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Human Rights Law

2020

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Full-Text Articles in Law

The Amazon Ablaze: Are The Environmental Policies Of The Bolsanaro Administrative In Contravention Of Brazil’S Commitment To The Convention On Biological Diversity?, Jordan Johnson Dec 2020

The Amazon Ablaze: Are The Environmental Policies Of The Bolsanaro Administrative In Contravention Of Brazil’S Commitment To The Convention On Biological Diversity?, Jordan Johnson

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

In the Summer of 2019, the Amazonian Rainforest in Brazil experienced an unprecedented increase forest fires. This dramatic uptick in forest fires, according to environmental officials and scientists, is believed to have been caused by recent, rampant illegal deforestation of the Brazilian Amazonian Rainforest. Furthermore, some within the scientific community believe that the increased deforestation and ensuing forest fires are attributable to the anti-environmental protections and pro-development policies of Brazil's President, Jair Bolsonaro. Since taking office in January 2019, President Bolsonaro has publicly endorsed and encouraged deforestation of the Amazon as a means to spur economic development within Brazil. This …


Functional Statehood In Contemporary International Law, William Thomas Worster Dec 2020

Functional Statehood In Contemporary International Law, William Thomas Worster

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

The international community lacks a form of territorial-based, international legal personality distinct from statehood, and yet, non-state, territorial entities of varying degrees of autonomy or independence need to function within the international community in some form. Some of these entities cannot be recognized as states because their creation violates jus cogens norms, though others are not recognized based on an assessment that they may not fully qualify as a state or that there are political reasons to refuse recognition. However, existing states still need to engage with these territorial quasi-states through the only paradigm the international community has—statehood. For example, …


The "People's Total War On Covid-19": Urban Pandemic Management Through (Non-)Law In Wuhan, China, Philipp Renninger Dec 2020

The "People's Total War On Covid-19": Urban Pandemic Management Through (Non-)Law In Wuhan, China, Philipp Renninger

Washington International Law Journal

Although COVID-19 was first detected in the People’s Republic of China, the pandemic now appears contained there. Western and Chinese media attribute this apparent success to the central level of the Chinese state and the Communist Party. However, this article reveals that local entities provided critical contributions to China’s COVID-19 management, particularly in the pandemic’s first epicenter: Wuhan city in Hubei province. Chinese cities like Wuhan can fight public health emergencies through legal and nonlegal instruments. Although Wuhan had prepared for possible pandemics, its existing plans, institutions, and warning systems initially failed against COVID-19. The city did not contain the …


The Impact Of Cultural Heritage On Japanese Towns And Villages, Yuichiro Tsuji Dr. Dec 2020

The Impact Of Cultural Heritage On Japanese Towns And Villages, Yuichiro Tsuji Dr.

Seattle Journal of Technology, Environmental & Innovation Law

In 1954, when historically significant clays and clay pots were found in the Iba district of Shizuoka prefecture, the city applied to the prefectural education committee for a historic site designation. The committee granted this designation to the city..

However, in 1973 the education committee lifted its permission to promote development around the location. Historians have sought revocation of this decision under the Administrative Case Litigation Act (ACLA), but the Supreme Court has denied standing. By denying standing, the Japanese Supreme Court allows the prefecture to destroy a historical site.

First, this paper seeks to discuss the doctrine of standing …


Proposed Federal Osha Standards For Wildfire Smoke, Keenan Layton Dec 2020

Proposed Federal Osha Standards For Wildfire Smoke, Keenan Layton

Seattle Journal of Technology, Environmental & Innovation Law

With the rise of global temperatures, climatologists predict a corresponding increase in the frequency and severity of wildfires in the Pacific Northwest. Rising temperatures are expected to create drier conditions in forests, thereby creating environmental conditions more prone to forest fires. Wildfires have become a common enough occurrence in the Pacific Northwest that summers have become synonymous with smoky conditions, but the issue is not constrained to this region. Though the Pacific Northwest has recently acted as a harbinger of increasing wildfires, environmental scientists forecast an increase in fire risk throughout the Western United States. The predicted rise in forest …


Who Upholds Your Human Rights When You Are “Stateless?” Why Couldn’T The Un Protect The Rohingya’S Human Rights?, Hyochan Lee Dec 2020

Who Upholds Your Human Rights When You Are “Stateless?” Why Couldn’T The Un Protect The Rohingya’S Human Rights?, Hyochan Lee

Student Theses and Dissertations

In 2017, genocide in Myanmar took place against the stateless minority Rohingya Muslims. Why couldn’t the UN protect the Rohingya’s human rights? The international community's efforts to oppose these violations against the stateless people have been only passive. Then, who upholds your human rights when you are stateless? Using chronology, historical institutionalism, and process tracing analyses, this thesis (1) evaluates the UN’s legal regime’s systemic design and capabilities in protecting human rights; then (2) identifies the design flaws of our international human rights regime; and lastly, (3) develops a recommendation to protect all people, stateless or not. Based on both …


Baldia Town Factory Inferno: Justice Delayed And Denied, Rabia Bugti Dec 2020

Baldia Town Factory Inferno: Justice Delayed And Denied, Rabia Bugti

MSJ Capstone Projects

The Baldia Town Factory Fire — as it came to be known — was one of the deadliest incidents in the history of Pakistan — the 9/11 of the country.

Over 260 ill-fated people lost their lives in the garments factory named Ali Enterprises, 16 of whom were charred beyond recognition. In September this year, finally after eight years, the anti-terrorism court announced its verdict (ANTI-TERRORISM COURT, 2017). Two key culprits were sentenced to death and four handed life imprisonment. According to the joint investigation team’s report, the factory was set on fire deliberately by the facilitators of a political …


The Annotated Accessible Canada Act - Excerpt, Laverne Jacobs, Martin Anderson, Rachel Rohr, Tom Perry Dec 2020

The Annotated Accessible Canada Act - Excerpt, Laverne Jacobs, Martin Anderson, Rachel Rohr, Tom Perry

Law Publications

An accessible MS Word version of this document is available for download at the bottom of this screen under "Additional files".

The Act to ensure a barrier-free Canada, S.C. 2019, c. 10, which is commonly known as the Accessible Canada Act (ACA) came into force on July 11, 2019. It is Canada’s first piece of federal legislation focusing on accessibility for persons with disabilities.

As a piece of federal legislation, the ACA regulates accessibility for those sectors of the economy that fall under federal jurisdiction pursuant to s. 91 of the Constitution Act, 1867. This includes …


The Human Dimension Of Peace And Aggression, Chiara Redaelli Dec 2020

The Human Dimension Of Peace And Aggression, Chiara Redaelli

International Law Studies

Since the adoption of the Charter of the United Nations, the current international legal framework has drastically changed. In its traditional understanding, aggression is “the supreme international crime” aimed at protecting sovereignty and the territorial integrity of states. On the other hand, the U.N. Charter endorses an understanding of peace in the negative sense, that is, as mere absence of war. As human rights have gained momentum, they have helped reshape the legal landscape, a phenomenon referred to as the humanization of international law. How do peace and aggression fit within the humanized legal framework? This article will investigate the …


Global Apathy And The Need For A New, Cooperative International Refugee Response, Emily Gleichert Dec 2020

Global Apathy And The Need For A New, Cooperative International Refugee Response, Emily Gleichert

Northwestern Journal of Law & Social Policy

While an increasing number of nations move toward isolationist, nationalist policies, the number of refugees worldwide is climbing to its highest levels since World War II. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is the international body tasked with protecting this population. However, the office’s traditional solutions for refugees – local integration, resettlement in a third country, and voluntary repatriation – have mostly eluded refugees who spend an average of twenty years in exile. The limitations UNHCR’s structure imposes on the office, specifically in its ability to fund its operations and compel nations to act, have contributed to its …


Decriminalizing Prostitution: Embracing The Swedish Model By Removing The Mistake-Of-Age Defense From New York’S Stop Violence In The Sex Trade Act, Carley Cooke Dec 2020

Decriminalizing Prostitution: Embracing The Swedish Model By Removing The Mistake-Of-Age Defense From New York’S Stop Violence In The Sex Trade Act, Carley Cooke

Journal of Law and Policy

In recent years, New York has re-focused on the widely debated topic of how to best manage and regulate prostitution in the United States. As a state-level issue, the debate presents an invaluable opportunity to re-examine how New York as a society views sex work. The answer in New York focuses on the idea that sex work is real work, where workers should be able to carry out their profession without stigma or fear of arrest. As it stands, the proposed reform largely focuses on decriminalizing both the purchase and sale of sex. This approach contrasts with the legal structure …


Telltale Marks: Looking Beyond Censorship Of Guantánamo, Aliana E. Sheers Dec 2020

Telltale Marks: Looking Beyond Censorship Of Guantánamo, Aliana E. Sheers

Alpenglow: Binghamton University Undergraduate Journal of Research and Creative Activity

In the United States, the government holds a storytelling monopoly; the stories it tells of Guantánamo dictate its reality, regardless of whether or not those stories are true. I will examine the government’s public statements about Guantánamo, then contrast these with covert communications and actions taken. Additionally, I will analyze iconic American images painted by detainees in classes at Guantánamo to garner the detainee perspective on the prison and the U.S. Acceptance of a single story is the antithesis of democracy; only when we strive to uncover the whole truth can we claim we have freedom of speech.


Faith And/In Medicine: Religious And Conscientious Objections To Maid, Daphne Gilbert Dec 2020

Faith And/In Medicine: Religious And Conscientious Objections To Maid, Daphne Gilbert

Dalhousie Law Journal

Across Canada, health care institutions that operate under the umbrella of religious traditions refuse to offer medical assistance in dying (MAiD) on the grounds that it violates their Charter-protected rights to freedom of religion and conscience. This article analyses the Supreme Court jurisprudence on section 2(a) and concludes that it should not extend to the protection of institutional rights. While the Court has not definitively pronounced a view on this matter, its jurisprudence suggests that any institutional right to freedom of religion would not extend to decisions on publicly-funded and legal health care. MAiD is a constitutionally-protected option for individuals …


Injustice Is An Underlying Condition, Yael Cannon Dec 2020

Injustice Is An Underlying Condition, Yael Cannon

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Race, poverty, and zip code serve as critical determinants of a person's health. Research showed the links between these factors and poor health and mortality before COVID-19, and they have only been amplified during this pandemic.

People of color experience higher rates of asthma, heart disease, diabetes, and other chronic conditions. People of color who live in poverty are even more likely to suffer from poor health; they face a “double burden” of health disparities associated with both racial and socioeconomic marginalization. Neighborhoods with concentrated poverty and with residents who are primarily people of color have even faced a life …


A Global Health Action Agenda For The Biden Administration, Lawrence O. Gostin, Donna E. Shalala, Margaret A. Hamburg, Barry R. Bloom, Jeffrey P. Koplan, Barbara K. Rimer, Michelle A. Williams Dec 2020

A Global Health Action Agenda For The Biden Administration, Lawrence O. Gostin, Donna E. Shalala, Margaret A. Hamburg, Barry R. Bloom, Jeffrey P. Koplan, Barbara K. Rimer, Michelle A. Williams

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Joe Biden will assume the US presidency at a time of unprecedented global health crises, with the COVID-19 pandemic and major setbacks in reducing poverty, hunger, and disease. The COVID-19 pandemic offers rare opportunities for the US President-elect to spearhead long-overdue structural changes and revitalise global health leadership. Building trust among global partners will be challenging, given the USA's withdrawal from, and disruption of, international cooperation under the presidency of Donald Trump. The USA will have to lead in a different, more collaborative way. Here, we offer a Global Action Agenda for the Biden Administration.


Survivor: An Analysis Of The Term From India, Pravin Patkar Dec 2020

Survivor: An Analysis Of The Term From India, Pravin Patkar

Dignity: A Journal of Analysis of Exploitation and Violence

This article discusses the need for greater conceptual clarity of the term survivor. It raises questions about the propriety of the term to refer to the victims of sex trafficking. It points out that in the Indian context, the term victim is legally and operationally defined. It cautions against the hasty incorporation of the term survivor into public policies addressing the trafficked victims' problems. Different social platforms use the term survivor differently, and the difference is not nominal. The use of the term survivor is both casual as well as intentional. The term survivor trivializes the exploitation and makes invisible …


"If Consent Is Bought, It Is Not Freely Chosen": Compromised Consent In Prostituted Sex In Ireland, Ivana Bacik Dec 2020

"If Consent Is Bought, It Is Not Freely Chosen": Compromised Consent In Prostituted Sex In Ireland, Ivana Bacik

Dignity: A Journal of Analysis of Exploitation and Violence

This article offers feminist arguments for the reconsideration of consent as a legal concept, informed by insights gained through the work of the #MeToo movement and other feminist campaigns. It suggests that consent may be seen as legally compromised in certain contexts of structured gender inequality, such as domestic violence, workplace sexual harassment, and prostitution. The legal understanding of consent in such contexts is antithetical to the conception of consent as “freely and voluntarily” given within a mutual sexual relationship. This understanding of consent underpins the recent introduction of the Nordic model approach into Irish law through the Criminal Law …


The Female Face Of Misogyny: A Review Of Decriminalizing Domestic Violence: A Balanced Policy Approach To Intimate Partner Violence By Leigh Goodmark And The Feminist War On Crime: The Unexpected Role Of Women's Liberation In Mass Incarceration By Aya Gruber, Dianne L. Post Dec 2020

The Female Face Of Misogyny: A Review Of Decriminalizing Domestic Violence: A Balanced Policy Approach To Intimate Partner Violence By Leigh Goodmark And The Feminist War On Crime: The Unexpected Role Of Women's Liberation In Mass Incarceration By Aya Gruber, Dianne L. Post

Dignity: A Journal of Analysis of Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


Human Rights In The Context Of Sustainable Development, Kuruvilla Mathen Nov 2020

Human Rights In The Context Of Sustainable Development, Kuruvilla Mathen

Theses and Dissertations

The conceptual framework of “Sustainable Development,” with its three dimensions of economic growth, social development, and environmental protection, represents the result of several significant and far-reaching initiatives. On September 25, 2015, the United Nations General Assembly adopted Resolution A/RES/70/1, “Transforming Our World: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.” Resolution A/RES/70/1 propounded seventeen “Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and 169 targets,” with a planned implementation date of 2030.

This study examines issues of sustainable development. It presents arguments that the framework of sustainable development, in its economic, social, and environmental dimensions, encompasses legally cognizable human rights, grounded in provisions and principles of …


To What Extent Pakistani Citizens Are Enjoying The Right Of Access To Information? An Exploratory Study, Ammara Yousaf, Khalid Mahmood Nov 2020

To What Extent Pakistani Citizens Are Enjoying The Right Of Access To Information? An Exploratory Study, Ammara Yousaf, Khalid Mahmood

Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal)

The purpose of this study was to explore and explain the provision of the right of access to information (RAI), a remarkable development particularly in the field of human rights and information management in Pakistan. This study has two objectives: (1) to track the practice and propensity of public information officers (PIOs) in providing information under the Punjab Transparency and Right to Information Act, 2013; (2) to examine the perceptions of information seekers in retrieving the information under the Punjab Transparency and Right to Information Act, 2013 (PTRIA, 2013). A mixed-method, sequential design with a parallel database variant was used …


Core Criminal Procedure, Steven Arrigg Koh Nov 2020

Core Criminal Procedure, Steven Arrigg Koh

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

Constitutional criminal procedural rights are familiar to contemporary criminal law scholars and practitioners alike. But today, U.S. criminal justice may diverge substantially from its centuries-old framework when all three branches recognize only a core set of inviolable rights, implicitly or explicitly discarding others. This criminal procedural line drawing takes place when the U.S. criminal justice system engages in law enforcement cooperation with foreign criminal justice systems in order to advance criminal cases.

This Article describes the two forms of this criminal procedural line drawing. The first is a “core criminal procedure” approach, rooted in fundamental rights, that arises in the …


Stewart V. Elk Valley Coal Corp.: The Rehabilitation Of Addiction Disability Law In Canada, Nadia Pronych Nov 2020

Stewart V. Elk Valley Coal Corp.: The Rehabilitation Of Addiction Disability Law In Canada, Nadia Pronych

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Canadian human rights law prohibits employers from discriminating against employees with disabilities and protects employees’ right to workplace accommodation to the point of undue hardship. However, the analysis of the case law illustrates that Canadian legal decision makers have not consistently applied the fundamental human rights laws and principles to cases involving individuals with drug and alcohol addiction disability. Stewart v. Elk Valley Coal Corp. provided the Supreme Court of Canada with the opportunity to provide much needed clarity and confirm the correct approach to be applied to claims of discrimination and accommodation on the basis of drug and alcohol …


The Idea Of A Human Rights-Based Economic Recovery After Covid-19, Katharine G. Young Nov 2020

The Idea Of A Human Rights-Based Economic Recovery After Covid-19, Katharine G. Young

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

The COVID-19 pandemic has produced a health and economic crisis of unprecedented scope. As economists and policymakers turn to the task of recovery, protecting human rights remains intrinsically important, both morally and legally. It is also instrumental to the ends of public health and economic resilience. This Article argues that the human rights to life, health, education, social security, housing, food, water and sanitation – the so-called economic and social rights – are as essential as civil and political protections. Moreover, rather than simply ameliorate the inevitable indignities and material deprivations caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, the implementation of duties …


Social Networks And The Political Participation Of Moroccan Youths In The 2015 Communal And Regional Elections., Redwan Qutbi Nov 2020

Social Networks And The Political Participation Of Moroccan Youths In The 2015 Communal And Regional Elections., Redwan Qutbi

Journal of the Arab American University مجلة الجامعة العربية الامريكية للبحوث

This study aimed at identifying the use of social networking among university youths and its relation to the political participation in the regional and communal elections held in Morocco in September in 2015. The researcher used the descriptive approach and relied on the questionnaire as an instrument for data collection. The sample of the study, made up of 400 elements, was randomly chosen. The findings showed that the youth’s use of social networking focused mainly on the events of the 2015 Moroccan communal and regional elections. The findings also showed that political gratification and monitoring of the electoral process and …


Violence Against Woman With Motor And Sensory Disability In The Jordanian Society (Quantitative Field Study), Hadeel Abu Hayyana Nov 2020

Violence Against Woman With Motor And Sensory Disability In The Jordanian Society (Quantitative Field Study), Hadeel Abu Hayyana

Journal of the Arab American University مجلة الجامعة العربية الامريكية للبحوث

This study aims at investigating the reality of violence against women with disabilities in its different types and forms (family violence, societal violence, self-violence), as well as the psychological and social effects of that violence, in addition to the responses of women with disabilities to the violence practiced against them.

In order to achieve the study goals, the researcher adopted the quantitative research method, which was applied to a sample of women consisting of (102) women with motor and sensory disability, who benefit from the services of societies and centers specialized in their disabilities, in the city of Amman by …


Medical Disputes And Conflicting Values: Is There A “Right To Die” Later?, Janet L. Dolgin Nov 2020

Medical Disputes And Conflicting Values: Is There A “Right To Die” Later?, Janet L. Dolgin

BYU Law Review

No abstract provided.


Briefing Note: Aligning International Investment Agreements With The Sustainable Development Goals, Lise Johnson, Lisa E. Sachs, Nathan Lobel Nov 2020

Briefing Note: Aligning International Investment Agreements With The Sustainable Development Goals, Lise Johnson, Lisa E. Sachs, Nathan Lobel

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment Staff Publications

Policy makers and other stakeholders are currently asking fundamental questions about whether and to what extent international investment agreements (IIAs) are consistent with and are helping to advance sustainable development objectives at home and abroad.

A 2019 paper from CCSI examines the alignment of IIAs with the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda, arguing that while FDI will play an important role in advancing development outcomes, existing treaties must be reformed and future IIAs reimagined in order to achieve deep alignment with the sustainable development goals.

The paper proposes that IIAs should be designed and evaluated with respect to their ability to …


Dispute Settlement Under The African Continental Free Trade Area Agreement: A Preliminary Assessment, Olabisi D. Akinkugbe Nov 2020

Dispute Settlement Under The African Continental Free Trade Area Agreement: A Preliminary Assessment, Olabisi D. Akinkugbe

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

The African Continental Free Trade Area Agreement (AfCFTA) will add a new dispute settlement system to the plethora of judicial mechanisms designed to resolve trade disputes in Africa. Against the discontent of Member States and limited impact the existing highly legalized trade dispute settlement mechanisms have had on regional economic integration in Africa, this paper undertakes a preliminary assessment of the AfCFTA Dispute Settlement Mechanism (DSM). In particular, the paper situates the AfCFTA-DSM in the overall discontent and unsupportive practices of African States with highly legalized dispute settlement systems and similar WTO-Styled DSMs among other shortcomings. Notwithstanding the transplantation of …


Surrogacy And Human Flourishing, Seow Hon Tan Nov 2020

Surrogacy And Human Flourishing, Seow Hon Tan

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

Opposition to legalizing surrogacy often involves the argument that it commodifies or objectifies women and children. When surrogacy involves consenting parties claiming to benefit from the transaction, commodification- or objectification-based arguments seem unpersuasive. This article argues that new natural law theory offers an alternative case against legalizing surrogacy based on the violation of basic goods of human flourishing, a notion which unpacks afresh what is really at stake in the commodification/objectification arguments. Exploring the new natural law approach through John Finnis’s theory, this article suggests that the new natural law case against surrogacy hinges on the link between childbirth and …


Local Elected Officials’ Receptivity To Refugee Resettlement In The United States, Robert Shaffer, Lauren E. Pinson, Jonathan A. Chu, Beth A. Simmons Oct 2020

Local Elected Officials’ Receptivity To Refugee Resettlement In The United States, Robert Shaffer, Lauren E. Pinson, Jonathan A. Chu, Beth A. Simmons

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Carey Law

Local leaders possess significant and growing authority over refugee resettlement, yet we know little about their attitudes toward refugees. In this article, we use a conjoint experiment to evaluate how the attributes of hypothetical refugee groups influence local policymaker receptivity toward refugee resettlement. We sample from a novel, national panel of current local elected officials, who represent a broad range of urban and rural communities across the United States. We find that many local officials favor refugee resettlement regardless of refugee attributes. However, officials are most receptive to refugees whom they perceive as a strong economic and social fit within …