral Agreements On Migration Control Be A New Way For The Global Compact On Refugees (Gcr) And The Global Compact On Safe, Orderly And Regular Migration (Gcm)?, Ayse Yildiz-Demir

Refugee Law & Migration Studies Brief

Both externalization and external dimension of migration control play critical roles in the contained mobility around the world, especially in the southern external borders of the EU in the last decades. Externalization aims to contain mobility of migrants (including irregular migrants, refugees, asylum seekers or economic migrants) beyond national borders of destination states by using different practices such as push-back operations at the sea or keeping migrants in the extraterritorial camps until the evaluation of their asylum claims. On the other hand, the external dimension pursues migration control via carrying out softer policies than externalization. As one of most popular …


Future-Proofing U.S. Laws For War Crimes Investigations In The Digital Era, Rebecca Hamilton Jul 2023

Future-Proofing U.S. Laws For War Crimes Investigations In The Digital Era, Rebecca Hamilton

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

Advances in information technology have irrevocably changed the nature of war crimes investigations. The pursuit of accountability for the most serious crimes of concern to the international community now invariably requires access to digital evidence. The global reach of platforms like Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter means that much of that digital evidence is held by U.S. social media companies, and access to it is subject to the U.S. Stored Communications Act.

This is the first Article to look at the legal landscape facing international investigators seeking access to digital evidence regarding genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity, and aggression. It …