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Full-Text Articles in Law

U.S. Covert Actions In The Indonesian Genocide: The International Criminal Court, Mia C. Rabkin Oct 2022

U.S. Covert Actions In The Indonesian Genocide: The International Criminal Court, Mia C. Rabkin

Alpenglow: Binghamton University Undergraduate Journal of Research and Creative Activity

After the Korean War in 1950, the Cold War expanded to Asia transitioning from purely economic aid in Europe from the Marshall Plan, to direct military intervention then to covert military operations under the Eisenhower Administration in Indonesia. The focus of this research is on the United States military intervention through covert military operations from 1950-66 and details the evolution of foreign policy in Indonesia from the economic aid to supplying names of PKI insurgents to be slaughtered. With the general research questions of How did CIA interference through covert military operations in Indonesia highlight a shift in CIA intervention …


The Weaponization Of Rape: Military Culture, Tactical Warfare, And Legal Justice, Claire Velte Jul 2022

The Weaponization Of Rape: Military Culture, Tactical Warfare, And Legal Justice, Claire Velte

International Relations Summer Fellows

The long-accepted narrative of wartime rape is one of inevitability, with sexual violence committed at the hands of soldiers during conflict being written off as an unavoidable side-effect of war. In reality, however, wartime rape can be systematically and tactically employed by military forces to terrorize the bodies of their enemies, often as an attempt to physically and psychologically destroy certain populations. The act itself, when employed tactically, is legally recognized as a weapon of war—and the rape of civilians by military forces was legally designated as a crime against humanity in 1993—yet rape continues to be utilized in conflict …


Death By A Thousand Cuts? Green Tech, Traditional Knowledge, And Genocide, Regina Menachery Paulose Jul 2022

Death By A Thousand Cuts? Green Tech, Traditional Knowledge, And Genocide, Regina Menachery Paulose

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

Traditional Knowledge is a system of knowledge that is passed down through generations of Indigenous and Ethnic Minority Peoples throughout the world. A subset of Traditional Knowledge is Traditional Ecological Knowledge. These knowledge systems are incorporated throughout various international instruments and are considered vital to ways of life for Indigenous and Ethnic Minority Peoples. The author examines the elimination of Traditional Knowledge as a result of green technology. With discussions surrounding ways to obtain “net zero” in response to climate change, the author (re)introduces the notion that the irresponsible push for carbon zero technologies has a horrendous impact on the …


Never Again? The United Nations And Genocide: A Doomed Mission?, Maria Terrinoni Jan 2022

Never Again? The United Nations And Genocide: A Doomed Mission?, Maria Terrinoni

Capstone Showcase

Despite their commitment to international peace and security and to the concept of “never again,” the United Nations has failed to end the many genocides of the late 20th century. In this thesis, I use the genocides in Rwanda (1994) and in the Yugoslav Wars (1991-1999) as case studies to understand the UN’s response to genocide and to attempt to understand why the UN cannot effectively respond to and end genocide. I discover that issues such as the limitations of the Genocide Convention, the importance of state sovereignty, and overall institutional failures of the United Nation make any attempt to …


Johnson V. M'Intosh: Christianity, Genocide, And The Dispossession Of Indigenous Peoples, Cynthia J. Boshell Jan 2022

Johnson V. M'Intosh: Christianity, Genocide, And The Dispossession Of Indigenous Peoples, Cynthia J. Boshell

Cal Poly Humboldt theses and projects

Using hermeneutical methodology, this paper examines some of the legal fictions that form the foundation of Federal Indian Law. The text of the U.S. Supreme Court’s 1823 Johnson v. M’Intosh opinion is evaluated through the lens of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide to determine the extent to which the Supreme Court incorporated genocidal principles into United States common law. The genealogy of M’Intosh is examined to identify influences that are not fully apparent on the face of the case. International jurisprudential interpretations of the legal definition of genocide are summarized and used as …


Reparations And The International Law Origin Story, John Linarelli Jan 2022

Reparations And The International Law Origin Story, John Linarelli

Journal of Race, Gender, and Ethnicity

No abstract provided.


The Role Of Truth-Telling In Indigenous Justice, Sara L. Ochs Jan 2022

The Role Of Truth-Telling In Indigenous Justice, Sara L. Ochs

Journal of Race, Gender, and Ethnicity

No abstract provided.


Until The United States Regulates Tech Exports, It Will Continue To Enable China's Surveillance Of The Uyghurs, Alexandra Haris Jan 2021

Until The United States Regulates Tech Exports, It Will Continue To Enable China's Surveillance Of The Uyghurs, Alexandra Haris

Human Rights Brief

No abstract provided.


U.S. Race Relations And Foreign Policy, Susan D. Page Jan 2021

U.S. Race Relations And Foreign Policy, Susan D. Page

Michigan Journal of Race and Law

It is easy for Americans to think that the world’s most egregious human rights abuses happen in other countries. In reality, our history is plagued by injustices, and our present reality is still stained by racism and inequality. While the Michigan Journal of International Law usually publishes only pieces with a global focus, we felt it prudent in these critically important times not to shy away from the problems facing our own country. We must understand our own history before we can strive to form a better union, whether the union be the United States or the United Nations. Ambassador …


Making The Case For Genocide, The Forced Sterilization Of Indigenous Peoples Of Peru, Ñusta P. Carranza Ko Sep 2020

Making The Case For Genocide, The Forced Sterilization Of Indigenous Peoples Of Peru, Ñusta P. Carranza Ko

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

Peru’s national health program Programa de Salud Reproductiva y Planificación Familiar (PSRPF) aimed to uphold women’s reproductive rights and address the scarcity in maternity related services. Despite these objectives, during PSRPF’s implementation the respect for women’s rights were undermined with the forced sterilization of women predominantly of indigenous, poor, and rural backgrounds. This study considers the forced sterilization of indigenous women as a genocide. Making the case for genocide has not been done previously with this particular case. Using the normative markers of the Genocide Convention, this study categorically sets forced sterilization victims from the state-led-policy as victims of genocide, …


Cases Studied In Genocide Studies And Prevention And Journal Of Genocide Research And Implications For The Field Of Genocide Studies, Jeffrey Bachman May 2020

Cases Studied In Genocide Studies And Prevention And Journal Of Genocide Research And Implications For The Field Of Genocide Studies, Jeffrey Bachman

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

The adoption of the Genocide Convention in 1948 was accompanied by the emergence of genocide as a field of study, first in the form of Holocaust Studies, followed by Genocide Studies, then Comparative Genocide Studies and, most recently, Critical Genocide Studies. Over the last 20-30 years, the field of genocide studies has greatly expanded. According to Alexander Hinton, “As the outlines of the field emerge more clearly, the time is right to engage in critical reflections about the state of the field.” This article seeks to enhance the field of genocide studies by answering Hinton’s call for reflective analysis. It …


The Policy On Children Of The Icc Office Of The Prosecutor: Toward Greater Accountability For Crimes Against And Affecting Children, Diane Marie Amann Jan 2020

The Policy On Children Of The Icc Office Of The Prosecutor: Toward Greater Accountability For Crimes Against And Affecting Children, Diane Marie Amann

Scholarly Works

The Policy on Children published by the International Criminal Court Office of the Prosecutor in 2016 represents a significant step toward accountability for harms to children in armed conflict and similar extreme violence. This article describes the process that led to the Policy and outlines the Policy’s contents. It then surveys relevant ICC practice and related developments, concluding that despite some salutary efforts, much remains to be done to recognize, prevent and punish the spectrum of conflicted-related crimes against or affecting children.


The Rohingya Genocide, Paul Williams, Todd F. Buchwald, Jenny Domino, Rebecca Hamilton, Michael P. Scharf, Meilena Sterio Jan 2020

The Rohingya Genocide, Paul Williams, Todd F. Buchwald, Jenny Domino, Rebecca Hamilton, Michael P. Scharf, Meilena Sterio

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

No abstract provided.


Documentation For Accountability, Paul Williams, Jessica Levy Jan 2020

Documentation For Accountability, Paul Williams, Jessica Levy

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

The cost of armed conflict is borne not only in the stark number of lives lost, but also in the grave atrocity crimes committed during these periods. Despite the legal protections set forth in the Geneva Conventions and other foundational documents of international humanitarian law, perpetrators continue to commit crimes against humanity, war crimes and genocide. Documenting these atrocity crimes has become a crucial step in efforts to secure justice for victims and survivors of these atrocities. To support the expanding field of human rights documentation, the international community must redouble its efforts to ensure that civil society actors engaged …


Intending The Worst: The Case Of Isis’S Specific Intent To Destroy The Christians Of Iraq, Eric Osborne, Matthew Dowd, Ryan Mcbrearty Jun 2019

Intending The Worst: The Case Of Isis’S Specific Intent To Destroy The Christians Of Iraq, Eric Osborne, Matthew Dowd, Ryan Mcbrearty

Pepperdine Law Review

Genocide has been called the “crime of crimes.” That superlative is well-stated. Genocide is the intentional destruction of an entire people—a worse crime is almost beyond comprehension. The very word conjures some of the most horrific images in recorded history. And yet our legal understanding of this most-important crime is limited. Because the crime of genocide requires specific intent, even horrific atrocities will not qualify as genocide as a matter of law if done for a purpose other than the intended destruction of a target group. Thus whether actions qualify as genocide and what type of evidence is sufficient to …


Film Review: The Uncondemned, Jessica M. Adach Jun 2019

Film Review: The Uncondemned, Jessica M. Adach

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

Film Review of The Uncondemned


Elusive Justice: The Rohingya Chronic Crisis And The Responsibility To Protect, Sumangala Bhattacharya Apr 2019

Elusive Justice: The Rohingya Chronic Crisis And The Responsibility To Protect, Sumangala Bhattacharya

Loyola of Los Angeles International and Comparative Law Review

No abstract provided.


October 1, 2019 Broadcast: 'The Rohingya Genocide', Rebecca Hamilton Jan 2019

October 1, 2019 Broadcast: 'The Rohingya Genocide', Rebecca Hamilton

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

No abstract provided.


Rethinking The 1948 Genocide Convention For North Korean Political Camps, Hyunmok Lee Jan 2019

Rethinking The 1948 Genocide Convention For North Korean Political Camps, Hyunmok Lee

Maurer Theses and Dissertations

The term genocide implies attacks on only four groups – national, racial, ethnic and religious – enumerated in Article II of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. In terms of protection of political group, severe political persecutions targeting a certain political group would not establish a successful genocide charge in courts and international courts have rendered judgements applying crimes against humanity to such atrocities. However, it is important to consider the possibility of protecting political groups regarding the victims in the North Korean political camps were selected on political grounds and their groupness is …


Atrocity Prevention In The New Media Landscape, Rebecca Hamilton Jan 2019

Atrocity Prevention In The New Media Landscape, Rebecca Hamilton

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

Journalists have traditionally played a crucial role in building public pressure on government officials to uphold their legal obligations under the 1948 UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide. But over the past twenty years there has been radical change in the media landscape: foreign bureaus have been shuttered, young freelance journalists have taken over some of the work traditionally done by experienced foreign correspondents, and, more recently, the advent of social media has enabled people in conflict-affected areas to tell their own stories to the world. This essay assesses the impact of these changes on atrocity prevention …


Straining To Prevent The Rohingya Genocide: A Sociology Of Law Perspective, Katherine Southwick Dec 2018

Straining To Prevent The Rohingya Genocide: A Sociology Of Law Perspective, Katherine Southwick

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

This paper analyzes the generally muted international response to the protracted plight of the Rohingya, a persecuted Muslim minority in Myanmar, from the perspective of sociology of law. The first part provides background on the Rohingya crisis and discusses relevant international legal frameworks relating to crimes against humanity and genocide. The second part adapts analytical frameworks developed by Felstiner, Abel, and Sarat on the emergence and transformation of disputes, in order to examine some of the factors that frustrate the processes of naming crimes, blaming perpetrators, and claiming rights and protection for the Rohingya minority in the international context. Work …


Book Review: Prosecuting Corporations For Genocide, Sarah Federman Oct 2018

Book Review: Prosecuting Corporations For Genocide, Sarah Federman

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

No abstract provided.


Denial Is Not An Option, Or Is It? How The Turkish Denial Of The Armenian Genocide Blocked Recovery In The United States, Samuel E. Plutchok Jun 2018

Denial Is Not An Option, Or Is It? How The Turkish Denial Of The Armenian Genocide Blocked Recovery In The United States, Samuel E. Plutchok

University of Massachusetts Law Review

Many articles have been written on the Armenian Genocide, both in the context of how to obtain Turkish recognition and how to obtain monetary relief in the courts of the United States. This Article summarizes the issues with the Movsesian III holding with regards to lack of precedent and the Ninth Circuit’s failure to follow the Supreme Court’s trend of limiting preemption. This Article then analyzes related decisions from four other circuits, demonstrating a clear circuit split on judicial understanding of the 5-4 Supreme Court ruling in Garamendi. This Article provides a roadmap to a friendly forum for victims of …


Litigating Genocide: A Consideration Of The Criminal Court In Light Of The German Jew's Legal Response To Nazi Persecution, 1933-1941, Jody M. Prescott Feb 2018

Litigating Genocide: A Consideration Of The Criminal Court In Light Of The German Jew's Legal Response To Nazi Persecution, 1933-1941, Jody M. Prescott

Maine Law Review

After years of negotiation, a majority of the nations of the world have agreed to create an International Criminal Court. It will be given jurisdiction over three core types of offenses: genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes. With regard to war crimes, however, nations that join the court may take advantage of an “opt-out” procedure, whereby the court's jurisdiction over these offenses may be rejected for seven years after the court comes into existence. For various reasons, a small number of nations, including the United States, have refused to sign the treaty creating the court. While heralded as a …


Understanding Serious Bodily Or Mental Harm As An Act Of Genocide, Nema Milaninia Jan 2018

Understanding Serious Bodily Or Mental Harm As An Act Of Genocide, Nema Milaninia

Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law

What is genocide? The typical answer immediately brings to mind incidents of large-scale killings like those in World War II, Rwanda, and Srebrenica. The same images, however, create an incomplete and potentially misleading picture of the crime. Genocide is a far broader concept than mass executions. The crime was deliberately designed to capture the variant and innumerable ways individuals or organizations might try to destroy racial, ethnic, religious, or national groups. And while certain acts, like rape and other acts of sexual violence, never formed part of the crime's initial understanding, these acts are now accepted as tools of destruction …


Assessing The International Criminal Court, Beth A. Simmons, Mitchell Radtke, Hyeran Jo Jan 2018

Assessing The International Criminal Court, Beth A. Simmons, Mitchell Radtke, Hyeran Jo

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

One of the most important issues surrounding international courts is whether they can further the dual causes of peace and justice. None has been more ambitious in this regard than the International Criminal Court (ICC). And yet the ICC has been the object of a good deal of criticism. Some people claim it has been an expensive use of resources that might have been directed to other purposes. Others claim that its accomplishments are meager because it has managed to try and convict so few people. And many commentators and researchers claim that the Court faces an inherent tension between …


Israel And Palestine- An Analysis Of The 2014 Israel-Gaza War From A Genocidal Perspective, Shannon M. Culverwell May 2017

Israel And Palestine- An Analysis Of The 2014 Israel-Gaza War From A Genocidal Perspective, Shannon M. Culverwell

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-2019

During the 2014 Israel-Gaza War, approximately 2,251 Palestinians and 73 Israelis were killed as a result of the fifty-one day long conflict. As the deadliest and most destructive conflict since 1948, the international community has widely condemned the actions taken by Israeli and Palestinian actors throughout the conflict. Despite international condemnation, currently the International Criminal Court (ICC) is the only institution conducting a criminal investigation into the recent conflict. Upon Palestine accession into the Rome Statute in June of 2015, the ICC opened a preliminary examination regarding alleged crimes committed in the occupied territory of Palestine since June 13, 2014. …


Detention By Armed Groups Under International Law, Andrew Clapham Feb 2017

Detention By Armed Groups Under International Law, Andrew Clapham

International Law Studies

Does international law entitle armed groups to detain people? And what obligations are imposed on such non-state actors when they do detain? This article sets out suggested obligations for armed groups related to the right to challenge the basis for any detention and considers some related issues of fair trial and punishment. The last part of this article briefly considers the legal framework governing state responsibility and individual criminal responsibility for those that assist armed groups that detain people in ways that violate international law.


Civil War Or Genocide? The United Nations Commission Of Experts’ Misunderstanding Of The Third Balkan War Of The 1990s, Matthew G. Morley Jan 2017

Civil War Or Genocide? The United Nations Commission Of Experts’ Misunderstanding Of The Third Balkan War Of The 1990s, Matthew G. Morley

Grand Valley Journal of History

When the country of Yugoslavia disintegrated into war, the United Nations created a research commission, the Yugoslav Commission of Experts, to document war crimes. This commission, led by Cherif M. Bassiouni, depicted the conflict as a perpetual problem with historical roots and also as having victims on both sides, which presented a legal-definitional paradox to the Security Council, requiring litigation of principles, categorization of conflicts, and discussion of further involvement - if applicable. This paper traces the essentialist understandings of the Commission of Experts and the International Human Rights Law Institute – two groups that otherwise had good intentions to …


The Karadžić Genocide Conviction: Inferences, Intent, And The Necessity To Redefine Genocide, Milena Sterio Jan 2017

The Karadžić Genocide Conviction: Inferences, Intent, And The Necessity To Redefine Genocide, Milena Sterio

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

This Article first discusses and analyzes the Genocide Convention and its strict definition of genocide and the "intent" requirement. It then focuses on the evolution of this definition in light of the recent Karadžić case. This Article demonstrates that in modern-day conflicts, the finding of genocidal intent may be an impossible task for the prosecution and that the ICTY Trial Chamber’s method of inferring intent based on knowledge and other indirect factors may be the only way that prosecutors will be able to obtain future genocide convictions. This Article then discusses a possible re-drafting and re-conceptualizing of the genocide definition …