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The Lawyers Justice Corps: A Licensing Pathway To Enhance Access To Justice, Eileen Kaufman Jan 2022

The Lawyers Justice Corps: A Licensing Pathway To Enhance Access To Justice, Eileen Kaufman

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The idea for establishing a Lawyers Justice Corps emerged out of efforts to solve a problem: how to license lawyers at a time when COVID-19 had expanded the need for new lawyers while also making an in-person bar exam dangerous, if not impossible. We-the Collaboratory on Legal Education and Licensing for Practice'-proposed the Lawyers Justice Corps to provide a different and better way of certifying minimum competence for new attorneys while at the same time helping to create a new generation of lawyers equipped to address a wide range of social justice, racial justice, and criminal justice issues. When implemented, …


Seeking Economic Justice In The Face Of Enduring Racism, Deseriee A. Kennedy Jan 2021

Seeking Economic Justice In The Face Of Enduring Racism, Deseriee A. Kennedy

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No abstract provided.


The Policy On Children Of The Icc Office Of The Prosecutor: Toward Greater Accountability For Crimes Against And Affecting Children, Diane Marie Amann Jan 2020

The Policy On Children Of The Icc Office Of The Prosecutor: Toward Greater Accountability For Crimes Against And Affecting Children, Diane Marie Amann

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The Policy on Children published by the International Criminal Court Office of the Prosecutor in 2016 represents a significant step toward accountability for harms to children in armed conflict and similar extreme violence. This article describes the process that led to the Policy and outlines the Policy’s contents. It then surveys relevant ICC practice and related developments, concluding that despite some salutary efforts, much remains to be done to recognize, prevent and punish the spectrum of conflicted-related crimes against or affecting children.


What We Talk About When We Talk About Sanctuary Cities, Michael Kagan Jan 2018

What We Talk About When We Talk About Sanctuary Cities, Michael Kagan

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In this Essay, Professor Michael Kagan asserts when immigrant rights advocates ask their local, state and university leaders to become "sanctuary cities," "sanctuary states," "sanctuary campuses," and so on, they carelessly hurt immigrants in places like Nevada, Texas, and Arizona. And there are a lot of immigrants in those states. People who mean to help immigrants are hurting them. He first sets out assumptions he makes about the semantics and politics of "sanctuary" debates. These assumptions include setting out the kind of actual policies that are usually under consideration when people invoke the sanctuary label, and a way of understanding …


A Right To Care, Stacey A. Tovino Jan 2018

A Right To Care, Stacey A. Tovino

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In this Article, Professor Stacey Tovino examines the right to care through a personal and historical lens, then attempts to fill a scholarly gap in legal literature surrounding the right to skilled care and rehabilitation for patients with group or commercial insurance. Professor Tovino first recounts the history of Medicare coverage for skilled care and rehabilitation, then she examines the limitations of group and commercial insurance, finally concluding by asserting a right to care.


Limiting Deterrence: Judicial Resistance To Detention Of Asylum-Seekers In Israel And The United States, Michael Kagan Jan 2016

Limiting Deterrence: Judicial Resistance To Detention Of Asylum-Seekers In Israel And The United States, Michael Kagan

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Governments have advanced the argument that asylum-seekers may be detained in order to deter other would-­be asylum­-seekers from coming. But in recent litigation in the United States and Israel, this justification for mass detention met with significant resistance from courts. This Essay looks at the way the American and Israeli courts dealt with the proposed deterrence rationale for asylum-seeker detention. It suggests that general deterrence raises three sequential questions:

1. Is deterrence ever legitimate as a stand alone justification for depriving people of liberty?

2. If deterrence is sometimes legitimate, is it valid as a general matter in migration control, …


Legacies Of Exceptionalism And The Future Of Gay Rights In Singapore, Stewart Chang Jan 2016

Legacies Of Exceptionalism And The Future Of Gay Rights In Singapore, Stewart Chang

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This article analyses how the ties between Singaporean exceptionalism and its Western colonial and neocolonial roots explain why the Singapore's legislature and judiciary have retained its anti-sodomy statute under s 377A of the Penal Code. After decolonisation, restrictive laws pertaining to sexual conduct, originally justified by colonial lawmakers as bringing superior Western moral order to the uncivilised Asian territories, evolved into an "Asian values" moral exceptionalism that distinguished Singapore from the overly liberal West. This exceptionalism, however, also illustrates an Oedipal angst of the Singaporean Government to overcome and overtake the old colonial father in its attempt to redefine itself …


Securing Child Rights In Time Of Conflict, Diane Marie Amann Jan 2016

Securing Child Rights In Time Of Conflict, Diane Marie Amann

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Each term in the title of this essay seems simple, yet provides much food for analytical thought. The essay thus explores: what is “conflict,” and whether there is a “time” when it is not present; who is a “child”; whether and to what extent children enjoy “rights”; and, finally, how local, national, and international regimes go about “securing” those rights. The essay – based on a talk given at the 2015 International Law Weekend in New York – concludes with a glance at a new potential avenue for child security: the Sustainable Development Goals which the U.N. General Assembly adopted …


Children, Diane Marie Amann Jan 2016

Children, Diane Marie Amann

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This chapter, which appears in The Cambridge Companion to International Criminal Law (William A. Schabas ed. 2016), discusses how international criminal law instruments and institutions address crimes against and affecting children. It contrasts the absence of express attention in the post-World War II era with the multiple provisions pertaining to children in the 1998 Statute of the International Criminal Court. The chapter examines key judgments in that court and in the Special Court for Sierra Leone, as well as the ICC’s current, comprehensive approach to the effects that crimes within its jurisdiction have on children. The chapter concludes with a …


The Post-Postcolonial Woman Or Child, Diane Marie Amann Jan 2015

The Post-Postcolonial Woman Or Child, Diane Marie Amann

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This essay is based on remarks given as Distinguished Discussant for the 16th annual Grotius Lecture at the 2014 Annual Meeting of the American Society of International Law/Biennial Conference of the International Law Association. The essay examines the international law status of women, on the one hand, and children, on the other, through the contemporary lens of the post-postcolonial world and the historical lens of Hugo Grotius and the colonialist era. In so doing, the essay responds to the principal Grotius Lecture, "Women and Children: The Cutting Edge of International Law," which was delivered by Radhika Coomarswamy, NYU Global Professor …


Immigrant Victims, Immigrant Accusers, Michael Kagan Jan 2015

Immigrant Victims, Immigrant Accusers, Michael Kagan

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The U Visa program provides an immigration status to noncitizen victims of crime, which is essential to prevent unauthorized immigrants from being afraid to seek help from the police, and thus becoming easy prey for criminals. This visa falls into a category of immigration programs that grant benefits on the basis of victim status, rather than on family or employment connections to the United States. But the federal government structured the U Visa program so that in order to be protected as a victim, a person must also become an accuser. The U Visa thus implicates the rights of third …


Believable Victims: Asylum Credibility And The Struggle For Objectivity, Michael Kagan Jan 2015

Believable Victims: Asylum Credibility And The Struggle For Objectivity, Michael Kagan

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Asylum adjudication is often the invisible frontline in the struggle by oppressed groups to gain recognition for their plights. Through this process, individual people must tell their stories and try to show that they are genuine victims of persecution rather than simply illegal immigrants attempting to slip through the system. In 2002, because the world had not yet acknowledged the nature of the calamity from which they were escaping, many Darfurian asylum cases would have relied on the ability of each individual to convince government offices to believe their stories. They would have had to be deemed “credible,” or they …


International Law And The Future Of Peace, Diane Marie Amann Jan 2014

International Law And The Future Of Peace, Diane Marie Amann

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These remarks, delivered at the April 4, 2013, luncheon of the American Society of International Law Women in International Law Interest Group, reflects on contributions of Jane Addams and other members of the early 20th C. peace movement as a means to explore law and practice related to the contemporary use of force and armed conflict.


Must Israel Accept Syrian Refugees?, Michael Kagan Jan 2014

Must Israel Accept Syrian Refugees?, Michael Kagan

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In this article, Professor Michael Kagan discusses Israel's policy to refuse asylum to "subjects of enemy or hostile states," in the context of a 2004 asylum case filed by a Syrian girl. A decade later, Israel has not accepted a single Syrian refugee. Professor Kagan examines the moral and legal responsibilities of Israel and how they conflict with its current policy.


The Postcolonial Problem For Global Gay Rights, Stewart Chang Jan 2014

The Postcolonial Problem For Global Gay Rights, Stewart Chang

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As the United States and Europe have progressed to the issue of same-sex marriage, countries that are still working through antecedent issues, such as the decriminalization of anti-sodomy laws, are regarded by international gay rights advocates as lagging behind the times. This often leads to pressures from the Western-dominated international community for reform. Through this Article, Professor Stewart Chang contributes to the ongoing scholarly debate between international human rights activists who desire to advance gay rights by utilizing the same rights-based models that prevail in the United States and Europe and critics of this approach who deem the universal imposition …


From Kiobel Back To Structural Reform: The Hidden Legacy Of Holocaust Restitution Litigation, Leora Bilsky, Rodger D. Citron, Natalie R. Davidson Jan 2014

From Kiobel Back To Structural Reform: The Hidden Legacy Of Holocaust Restitution Litigation, Leora Bilsky, Rodger D. Citron, Natalie R. Davidson

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This paper offers a new approach to the issue of transnational corporate liability for human rights violations and more generally an inquiry into the place of domestic legal experiences in theorizing about transnational law. Grounded in a study of the Holocaust restitution litigation of the 1990s, we explain corporate liability as a type of bureaucratic liability and explore in depth the relationship between the Holocaust litigation and the theory of structural reform litigation developed in the U.S. to address the bureaucratic structure of rights violations. We read the restitution litigation in light of pluralist reformulations of structural reform, in which …


Book Review: Reimagining Child Soldiers In International Law And Policy By Mark A. Drumbl., Diane Marie Amann Jul 2013

Book Review: Reimagining Child Soldiers In International Law And Policy By Mark A. Drumbl., Diane Marie Amann

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Book review of Reimagining Child Soldiers in International Law and Policy by Mark A. Drumbl(New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 2012).


Children And The First Verdict Of The International Criminal Court, Diane Marie Amann Jan 2013

Children And The First Verdict Of The International Criminal Court, Diane Marie Amann

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Child soldiers were a central concern in the first decade of the International Criminal Court; indeed, the court’s first trial, Prosecutor v. Lubanga, dealt exclusively with the war crimes of conscripting, enlisting, and using child soldiers. This article compares the attention that the court has paid to children – an attention that serves the express terms of the ICC Statute – with the relative inattention in post-World War II international instruments such as the statutes of the Nuremberg and Tokyo tribunals. The article then analyzes the Lubanga conviction, sentence, and reparations rulings. It recommends that the ICC focus attention on …


The Role Of Foreign Authorities In U.S. Asylum Adjudication, Fatma E. Marouf Jan 2013

The Role Of Foreign Authorities In U.S. Asylum Adjudication, Fatma E. Marouf

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U.S. asylum law is based on a domestic statute that incorporates an international treaty, the U.N. Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees. While Supreme Court cases indicate that the rules of treaty interpretation apply to an incorporative statute, courts analyzing the statutory asylum provisions fail to give weight to the interpretations of our sister signatories, which is one of the distinctive and uncontroversial principles of treaty interpretation. This Article highlights this significant omission and urges courts to examine the interpretations of other States Parties to the Protocol in asylum cases. Using as an example the current debate over social …


A Janus Look At International Criminal Justice, Diane Marie Amann Jan 2013

A Janus Look At International Criminal Justice, Diane Marie Amann

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Invoking the name of Janus, the Roman god who looked simultaneously at the past and the future, this article examines international criminal justice at a watershed moment, when a number of 20-year-old ad hoc tribunals were winding down even as the International Criminal Court was entering its teen years. First explored are challenges posed by politics – that is, the need to secure cooperation from states and from the U.N. Security Council – and economics – that is, the need to work within budgetary constraints. The article then surveys significant developments in each of a half-dozen international criminal courts and …


Rights To Health Care In The United States: Inherently Unstable, David Orentlicher Jan 2012

Rights To Health Care In The United States: Inherently Unstable, David Orentlicher

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No abstract provided.


Stoney Road Out Of Eden: The Struggle To Recover Insurance For Armenian Genocide Deaths And Its Implications For The Future Of State Authority, Contract Rights, And Human Rights, Jeffrey W. Stempel, Sarig Armenian, David Mcclure Jan 2012

Stoney Road Out Of Eden: The Struggle To Recover Insurance For Armenian Genocide Deaths And Its Implications For The Future Of State Authority, Contract Rights, And Human Rights, Jeffrey W. Stempel, Sarig Armenian, David Mcclure

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The Armenian Genocide during the waning days of the Ottoman Empire continues to represent one of history’s underappreciated atrocities. Comparatively few people even know about the 1.5 million deaths or the government-sponsored extermination attempt that provided Hitler with a blueprint for the Nazi Holocaust. Unlike the Holocaust, however, there was never any accounting demanded of those responsible for the Armenian Genocide. In the aftermath of both tragedies, insurers seized upon the resulting disarray and victimization to deny life insurance benefits owed as a result of the killings. American-based litigation to vindicate rights under the Armenian polices faced substantial legal and …


Politics And Prosecutions, From Katherine Fite To Fatou Bensouda, Diane Marie Amann Jan 2012

Politics And Prosecutions, From Katherine Fite To Fatou Bensouda, Diane Marie Amann

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Based on the Katherine B. Fite Lecture delivered at the 5th Annual International Humanitarian Law Dialogs in Chautauqua, New York, this essay examines the role that politics has played in the evolution of international criminal justice. It first establishes the frame of the lecture series and its relation to IntLawGrrls blog, a cosponsor of the IHL Dialogs. It then discusses the career of the series' namesake, Katherine B. Fite, a State Department lawyer who helped draft the Charter of the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg and who was, in her own words, a "political observer" of the proceedings. The essay …


From Fragmentation To Constitutionalization, Harlan G. Cohen Jan 2012

From Fragmentation To Constitutionalization, Harlan G. Cohen

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This short essay, prepared for a panel on “The Impact of a Wider Dissemination of Human Rights Norms: Fragmentation or Unity?,” explores the connection between two popular, but seemingly contradictory discourses in international law: fragmentation and constitutionalization. After disentangling and categorizing the various types of fragmentation international law may be experiencing, the essay focuses in on one form in particular, the “fragmentation of the legal community.” This most radical version of fragmentation, the essay argues, has spurred a number of responses, many of which suggest the beginnings of a constitutional conflicts regime for international law. The essay ends by suggesting …


We Live In A Country Of Unhcr: The Un Surrogate State And Refugee Policy In The Middle East, Michael Kagan Feb 2011

We Live In A Country Of Unhcr: The Un Surrogate State And Refugee Policy In The Middle East, Michael Kagan

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Many gaps in the protection of refugees can be connected to a de facto transfer of responsibility for managing refugee policy from sovereign states to United Nations agencies. This phenomenon can be seen in dozens of countries in the Middle East, Africa and Asia, where the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) or the UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) manage refugee camps, register newly arrived asylum-seekers, carry out refugee status determination, and administer education, health, livelihood and other social welfare programs.

In carrying out these functions, the UN acts to a great …


Mapping The Human Right To Water On The Colorado River, Bret C. Birdsong Jan 2011

Mapping The Human Right To Water On The Colorado River, Bret C. Birdsong

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Colorado River systems-both ecological and legal-are facing a coming crisis. The river snakes its way from the Rocky Mountain crest to the Gulf of California, draining 245,000 square miles encompassing parts of seven of the United States ("U.S.") and two Mexican states. The river and its tributaries provide drinking water for growing population of thirty million in an even larger area because some of its water is diverted to serve out-of-basin demands in both the U.S. and Mexico. Aside from bringing life-sustaining water to people for personal use, it provides irrigation water for some of the most valuable agricultural lands …


Beyond The Guantánamo Bind: Pragmatic Multilateralism In Refugee Resettlement, Melissa J. Durkee Jan 2011

Beyond The Guantánamo Bind: Pragmatic Multilateralism In Refugee Resettlement, Melissa J. Durkee

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The international refugee protection system is under threat. States weary of increased refugee flows and preoccupied with national security increasingly exploit legal gaps or avoid refugee law altogether. The U.S. approach to resettlement of Guantánamo detainee refugees exemplified this trend. Yet, in the Guantánamo context, U.S. avoidance of international refugee law put the executive in a bind that it could not easily escape: Because the U.S. executive was unwilling to assume the political cost of resettling the refugee detainees domestically, it resorted to peddling them for resettlement to foreign states while, at the same time, mounting a robust legal defense …


An Analysis Of China’S Human Rights Policies In Tibet: China’S Compliance With The Mandates Of International Law Regarding Civil And Political Rights, Richard Klein Jan 2011

An Analysis Of China’S Human Rights Policies In Tibet: China’S Compliance With The Mandates Of International Law Regarding Civil And Political Rights, Richard Klein

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No abstract provided.


Human Rights And Southern Realities, Tamara Relis Jan 2011

Human Rights And Southern Realities, Tamara Relis

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The proliferation of international human rights treaties, committees and courts over the last sixty years represents enormous achievement. International human rights laws are now asserted throughout the world by individuals of many cultures and traditions. Yet, at the same time international human rights ideas and principles continue to have difficulty in manifesting their relevance in the daily lives of those who are geographically and culturally distant from international institutions Two new books - William Twining’s Human Rights, Southern Voices: Francis Deng, Abdullahi An-Na’im, Yash Ghai, Upendra Baxi, and Helen Stacy’s Human Rights for the 21st Century - address aspects of …


The Limited Case For Permitting Sme Procurement Preferences In The Wto Agreement On Government Procurement, John Linarelli Jan 2011

The Limited Case For Permitting Sme Procurement Preferences In The Wto Agreement On Government Procurement, John Linarelli

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This is a chapter in the book, Sue Arrowsmith & Robert D. Anderson, The WTO Regime on Government Procurement: Challenge and Reform (Cambridge University Press, 2011). The chapter puts under scrutiny public procurement policies designed to benefit SMEs per se, as small or medium sized enterprises, and to evaluate whether the GPA (and hence possibly other trade agreements liberalizing procurement markets) should be more accommodating to these policies, even though these policies might restrict international trade. The chapter also evaluates whether the GPA should be more accommodating to policies designed to benefit firms controlled by individuals who belong to historically …