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Human Rights Law

2021

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Full-Text Articles in Law

مبدأ الضرورة العسكرية، وانتهاكات قواعد القانون الدولي الإنساني دراسة تطبيقية على مخالفة "إسرائيل" لمبدأ الضرورة العسكرية خلال حرب (مايو2021م)., إياد محمد أبو مصطفى ماجستير Dec 2021

مبدأ الضرورة العسكرية، وانتهاكات قواعد القانون الدولي الإنساني دراسة تطبيقية على مخالفة "إسرائيل" لمبدأ الضرورة العسكرية خلال حرب (مايو2021م)., إياد محمد أبو مصطفى ماجستير

Journal of Al-Azhar University – Gaza (Humanities)

الملخص :

إنَّ التسليم بالاستناد إلى حالة الضرورة أثناء النزاعات المسلحة، كاستناد يُخرج سلوك المقاتل عن التصرفات المسموح بها أصبح أمرًا معترفًا به، غير أنَّ تجريد هذه الحالة من الشروط اللازمة لأعمالها، والضوابط الواجبة لتقييدها خاصة قيدي: "التناسب، والتمييز" أمر لا يمكن السماح به مهما كانت الظروف والمتغيرات الحاصلة في تطوير العلاقات بين الدول، ويُعدُّ هذا المبدأ متغيرًا بطبيعته غير القابلة للضبط أو التحديد بشكل واضح، الأمر الذي جعل هذا المبدأ ذريعة لدى الدول لانتهاك قواعد القانون الدولي الإنساني؛ ومن أهمها: دولة الاحتلال التي قامت بانتهاكه ومخالفة شروطه، وعدم مراعاة قيوده خلال حرب (مايو 2021م) على قطاع غزة.

وخَلُص البحث …


Submission Of Amicus Curiae Observations In The Case Of The Prosecutor V. Dominic Ongwen, Erin Baines, Kamari M. Clarke, Mark A. Drumbl Dec 2021

Submission Of Amicus Curiae Observations In The Case Of The Prosecutor V. Dominic Ongwen, Erin Baines, Kamari M. Clarke, Mark A. Drumbl

Scholarly Articles

The important questions laid out by the Appeals Chamber in this case highlight the need for the proper delineation and interplay between mental illness and criminal responsibility under international law. Specifically, this case represents a watershed moment for the Appeals Chamber to set a framework for adjudicating mental illness in the context of collectivized child abuse and trauma. This is especially true for former child soldiers who occupy both a victim and alleged perpetrator status.


Imf's Loan Conditionality: Negative Consequences In The Borrower Country And The Burden Of Responsibility, Sara Mohamed Osama Abdalla Atta Dec 2021

Imf's Loan Conditionality: Negative Consequences In The Borrower Country And The Burden Of Responsibility, Sara Mohamed Osama Abdalla Atta

Theses and Dissertations

People often think that IFIs, such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund are prominent players in the global economy by providing funds to countries in need of development and sustainment of welfare, unfortunately these institutions can cause devastating effects in the borrower country. The harsh conditionality of the IMF plays a huge role in the negative economic consequences incumbent upon the borrower country. Meanwhile, the lack of legal remedies for private individuals suffering from the conditionality aggravates the consequences for these people. On the one hand, conditionality may strain the economy of the borrower country which leads …


Amici Curiae Observations On Sexual- And Gender-Based Crimes, Particularly Sexual Slavery, And On Cumulative Convictions Pursuant To Rule 103 Of The Rules Of Procedure And Evidence, Sareta Ashraph, Stephanie Barbour, Kirsten Campbell, Alexandra Lily Kather, Jocelyn Getgen Kestenbaum, Maxine Marcus, Gorana Mlinarević, Valerie Oosterveld, Kathleen Roberts, Susana Sácouto, Jelia Sané, Hyunah Yang Dec 2021

Amici Curiae Observations On Sexual- And Gender-Based Crimes, Particularly Sexual Slavery, And On Cumulative Convictions Pursuant To Rule 103 Of The Rules Of Procedure And Evidence, Sareta Ashraph, Stephanie Barbour, Kirsten Campbell, Alexandra Lily Kather, Jocelyn Getgen Kestenbaum, Maxine Marcus, Gorana Mlinarević, Valerie Oosterveld, Kathleen Roberts, Susana Sácouto, Jelia Sané, Hyunah Yang

Briefs

Sexual slavery is not a “form” of enslavement; rather, all acts of a sexual nature, including control over sexuality, sexual integrity and sexual and reproductive autonomy, constitute indicia of the exercise of powers of ownership of enslavement in all its forms. Consequently, enslavement as a crime against humanity is not “in the abstract entirely encompassed within sexual slavery.” To avoid entering cumulative convictions for separately enumerated crimes that do not each have a distinct element from the other, and to avoid a continuation of a discriminatory application of the law, amici suggest that, in the interests of justice, the …


An Analysis Of University Students’ Self-Labeling And Perception Of Feminism, Emilie Seibert Dec 2021

An Analysis Of University Students’ Self-Labeling And Perception Of Feminism, Emilie Seibert

Honors Projects

This project investigates students’ perceptions of feminism, whether or not they identify as feminist, and how closely their ideals align with basic feminist ideals. There is currently no research that investigates self-labeling as a feminist among the current generation of college students in the United States. Despite the immense benefits to holding a feminist identification, it is estimated that only about 21% of the United States population identifies as feminist (Swirsky & Angelone, 2014, p. 230). Understanding the perspectives of current students is important as they have the potential to become activists and impact the future of the feminist movement. …


Challenging Solitary Confinement Through State Constitutions, Alison Gordon Dec 2021

Challenging Solitary Confinement Through State Constitutions, Alison Gordon

University of Cincinnati Law Review

Eighth Amendment jurisprudence has resulted in limited scrutiny of solitary confinement despite the known harms associated with the practice. The two-part test established by the federal courts to evaluate Eighth Amendment claims and limitations on challenging prison conditions under the Prison Litigation Reform Act can make it difficult to establish that solitary confinement is cruel and unusual punishment.

State constitutional challenges to solitary confinement are underexplored. Nearly all state constitutions contain an equivalent provision to the Eighth Amendment’s prohibition on cruel and unusual punishment. State courts need not be bound by federal jurisprudence in interpreting the scope of the state …


Korematsu’S Ancestors, Mark A. Graber Dec 2021

Korematsu’S Ancestors, Mark A. Graber

Arkansas Law Review

Mark Killenbeck’s Korematsu v. United States has important affinities with Dred Scott v. Sandford. Both decisions by promoting and justifying white supremacy far beyond what was absolutely mandated by the constitutional text merit their uncontroversial inclusion in the anticanon of American constitutional law.3 Dred Scott held that former slaves and their descendants could not be citizens of the United States and that Congress could not ban slavery in American territories acquired after the Constitution was ratified.5 Korematsu held that the military could exclude all Japanese Americans from portions of the West Coast during World War II.6 Both decisions nevertheless provided …


Creating Cautionary Tales: Institutional, Judicial, And Societal Indifference To The Lives Of Incarcerated Individuals, Nicole B. Godfrey Dec 2021

Creating Cautionary Tales: Institutional, Judicial, And Societal Indifference To The Lives Of Incarcerated Individuals, Nicole B. Godfrey

Arkansas Law Review

It has long been said that a society’s worth can be judged by taking stock of its prisons. That is all the truer in this pandemic, where inmates everywhere have been rendered vulnerable and often powerless to protect themselves from harm. May we hope that our country’s facilities serve as models rather than cautionary tales. Justice Sonia Sotomayor, joined by Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, issued the above-quoted clarion call to protect the lives of incarcerated people on May 14, 2020. At that point, the COVID-19 pandemic had brought American society to a standstill for a little more than two months, …


Covid–19, Housing And Evictions: A Comparative Case Study Of Housing Law And Policy In The United States And Argentina Through An International Human Rights Lens, Lily Frances Fontenot Dec 2021

Covid–19, Housing And Evictions: A Comparative Case Study Of Housing Law And Policy In The United States And Argentina Through An International Human Rights Lens, Lily Frances Fontenot

University of Miami Inter-American Law Review

This Note seeks to address the impact of international human rights obligations on domestic housing laws and policies through a comparative case study of Argentina and the United States. Specifically, it will discuss each country’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic, their housing obligations under international human rights law, and how each country is addressing their own unique housing and eviction crises. Finally, this Note will offer recommendations on how each country should modify their housing policies in light of the pandemic in order to comply with international human rights standards.


Prosecutorial Supervisions Of The Implementation Of Anti-Torture Legislation: An Analysis Of International Law And National Legislation, Barno Kadirova Dec 2021

Prosecutorial Supervisions Of The Implementation Of Anti-Torture Legislation: An Analysis Of International Law And National Legislation, Barno Kadirova

ProAcademy

This article examines the analysis of national legislation and international law on the prevention of torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, international standards, principles of responsibility and the improvement of prosecutorial control over the implementation of anti-torture legislation. In addition, the role of prosecutorial oversight in the prevention of torture is based on the views of legal scholars and practitioners, as well as appeals to the prosecutor's office by the Prosecutor General's Office about illegal actions by law enforcement officers and torture by the Supreme Court. Information on criminal cases on torture is provided. The author …


Procedural Order Of Carrying Out Expertise On Criminal Cases, Istam Rustamovich Astanov Dec 2021

Procedural Order Of Carrying Out Expertise On Criminal Cases, Istam Rustamovich Astanov

ProAcademy

Production of expertise on a scene in parallel with its survey in most cases is impossible for the reasons of procedural character: inspection of a scene is, as a rule, performed before initiation of legal proceedings that doesn't allow the investigator before making decision on its excitement to appoint expertise. At the same time to reveal signs of a crime and to fix traces it according to law requirements sometimes happens it is simply impossible without carrying out expert research. It was the cause of statement by us of a question of possibility of purpose of expertise before initiation of …


Legal Nature, Historical Developments Of Expertise And Comparative Analysis Of The Legislation Of Foreign Countries, Astanov Istam Rustamovich, Astanov Shuxrat Rustamovich Dec 2021

Legal Nature, Historical Developments Of Expertise And Comparative Analysis Of The Legislation Of Foreign Countries, Astanov Istam Rustamovich, Astanov Shuxrat Rustamovich

ProAcademy

This article is About expertise on criminal affairs is the separate give special status a type of the expertise, different carrying out research from the person possessing special knowledge. Expertise on criminal affairs differs from other types of expertise by that it is appointed and carried out according to strictly and precisely established Code of criminal procedure rather. The part second of article 153 Criminal Procedure Code of Moldova, devote interrogation the expert, consolidates norm on which it is forbidden to make interrogation before submission of the expert opinion and its studying. Fixing of such rule in part the second …


Corporate Accountability In Transitional Justice: Reflections On An Ongoing Social Lab (Roundtable), Tatiana Devia, Avery Kelly, Kaushik Sunder Rajan Dec 2021

Corporate Accountability In Transitional Justice: Reflections On An Ongoing Social Lab (Roundtable), Tatiana Devia, Avery Kelly, Kaushik Sunder Rajan

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

This roundtable describes and reflects upon the Corporate Liability and Sustainable Peace (CLASP) Lab, a “social lab” convened to advance corporate accountability in post-conflict and transitional justice settings around the world. Launched in February 2021, the CLASP Lab is a virtual forum in three languages, bringing together more than 40 lawyers and community activists from 25 countries in Latin America, Africa and the Middle East to share experiences and devise strategies for holding corporations accountable for human rights violations, as part of processes of transitional justice.


The Shortcomings Of Corporate Accountability In Post-Conflict Colombia: Land, Rivers And Animals, Isabella Ariza Buitrago, Luisa Gomez Betancur Dec 2021

The Shortcomings Of Corporate Accountability In Post-Conflict Colombia: Land, Rivers And Animals, Isabella Ariza Buitrago, Luisa Gomez Betancur

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

Although the notion of sustainable peace requires acknowledging the role played by all actors, transitional processes around the world have inadequately addressed or completely ignored the direct and indirect participation of economic actors. In particular, Colombia's transitional justice regime left out corporations entirely. A skillshare between Colombian lawyers and US-based human rights attorneys showed some of the gaps that let corporations continue in impunity for profiting, benefiting from, or directly financing the conflict. Other than harming and deeply fracturing communities, the shortcomings of corporate accountability in post-conflict Colombia also leave land, rivers, and animals without redress. This paper explores some …


Documenting Human Rights Violations: An Analysis Of Press Reporting On The Mexican Disappearance Crisis, Maria Terra, Yolanda Burckhardt Dec 2021

Documenting Human Rights Violations: An Analysis Of Press Reporting On The Mexican Disappearance Crisis, Maria Terra, Yolanda Burckhardt

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

The global pandemic has transformed many structures, including the way in which human rights academics and practitioners carry out their work. This project is an example of human rights research using methods that can be applied remotely from any part of the world, and even replicated in other contexts or experiences.

The initiative is one of the projects from the Observatory on Disappearances and Impunity in Mexico led by Barbara Frey (University of Minnesota), Leigh Payne (Oxford University), and Karina Ansolabehere (UNAM-México), focused on the enforced disappearances crisis occurring in Mexico. The work included an extensive database created by coding …


Utilizing International Law To Move The Jeffersons On Up To The East Side--Exploring The Potential Of International Law To Support Domestic Social Mobility, Itai Apter Dec 2021

Utilizing International Law To Move The Jeffersons On Up To The East Side--Exploring The Potential Of International Law To Support Domestic Social Mobility, Itai Apter

University of St. Thomas Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Richard Falk's Cosmopolitan View Of Sovereignty: The Ambition Of Necessity To Pursue World Order Through Law, Henry F. Carey, Stacey M. Mitchell Dec 2021

Richard Falk's Cosmopolitan View Of Sovereignty: The Ambition Of Necessity To Pursue World Order Through Law, Henry F. Carey, Stacey M. Mitchell

University of St. Thomas Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Globalization Dies And Gives Way To A Multipolar World Order, Michael O'Sullivan Dec 2021

Globalization Dies And Gives Way To A Multipolar World Order, Michael O'Sullivan

University of St. Thomas Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Sovereignty And The World Economy, Paul B. Stephan Dec 2021

Sovereignty And The World Economy, Paul B. Stephan

University of St. Thomas Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Sovereignty And National Constitutions, David L. Sloss Dec 2021

Sovereignty And National Constitutions, David L. Sloss

University of St. Thomas Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Sovereignty As A Brake On Nationalism, Jeremy Rabkin Dec 2021

Sovereignty As A Brake On Nationalism, Jeremy Rabkin

University of St. Thomas Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Sovereignty In A Globalizing, Fragmenting World, Charles J. Reid Jr. Dec 2021

Sovereignty In A Globalizing, Fragmenting World, Charles J. Reid Jr.

University of St. Thomas Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Combatting Nationalism By Applying Catholic Teaching And Studying Iran's Constitution, Raj Bhala Dec 2021

Combatting Nationalism By Applying Catholic Teaching And Studying Iran's Constitution, Raj Bhala

University of St. Thomas Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Protection Of Internally Displaced Persons In Darfur: A Dilemma And Failure Of Responsibility To Protect., Assad Salih Dec 2021

Protection Of Internally Displaced Persons In Darfur: A Dilemma And Failure Of Responsibility To Protect., Assad Salih

Archived Theses and Dissertations

One of the new emerging debatable topics is protection of Internally Displaced Persons [IDPs] from suppression of their governments. The topic has not been discussed extensively. Writings that discuss protection of IDPs are not extensive and discuss it rhetorically without defining protection mechanisms. This thesis adds to the ongoing discussion by defining and examining these protection mechanisms. It will include the emergence of new concepts like â â human securityâ â and â â responsibility to protectâ â which have changed the conceptualization of state sovereignty. The thesis will use Darfur as a case study a place where many scholars …


Detention As A Deterrent: The Legal Framework And Practices Of Migration Related Detention In Germany And Austria, Henriette Hã¤Nsch Dec 2021

Detention As A Deterrent: The Legal Framework And Practices Of Migration Related Detention In Germany And Austria, Henriette Hã¤Nsch

Archived Theses and Dissertations

The detention of migrants and asylum-seekers on administrative grounds is common practice in Germany and Austria. Administrative detention in migration settings mainly aims at facilitating deportation procedures but can also lead to deterrence. A definition for deterrence in pre-deportation detention settings is developed in this paper and applied to three German and three Austrian court cases. In this way, it is possible to show how deterrence occurs and what it looks like. Broad discretionary powers and insufficient training for law enforcement agents, such as the immigration police, as well as vague standards and procedures, play a role in the occurrence …


Durable Solutions For Stateless Persons In Egypt, Kelly Mcbriide Dec 2021

Durable Solutions For Stateless Persons In Egypt, Kelly Mcbriide

Archived Theses and Dissertations

This piece focuses on stateless persons outside their country of origin/habitual residence who are now in Egypt. A number of stateless persons have been detained because of their illegal entry into Egypt, and because of their lack of deportability, their detention becomes indefinite. There are also a number of stateless persons who are not under the protection of the UNHCR Cairo living in Cairo, who are at risk of indefinite detention because of their lack of documentation. This is a critical analysis of the UNHCR's role in implementing their mandate, and also an understanding that ultimately it is up to …


Defining The End Of New Wars, Jeroen Jansen Dec 2021

Defining The End Of New Wars, Jeroen Jansen

Archived Theses and Dissertations

New wars are defined by their innate disposition to blur distinctions and human rights violations while structurally undermining the enjoyment of human rights. These wars are self-fueling human rights cataclysms that destroy society and its social contract by blurring the distinction between government, army and people. These characteristics prolong into what is perceived as post-conflict and blur the distinction between war and peace. The lack of acknowledgment and understanding of these characteristics among the actors who provide relief and seek resolution to the conflict undermines the effectiveness of their actions and the coordination among them resulting in aid gaps. The …


Should The Right To Strike Be Justified As A Civil Or Political Right?, Elham Eidarous Al-Kassir Dec 2021

Should The Right To Strike Be Justified As A Civil Or Political Right?, Elham Eidarous Al-Kassir

Archived Theses and Dissertations

The recognition and protection of the right to strike have seen huge developments since the beginning of the twentieth century. The traditional basis upon which this right was based on the international arena and in national jurisdictions is one that views the right to strike as an essential tool in the hands of workers and their representative organizations to strengthen their bargaining power against employers, which means that the right to strike is one of economic and social rights enjoyed by humans in their capacity as workers. Yet, there are calls for widening the basis of recognition of this right …


Rethinking Norms On Return To Urban Refugee Situations: Sub-Saharan African Refugees In Cairo And Irregular Secondary Movement To Israel, Mallory Charlotte Wankel Dec 2021

Rethinking Norms On Return To Urban Refugee Situations: Sub-Saharan African Refugees In Cairo And Irregular Secondary Movement To Israel, Mallory Charlotte Wankel

Archived Theses and Dissertations

The long-running controversy in international refugee law over the concept of safe third countries is particularly challenging when refugees migrate irregularly from urban settings. While urban-based refugees often face a distinct set of human rights violations, the complexity that characterizes how these abuses fit into the larger picture of urban poverty and state ineffectiveness, combined with continued ambiguity concerning the minimal standards of protection necessary to allow a state to return a refugee to a first country of asylum, allows receiving states to deny protection obligations by relying on the argument that the hardships compelling movement, if they did not …


Developing A Practice In Remote Sensing For Next-Generation Human Rights Researchers, Theresa Harris, Jonathan Drake, Umesh K. Haritashya, Wumi Asubiaro Dada, Fredy Cumes Dec 2021

Developing A Practice In Remote Sensing For Next-Generation Human Rights Researchers, Theresa Harris, Jonathan Drake, Umesh K. Haritashya, Wumi Asubiaro Dada, Fredy Cumes

Conference: The Social Practice of Human Rights

Remote sensing is increasingly recognized as an important tool for documenting human rights abuses. When used alongside interviews, case studies, surveys, forensic science, and other well-established research methods in human rights and humanitarian practice, remotely sensed data can effectively geolocate and establish chronologies for mass graves, forced displacement, destruction of cultural heritage sites, and other violations. But as a highly technical field of science that relies on ever-changing technologies, remote sensing and geospatial analysis are not readily accessible for human rights and humanitarian practitioners. The community of practice grew out of innovative work by practitioners at NGOs and specialized inter-governmental …