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Human Rights Law

2006

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Articles 1 - 30 of 383

Full-Text Articles in Law

Legislating Racial Fairness In Criminal Justice, Olatunde C.A. Johnson Dec 2006

Legislating Racial Fairness In Criminal Justice, Olatunde C.A. Johnson

Faculty Scholarship

Twenty years ago, in McCleskey v. Kemp, the Supreme Court rejected a capital defendant's claim that statistical evidence of racial discrimination in the administration of Georgia's death penalty system constituted a violation of the Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments. Yet, even as McCleskey effectively bars constitutional challenges to racial disparities in the criminal justice system where invidious bias is difficult to establish, the Court invites advocates to pursue legislation as a remedy to racial disparities. Indeed, the McCleskey Court offers as a rationale for its ruling the judiciary's institutional incompetence to remedy these disparities, holding that "McCleskey's arguments are best …


Full Volume 82: The Law Of War In The 21st Century: Weaponry And The Use Of Force Dec 2006

Full Volume 82: The Law Of War In The 21st Century: Weaponry And The Use Of Force

International Law Studies

No abstract provided.


Chemical Agents And "Expanding" Bullets" Limited Law Enforcement Exceptions Or Unwarranted Handcuffs?, Kenneth Watkin Dec 2006

Chemical Agents And "Expanding" Bullets" Limited Law Enforcement Exceptions Or Unwarranted Handcuffs?, Kenneth Watkin

International Law Studies

No abstract provided.


War And International Law: Distinguishing Military And Humanitarian Professions, David Kennedy Dec 2006

War And International Law: Distinguishing Military And Humanitarian Professions, David Kennedy

International Law Studies

No abstract provided.


The Un: A Situation Report, Benjamin Zawacki Dec 2006

The Un: A Situation Report, Benjamin Zawacki

ExpressO

The UN: A Situation Report is a review of two recent books on the past, present, and future of the UN; in short, of its relevance in a changing and uni-polar world at the end of Kofi Annan’s two terms as Secretary-General. The books’ focus is both on the organization’s successes and failures, and its efforts at self-reform in the face of near-constant criticism. They are reviewed as individually divergent in quality but as a formidable “situation report” when read in tandem. Paul Kennedy’s The Parliament of Man, save for its first of three parts, is generally criticized for its …


The Relative Universality Of Human Rights (Revised), Jack Donnelly Dec 2006

The Relative Universality Of Human Rights (Revised), Jack Donnelly

Human Rights & Human Welfare

© Jack Donnelly. All rights reserved.

This article is forthcoming in Human Rights Quarterly.

This paper may be freely circulated in electronic or hard copy provided it is not modified in any way, the rights of the author not infringed, and the paper is not quoted or cited without express permission of the author. The editors cannot guarantee a stable URL for any paper posted here, nor will they be responsible for notifying others if the URL is changed or the paper is taken off the site. Electronic copies of this paper may not be posted on any other website …


Mnc Liability For International Human Rights Violations Under The Alien Tort Claims Act., Frank Christian Olah Dec 2006

Mnc Liability For International Human Rights Violations Under The Alien Tort Claims Act., Frank Christian Olah

ExpressO

This paper seeks to elucidate the fundamental sources of ATCA jurisprudence that have modernized the act into the weapon it has become for foreign human rights plaintiffs. It also attempts to describe some of the forms of liability asserted against MNCs, paying special attention to the competing forms of aiding & abetting liability as conceptualized in the Unocal case. Part II of this paper will provide a brief and concise review of the three cases every ATCA corporate defendant should know: Filartiga, Kadic and Sosa. These cases lay the groundwork for human rights litigation against MNCs under the ATCA’s modern …


Taking Judicial Notice Of Genocide? The Problematic Law And Policy Of The Karemera Decision, Ralph Mamiya Dec 2006

Taking Judicial Notice Of Genocide? The Problematic Law And Policy Of The Karemera Decision, Ralph Mamiya

ExpressO

On June 16, 2006, the Appeals Chamber of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda issued a decision in Prosecutor v. Karemera taking judicial notice of the fact that genocide occurred in Rwanda in 1994. This decision startled many court observers. While no internationally respected commentator would today question whether the Rwanda genocide took place, should such an event be judicially noticed without evidence? This paper examines that question, arguing that the ICTR Appeals Chamber’s expansive use of judicial notice in Karemera was both illogical and unwise. Genocide, whether as an historical fact or legal charge, fails to meet the “common …


Rights Rhetoric As An Instrument Of Religious Oppression In Sri Lanka, Tracy Hresko Dec 2006

Rights Rhetoric As An Instrument Of Religious Oppression In Sri Lanka, Tracy Hresko

Boston College International and Comparative Law Review

Two laws proposed by the Sri Lankan government present a threat to Christians and other religious minorities in the country. Though purportedly designed to prevent “unethical or fraudulent conversions,” the laws are overly broad and ill-defined, giving Sri Lankan officials the latitude to use them to suppress minority religious activities. Indeed, despite being couched in the rhetoric of religious liberty and human rights, the laws are likely to be used by the Buddhist majority as instru ments of oppression over unpopular religious groups.


On Conflict Of Human Rights, Xiaobing Xu, George Wilson Dec 2006

On Conflict Of Human Rights, Xiaobing Xu, George Wilson

The University of New Hampshire Law Review

[Excerpt] “This article supports Gewirth’s view: that is, the reason why utilitarian values such as national security, public safety, public order, public health, and public morality may outweigh human rights is that they contain human rights elements. Thus, as a rule, whenever human rights clash with nonrights value considerations, we should analyze whether they contain human rights elements. If they do, they may override human rights that conflict with them. If they do not, they cannot.”


Religião, Direitos Humanos E Educação, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha Nov 2006

Religião, Direitos Humanos E Educação, Paulo Ferreira Da Cunha

Paulo Ferreira da Cunha

Não admira que haja atritos, incompreensões, entre as religiões e os poderes. Porque, antes de mais, foi preciso a uns e a outros comprimirem-se para darem lugar (espaço, mesmo) ao outro tipo de normatividade e de poder. Em muitos casos históricos se terá começado com um poder de índole teocrática. E só com o tempo e o progresso social e político se passaria a admitir a cisão do mando, num ramo secular e num ramo sacral. O grande problema do tratamento da questão religiosa do ponto de vista dos Direitos Humanos, é que se trata, no limite, de pôr uma …


Torture As A Problem In Ordinary Legal Interpretation, Alan Hyde Nov 2006

Torture As A Problem In Ordinary Legal Interpretation, Alan Hyde

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

American legal discourse on torture takes for granted some, usually all, of the following propositions, that make discussion of torture more difficult than it should be. Torture is assumed to present unusually difficult problems of definition, full of vague concepts, fine lines, gray areas, murky moral dilemmas, "dirty hands." This vagueness is thought to be even more of a problem for the attendant concept of "cruel, inhuman, and degrading treatment." The legal sources of either prohibition are assumed to be dubious under American law. Prohibiting torture is, perhaps for these reasons, thought to require moral justification not necessarily required of …


(Not Yet) Taking Rights Seriously: The House Of Lords In Begum V. Headteacher And Governors Of Denbigh High School, Gareth Davies Nov 2006

(Not Yet) Taking Rights Seriously: The House Of Lords In Begum V. Headteacher And Governors Of Denbigh High School, Gareth Davies

Human Rights & Human Welfare

© Gareth Davies. All rights reserved.

This paper may be freely circulated in electronic or hard copy provided it is not modified in any way, the rights of the author not infringed, and the paper is not quoted or cited without express permission of the author. The editors cannot guarantee a stable URL for any paper posted here, nor will they be responsible for notifying others if the URL is changed or the paper is taken off the site. Electronic copies of this paper may not be posted on any other website without express permission of the author.


Beyond Bankovic: Extraterritorial Application Of The European Convention On Human Rights, Federico Sperotto Nov 2006

Beyond Bankovic: Extraterritorial Application Of The European Convention On Human Rights, Federico Sperotto

Human Rights & Human Welfare

The obligations set forth in the international and regional instruments on human rights are considered as having a strictly territorial scope. States parties have the duty to guarantee the rights recognized in the treaties to all individuals within their territories. The territorial reach of these obligations is expanding by way of interpretation. In its decision on Bankovic, the European Court reduced the impact of this international trend toward a progressive enlargement of the protection granted by human rights treaties, affirming those attacks conducted by NATO against Yugoslavia in 1999 fell out of the extraterritorial reach of the European Convention. After …


Compensation For Property Under The European Convention On Human Rights, Tom Allen Nov 2006

Compensation For Property Under The European Convention On Human Rights, Tom Allen

ExpressO

This Article investigates the nature of the right to property guaranteed under the First Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights ('P1-1'). It argues that the European Court of Human Rights has been torn between two theories of the right to property. The first is the "integrated theory", and it holds that the right to property shares common values and purposes with other Convention rights. Hence, the interpretation of P1-1 should reflect principles developed in the interpretation of other Convention rights. It is argued that the application of the integrated theory should support a "social model" of property. The …


Interview With Gregorios Iii, Patriarch Of Antioch And All The East, Of Alexandria And Of Jerusalem, Marcel Stuessi Nov 2006

Interview With Gregorios Iii, Patriarch Of Antioch And All The East, Of Alexandria And Of Jerusalem, Marcel Stuessi

Marcel Stüssi

This is a previously unpublished Interview with Gregorios III, Patriarch of Antioch and all the East, of Alexandria and of Jerusalem


A Review Of Procedural And Jurisdictional Challenges In Enforcing International Human Rights Law Under The African Charter Regime, Morris K. Mbondenyi, Nixon Wanyama Sifuna Nov 2006

A Review Of Procedural And Jurisdictional Challenges In Enforcing International Human Rights Law Under The African Charter Regime, Morris K. Mbondenyi, Nixon Wanyama Sifuna

ExpressO

The interpretation and enforcement of international human rights law has tremendously evolved since the adoption of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights. The Charter introduced procedural and jurisdictional paradigms that have moulded this branch of law to resonate Africa’s context and values, by for instance, evolving concepts and approaches distinct from those of the other regions. While striving to achieve this, the Charter has also had to grapple with an avalanche of procedural and jurisdictional challenges. This Article highlights these challenges and proposes ways in which they can be surmounted. It proceeds on the premise that contrary to …


Human Rights, Clif Bennette Nov 2006

Human Rights, Clif Bennette

ExpressO

American authorities believe torture is necessary to keep America safe from terrorists, but want to avoid being accused of war crimes. So, longstanding US law and the Geneva Conventions were reinterpreted to provide legal cover. Further, policy memos saying most torture is legal were written, and activities associated with torture are shielded from Congressional oversight.


Linking Global Warming To Inuit Human Rights, Marguerite E. Middaugh Nov 2006

Linking Global Warming To Inuit Human Rights, Marguerite E. Middaugh

San Diego International Law Journal

Under international law, the United States government has violated the Inuit's human rights by failing to take action against climate change. The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights should find that the allegations of human rights violations by the Inuit are justified and rule in their favor. This Article first explores the impacts of climate change on the Inuit and each of the Inuit's basic human rights, which are implicated by the environmental changes. Next, the role and responsibility of the U.S. with respect to climate change is examined. This section discusses the current attitude and actions of the U.S. government, …


U.S. Asylum Law Out Of Sync With International Obligations: Real Id Act, Victor P. White Nov 2006

U.S. Asylum Law Out Of Sync With International Obligations: Real Id Act, Victor P. White

San Diego International Law Journal

Focusing on defensive asylum applications, this Comment examines whether certain provisions of REAL ID violate due process and international obligations to asylum seekers. Part I situates REAL ID within the historical context of nearly a decade of restrictive U.S. immigration law and over two decades of Executive Orders aimed at deterring a mass exodus of asylum seekers from reaching U.S. shores. Part II provides an overview of the U.S. asylum system and argues that the system produces inconsistent and sometimes arbitrary results, indicating that segments of the system do not satisfy international obligations. Part III outlines three provisions of REAL …


J. Eric Dibbern On Forbidden Families: Family Unification And Child Registration In East Jerusalem By Yael Stein. Hamoked: Center For The Defense Of The Individual, 2004. 41pp., J. Eric Dibbern Nov 2006

J. Eric Dibbern On Forbidden Families: Family Unification And Child Registration In East Jerusalem By Yael Stein. Hamoked: Center For The Defense Of The Individual, 2004. 41pp., J. Eric Dibbern

Human Rights & Human Welfare

A review of:

Forbidden Families: Family Unification and Child Registration in East Jerusalem by Yael Stein. HaMoked: Center for the Defense of the Individual, 2004. 41pp.


Sarah Bania-Dobyns On New Terror, New Wars By Paul Gilbert. Washington, Dc: Georgetown University Press, 2003. 176pp., Sarah Bania-Dobyns Nov 2006

Sarah Bania-Dobyns On New Terror, New Wars By Paul Gilbert. Washington, Dc: Georgetown University Press, 2003. 176pp., Sarah Bania-Dobyns

Human Rights & Human Welfare

A review of:

New Terror, New Wars by Paul Gilbert. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2003. 176pp.


Treatment And Interrogation Of Detained Persons, David E. Graham Oct 2006

Treatment And Interrogation Of Detained Persons, David E. Graham

International Law Studies

No abstract provided.


Military Commissions - Kangaroo Courts?, Charles H.B. Garraway Oct 2006

Military Commissions - Kangaroo Courts?, Charles H.B. Garraway

International Law Studies

No abstract provided.


The Coalescence Of United States Immigration Law And International Criminal Law: An Exploration Of Elias Zacarias In The Context Of Female Genital Mutilation, George S. Yacoubian Oct 2006

The Coalescence Of United States Immigration Law And International Criminal Law: An Exploration Of Elias Zacarias In The Context Of Female Genital Mutilation, George S. Yacoubian

ExpressO

In INS v. Elias Zacarias, the Supreme Court (SC) affirmed that nongovernmental actors (e.g., guerilla groups) can commit “persecution” as defined by § 101(a)(42) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA). Human rights violations by any international actor, governmental or otherwise, can thus, according to Elias Zacarias, trigger asylum protection in the United States (US). In contrast, the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT), to which the US is a party, requires the victimizer to be a “public official or other person acting in an official capacity.”

The CAT thus imposes a state …


A Complete Property Right Amendment, John H. Ryskamp Oct 2006

A Complete Property Right Amendment, John H. Ryskamp

ExpressO

The trend of the eminent domain reform and "Kelo plus" initiatives is toward a comprehensive Constitutional property right incorporating the elements of level of review, nature of government action, and extent of compensation. This article contains a draft amendment which reflects these concerns.


Combating Terrorism In Bosnia-Herzegovina: Explaining And Assessing Article 201 Of The Bosnian Criminal Code, Henry M. Lovat Oct 2006

Combating Terrorism In Bosnia-Herzegovina: Explaining And Assessing Article 201 Of The Bosnian Criminal Code, Henry M. Lovat

ExpressO

This paper explores the legal measures that have been enacted in Bosnia-Herzegovina (BiH) to counter the threat of terrorism, focusing particularly on the international and domestic political context in which the reform of the Bosnian criminal code was carried out, on the apparent origins of Article 201 of the BiH criminal code in the European Union Framework Decision on Combating Terrorism of June 2002 and on the strengths and weaknesses of this definition in the Bosnian context. The paper argues firstly that the events of 9/11, while certainly of significance, were less salient to the definition of terrorism adopted in …


Of Politics And Policy: Can The U.S. Maintain Its Credibility Abroad While Ignoring The Needs Of Its Children At Home?—Revisiting The U.N. Convention On The Rights Of The Child As A Transnational Framework For Local Governing, Cleveland Ferguson Oct 2006

Of Politics And Policy: Can The U.S. Maintain Its Credibility Abroad While Ignoring The Needs Of Its Children At Home?—Revisiting The U.N. Convention On The Rights Of The Child As A Transnational Framework For Local Governing, Cleveland Ferguson

ExpressO

The article uses the lens of the Convention on the Rights of the Child as a framework for developing solutions. It compares the world’s approach of using the underpinnings of the Convention to create the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This process represents a positive evolution in international human rights law. Use of the MDGs has met with some success. As a result, the article compares the U.S. go-it-alone approach with that of the collaborative model of the MDGs. Pointing out that child law is primarily state law, the article then discusses the ways in which local governments (cities, counties, and …


Off To Elba: The Legitimacy Of Sex Offender Residence And Employment Restrictions, Joseph L. Lester Oct 2006

Off To Elba: The Legitimacy Of Sex Offender Residence And Employment Restrictions, Joseph L. Lester

ExpressO

Overborne by a mob mentality for justice, officials at every level of government are enacting laws that effectively exile convicted sex offenders from their midst with little contemplation as to the appropriateness or constitutionality of their actions. These laws fundamentally alter the liberties and freedom of convicted sex offenders to satisfy the ignorant fear of the masses. As a result, residence and employment restrictions which in theory are to protect society, in practice only exacerbate the perceived recidivism problem. When such laws are passed and the political process is broken, it is necessary for the judicial branch to step forward …


Labor’S Human Rights: A Review Of The Nature And Status Of Core Labor Rights As Human Rights, Roy J. Adams Oct 2006

Labor’S Human Rights: A Review Of The Nature And Status Of Core Labor Rights As Human Rights, Roy J. Adams

Human Rights & Human Welfare

© Roy J. Adams. All rights reserved.

This paper may be freely circulated in electronic or hard copy provided it is not modified in any way, the rights of the author not infringed, and the paper is not quoted or cited without express permission of the author. The editors cannot guarantee a stable URL for any paper posted here, nor will they be responsible for notifying others if the URL is changed or the paper is taken off the site. Electronic copies of this paper may not be posted on any other website without express permission of the author.