Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 96

Full-Text Articles in Law

"My Bewildering Brain Toils In Vain": Traumatic Brain Injury, The Criminal Trial Process, And The Case Of Lisa Montgomery, Alison Lynch, Michael L. Perlin, Heather Ellis Cucolo Oct 2021

"My Bewildering Brain Toils In Vain": Traumatic Brain Injury, The Criminal Trial Process, And The Case Of Lisa Montgomery, Alison Lynch, Michael L. Perlin, Heather Ellis Cucolo

Articles & Chapters

Individuals with traumatic brain injuries (TBI) have a greater risk of becoming justice-involved due to the role that many TBIs play in impulse control and judgment. Attorneys assigned to represent this cohort may not have encountered individuals with TBI before, and may not be familiar with behavioral manifestations that could be relevant as a defense or as mitigation in individual cases. In this regard, TBI is grossly misunderstood.

A grave example of this point, and a foundation for this article, is the case of Lisa Montgomery, who despite evidence of serious mental illness and significant brain damage, was convicted, sentenced …


The Interdependence Of Racial Justice And Free Speech For Racists, Nadine Strossen Jan 2021

The Interdependence Of Racial Justice And Free Speech For Racists, Nadine Strossen

Articles & Chapters

No abstract provided.


See This Empty Cage Now Corrode: The International Human Rights And Comparative Law Implications Of Sexually Violent Predator Laws, Michael L. Perlin, Heather Ellis Cucolo Jul 2020

See This Empty Cage Now Corrode: The International Human Rights And Comparative Law Implications Of Sexually Violent Predator Laws, Michael L. Perlin, Heather Ellis Cucolo

Articles & Chapters

From every perspective, our sexually violent predator (SVPA) laws are a miserable failure. In this paper, we present a new approach: a turn to international human rights law as a source of rights for the population in question, and a consideration of the matter from the perspective of comparative law.

To briefly summarize, many nations have enacted laws that both mirror and contradict early developments in United States civil commitment jurisprudence. In these nations, though, challenges to community containment and preventive detention laws have been more successful when based upon international human rights law. Also, registry notification is generally far …


'Your Old Road Is/Rapidly Agin': International Human Rights Standards And Their Impact On Forensic Psychologists, The Practice Of Forensic Psychology, And The Conditions Of Institutionalization Of Persons With Mental Disabilities, Michael L. Perlin Jan 2018

'Your Old Road Is/Rapidly Agin': International Human Rights Standards And Their Impact On Forensic Psychologists, The Practice Of Forensic Psychology, And The Conditions Of Institutionalization Of Persons With Mental Disabilities, Michael L. Perlin

Articles & Chapters

An earlier version of this paper was presented as the Lynn Stuart Weiss lecture at the American Psychological Association yearly conference, sponsored by the American Psychology-Law Society and the American Psychology Foundation, August 2016, Denver, Colorado.

For years, considerations of the relationship between international human rights standards and the work of forensic psychologists have focused on the role of organized psychology in prisoner abuse at Guantanamo Bay and Abu Ghirab. That issue has been widely discussed and debated, and these discussions show no sign of abating. But there has been virtually no attention given to another issue of international human …


'The Pain I Rise Above': How International Human Rights Can Best Realize The Needs Of Persons With Trauma-Related Mental Disabilities, Mehgan Gallagher, Michael L. Perlin Jan 2018

'The Pain I Rise Above': How International Human Rights Can Best Realize The Needs Of Persons With Trauma-Related Mental Disabilities, Mehgan Gallagher, Michael L. Perlin

Articles & Chapters

No abstract provided.


Administrative Chaos: Responding To Child Refugees - U.S. Immigration Process In Crisis, Lenni Benson Jan 2018

Administrative Chaos: Responding To Child Refugees - U.S. Immigration Process In Crisis, Lenni Benson

Articles & Chapters

The Immigration court is the wrong forum to consider the protection needs of migrant children. Worse still, our multiple agencies that adjudicate parts of children’s cases combined with the rapidly shifting policies are causing administrative chaos for the children and the system.


Finding The Forum That Fits: Child Immigrants And Fair Process, Lenni Benson Jan 2018

Finding The Forum That Fits: Child Immigrants And Fair Process, Lenni Benson

Articles & Chapters

No abstract provided.


Central Issues In The Protection Of Child Migrants, Mary Crock, Lenni Benson Jan 2018

Central Issues In The Protection Of Child Migrants, Mary Crock, Lenni Benson

Articles & Chapters

In this introductory chapter we identify themes that will be carried throughout the book. We begin in section 2 with a discussion of the human rights challenges presented by children on the move, posing questions that our contributors will address as they build on the themes we identify. This is followed by an examination ofobstacles that have been created to recognising child migrants as rights bearers. After setting out in section 4 a brief outline of the book’s structure, the chapter concludes with some comments on global initiatives that have been made to address the challenges associated with mass migration …


Editorial: Special Focus On 'Dignity Takings And Dignity Restorations', Penelope Andrews Jan 2018

Editorial: Special Focus On 'Dignity Takings And Dignity Restorations', Penelope Andrews

Articles & Chapters

No abstract provided.


God Said To Abraham/Kill Me A Son: Why The Insanity Defense And The Incompetency Status Are Compatible With And Required By The Convention On The Rights Of Persons With Disabilities And Basic Principles Of Therapeutic Jurisprudence, Michael L. Perlin Jan 2017

God Said To Abraham/Kill Me A Son: Why The Insanity Defense And The Incompetency Status Are Compatible With And Required By The Convention On The Rights Of Persons With Disabilities And Basic Principles Of Therapeutic Jurisprudence, Michael L. Perlin

Articles & Chapters

Interpretations of the General Comments to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) — that command the abolition of the insanity defense and the incompetency status — make no theoretical or conceptual sense, disregard the history of how society has treated persons with serious mental disabilities who are charged with crime, and will lead to predictable torture of this population in prison, at the hands of both prison guards and other prisoners. Such interpretation also flies in the face of every precept of therapeutic jurisprudence. Support of this position exhibits a startling lack of understanding of the …


The Duty To Charge In Police Use Of Excessive Force Cases, Rebecca Roiphe Jan 2017

The Duty To Charge In Police Use Of Excessive Force Cases, Rebecca Roiphe

Articles & Chapters

Responding to the problems of mass incarceration, racial disparities in justice, and wrongful convictions, scholars have focused on prosecutorial overcharging. They have, however, neglected to address undercharging the failure to charge in entire classes of cases. Undercharging can similarly undermine theefficacy and legitimacy of the criminal justice system. While few have focused on this question in thedomestic criminal law context, international law scholars have long recognized the social and structural cost for nascent democratic states when they fail to charge those responsible for the prior regime’s human rights abuses. This sort of impunity threatens the rule of law and misses …


Introduction, Brandt Goldstein Jan 2017

Introduction, Brandt Goldstein

Articles & Chapters

No abstract provided.


The Struggle For The Rule Of Law In South Africa (Symposium: Twenty Years Of South African Constitutionalism: Constitutional Rights, Judicial Independence And The Transition To Democracy), Stephen J. Ellmann Jan 2016

The Struggle For The Rule Of Law In South Africa (Symposium: Twenty Years Of South African Constitutionalism: Constitutional Rights, Judicial Independence And The Transition To Democracy), Stephen J. Ellmann

Articles & Chapters

No abstract provided.


Justice, Reconciliation, And The Masculinist Way: What Role For Women In Truth And Reconciliation Commissions?, Penelope Andrews Jan 2016

Justice, Reconciliation, And The Masculinist Way: What Role For Women In Truth And Reconciliation Commissions?, Penelope Andrews

Articles & Chapters

During periods of armed conflict, women and girls are frequently subjected to violence because of their gender. National governments have attempted to address this issue through transitional justice mechanisms like truth and reconciliation commissions. The record of women’s input and participation in these processes, however, is rather poor. In this article, I highlight the role of South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission (SATRC) and the opportunity the SATRC missed in failing to comprehensively confront andexamine the systemic nature of violence against women under apartheid. Many transitional justice mechanisms, the SATRC being one of the more vivid examples, have adopted a …


Advocacy At The Leading Edge Of Social Change: The Importance Of Front Line Innovators, Frank W. Munger Jan 2016

Advocacy At The Leading Edge Of Social Change: The Importance Of Front Line Innovators, Frank W. Munger

Articles & Chapters

No abstract provided.


Said I, But You Have No Choice: Why A Lawyer Must Ethically Honor A Client's Decision About Mental Health Treatment Even If It Is Not What S/He Would Have Chosen, Michael L. Perlin, Naomi Weinstein Jan 2016

Said I, But You Have No Choice: Why A Lawyer Must Ethically Honor A Client's Decision About Mental Health Treatment Even If It Is Not What S/He Would Have Chosen, Michael L. Perlin, Naomi Weinstein

Articles & Chapters

This paper addresses a remarkably under-considered topic: the ethical standards for lawyers representing persons with mental disabilities. Although there is an extensive body of literature endorsing “zealous advocacy” as the standard for the criminal defense lawyer in “ordinary” cases, there is virtually no literature (or case law) on this question in this context.

Our thesis is simple. We reject the model of “paternalism/best interests” that is regularly substituted for a traditional legal advocacy position, and a substitution that is rarely questioned. We believe this presumption flies in the face of statutory law, constitutional law, and international human rights law, and …


Merchants And Thieves, Hungry For Power: Prosecutorial Misconduct And Passive Judicial Complicity In Death Penalty Trials Of Defendants With Mental Disabilities, Michael L. Perlin Jan 2016

Merchants And Thieves, Hungry For Power: Prosecutorial Misconduct And Passive Judicial Complicity In Death Penalty Trials Of Defendants With Mental Disabilities, Michael L. Perlin

Articles & Chapters

In spite of the Supreme Court’s decisions in Ford v. Wainwright (1986), Atkins v. Virginia (2002), and Hall v. Florida (2014), persons with severe psychosocial and intellectual disabilities continue to be given death sentences, in some cases leading to actual execution. Although the courts have been aware of this for decades -- dating back at least to the infamous Ricky Rector case in Arkansas -- these base miscarriages of justice continue and show no sign of abating. Scholars have written clearly and pointedly on this issue (certainly, more frequently since the Atkins decision in 2002), but little has changed.

I …


Justice Harlan's Enduring Importance For Current Civil Liberties Issues, From Marriage Equality To Dragnet Nsa Surveillance, Nadine Strossen Jan 2016

Justice Harlan's Enduring Importance For Current Civil Liberties Issues, From Marriage Equality To Dragnet Nsa Surveillance, Nadine Strossen

Articles & Chapters

No abstract provided.


When Rights Work: Fragile Networks, Improbable Discourses And Unpredictable Globalizations Of Law - A Contemporary Thai Case Study, Frank W. Munger Mar 2015

When Rights Work: Fragile Networks, Improbable Discourses And Unpredictable Globalizations Of Law - A Contemporary Thai Case Study, Frank W. Munger

Articles & Chapters

This is a case study of the legal practice of a young Thai “cause lawyer.” The study joins a growing number by other scholars who are skeptical of global convergence on a single form of the “rule of law,” and who argue instead that legal development in the new states of Asia and elsewhere will be path-dependent. Though this research examines advocacy by a relatively small group of practitioners, I argue that the study, together with my other case studies of social justice practitioners challenging the authority of government in different ways, provides a window on the development of law’s …


Trafficking In Law: Cause Lawyer, Bureaucratic State And Rights Of Human Trafficking Victims In Thailand, Frank W. Munger Jan 2015

Trafficking In Law: Cause Lawyer, Bureaucratic State And Rights Of Human Trafficking Victims In Thailand, Frank W. Munger

Articles & Chapters

In this case study of a young, Thai “cause lawyer”, advocacy for human rights is considered in context. The most important elements of that context are the path of development of Thai political and legal institutions, globalisation of law, and the networks of relationships that penetrate the state. The case study shows that human rights advocacy by NGO lawyers can adapt creatively to unpromising conditions under which courts provide little access or oversight. At the same time, the case study raises profound questions about the ultimate independence of cause lawyers when the state must be made a partner in order …


'Love Is Just A Four-Letter Word': Sexuality, International Human Rights, And Therapeutic Jurisprudence, Michael L. Perlin, Alison Lynch Jan 2015

'Love Is Just A Four-Letter Word': Sexuality, International Human Rights, And Therapeutic Jurisprudence, Michael L. Perlin, Alison Lynch

Articles & Chapters

One of the most controversial social policy issues that remains dramatically underdiscussed in scholarly literature is the sexual autonomy of persons with psychosocial and intellectual disabilities, especially those who are institutionalized. This population – always marginalized and stigmatized – has traditionally faced a double set of conflicting prejudices: on one hand, people with disabilities are infantilized (as not being capable of having the same range of sexual desires, needs and expectations as persons without disabilities), and on the other, this population is demonized (as being hypersexual, unable to control base or primitive urges). Although attitudes about the abilities and capabilities …


You Might Have Drugs At Your Command: Reconsidering The Forced Drugging Of Incompetent Pre-Trial Detainnes From The Perspectives Of International Human Rights And Income Inequality, Michael L. Perlin, Meredith Schriver Jan 2015

You Might Have Drugs At Your Command: Reconsidering The Forced Drugging Of Incompetent Pre-Trial Detainnes From The Perspectives Of International Human Rights And Income Inequality, Michael L. Perlin, Meredith Schriver

Articles & Chapters

Ever since the Supreme Court's 2003 decision in Sell v. United States, 539 U.S. 166 (2003), there has been a cottage industry of commentary on the question of whether the state can medicate an incompetent defendant for the purpose of making him or her competent to stand trial. Moreover, there have been multiple cases interpreting Sell broadly and narrowly, both in the context of medication issues and in the context of other treatments. Because of the vagueness of certain terminology, questions such as what a "serious" crime is, what "substantially" meant to the Court in Sell, and how the least …


'Friend To The Martyr, A Friend To The Woman Of Shame': Thinking About The Law, Shame And Humiliation, Michael L. Perlin, Naomi Weinstein Jan 2014

'Friend To The Martyr, A Friend To The Woman Of Shame': Thinking About The Law, Shame And Humiliation, Michael L. Perlin, Naomi Weinstein

Articles & Chapters

This paper considers the intersection between law, humiliation and shame, and how the law has the capacity to allow for, to encourage, or (in some cases) to remediate humiliation, or humiliating or shaming behavior. The need for new attention to be paid to this question has increased exponentially as we begin to also take more seriously international human rights mandates, especially – although certainly not exclusively – in the context of the recently-ratified United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, a Convention that calls for “respect for inherent dignity,” and characterizes "discrimination against any person on the …


Yonder Stands Your Orphan With His Gun: The International Human Rights And Therapeutic Jurisprudence Implications Of Juvenile Punishment Schemes, Michael L. Perlin Jan 2013

Yonder Stands Your Orphan With His Gun: The International Human Rights And Therapeutic Jurisprudence Implications Of Juvenile Punishment Schemes, Michael L. Perlin

Articles & Chapters

In the last decade, the US Supreme Court has ruled that the death penalty, a life sentence without possibility of parole (LWOP), and mandatory LWOP for homicide convictions violate the Eighth Amendment when applied to juvenile defendants. These decisions were premised, in large part, on findings that "developments in psychology and brain science continue to show fundamental differences between juvenile and adult minds," and that those findings both lessened a child's "moral culpability" and enhanced the prospect that, as the years go by and neurological development occurs, his "deficiencies will be reformed."

These decisions have, by and large, been welcomed …


Theories Of State Compliance With International Law: Assessing The African Union’S Ability To Ensure State Compliance With The African Charter And Constitutive Act, Stacy-Ann Elvy Jan 2013

Theories Of State Compliance With International Law: Assessing The African Union’S Ability To Ensure State Compliance With The African Charter And Constitutive Act, Stacy-Ann Elvy

Articles & Chapters

May 26, 2011, marked the ten-year anniversary of the establishment of the African Union, and with the sudden death of Muammar al Gaddafi, who was instrumental in the creation of the African Union, the time is ripe to fully re-assess the ability of the African Union to ensure state compliance with the Constitutive Act of the African Union (Constitutive Act) and the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights (African Charter). The African continent has a long history of massive human rights abuses. Prior to 2001, the Organization of African Unity (OAU) was responsible for ensuring that African states complied …


Online Mental Disability Law Education, A Disability Rights Tribunal, And The Creation Of An Asian Disability Law Database: Their Impact On Research, Training And Teaching Of Law, Criminology Criminal Justice In Asia, Michael L. Perlin, Heather Ellis Cucolo, Yoshikazu Ikehara Jan 2013

Online Mental Disability Law Education, A Disability Rights Tribunal, And The Creation Of An Asian Disability Law Database: Their Impact On Research, Training And Teaching Of Law, Criminology Criminal Justice In Asia, Michael L. Perlin, Heather Ellis Cucolo, Yoshikazu Ikehara

Articles & Chapters

Two professors at New York Law School (NYLS) and the director of the Tokyo Advocacy Law Office are engaged in initiatives with the potential to have major influences on the study of law, criminology, and criminal justice: the creation of a Disability Rights Tribunal for Asia and the Pacific (DRTAP), and expansion of NYLS’s online mental disability law program (OMDLP) to include numerous Asian venues.

DRTAP seeks to create a sub-regional body (a Commission and eventually a Court) to hear violations of the UN’s Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. This will explicitly inspire scholarship about issues such …


Striking For The Guardians And Protectors Of The Mind: The Convention On The Rights Of Persons With Mental Disabilities And The Future Of Guardianship Law, Michael L. Perlin Jan 2013

Striking For The Guardians And Protectors Of The Mind: The Convention On The Rights Of Persons With Mental Disabilities And The Future Of Guardianship Law, Michael L. Perlin

Articles & Chapters

In many nations, entry of a guardianship order became the “civil death” of the person affected. It has been accurately characterized as “civil death” characterization because a person subjected to the measure is not only fully stripped of their legal capacity in all matters related to their finance and property, but is also deprived of, or severely restricted in, many other fundamental rights, [including] the right to vote, the right to consent or refuse medical treatment (including forced psychiatric treatment), freedom of association and the right to marry and have a family.

Guardianship is also frequently entered. In Hungary, for …


Does Humanity Law Require (Or Imply) A Progressive Theory Of History? (And Other Questions For Martti Koskenniemi), Robert Howse, Ruti Teitel Jan 2013

Does Humanity Law Require (Or Imply) A Progressive Theory Of History? (And Other Questions For Martti Koskenniemi), Robert Howse, Ruti Teitel

Articles & Chapters

In a number of essays over the last decade or so, Martti Koskenniemi has analyzed post-cold war developments in international law, especially the human rights revolution or the emergence of "humanity law" (Teitel, Humanity’s Law). In these works, Koskenniemi asserts a close, if not essential, connection between optimistic or progressive theories of history and liberal, cosmopolitan, post- or anti-statist approaches to international law. We challenge Koskenniemi’s arguments that humanity law is associated with a dogmatically progressive theory of history, that it is oriented toward a world government, that it relies on a version of historical determinism, that it posits a …


Promoting Social Change In Asia And The Pacific: The Need For A Disability Rights Tribunal To Give Life To The Un Convention On The Rights Of Persons With Disabilities, Michael L. Perlin Jan 2012

Promoting Social Change In Asia And The Pacific: The Need For A Disability Rights Tribunal To Give Life To The Un Convention On The Rights Of Persons With Disabilities, Michael L. Perlin

Articles & Chapters

There is no question that the existence of regional human rights courts and commissions has been an essential element in the enforcement of international human rights in those regions of the world where such tribunals exist. In the specific area of mental disability law, there is now a remarkably robust body of case law from the European Court on Human Rights, some significant and transformative decisions from the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, and at least one major case from the African Commission onHuman Rights.

In Asia and the Pacific region, however, there is no such body. Many reasons have …


Less Than We Might: Meditations On Life In Prison Without Parole, Robert Blecker Jan 2011

Less Than We Might: Meditations On Life In Prison Without Parole, Robert Blecker

Articles & Chapters

Today, death penalty opponents mostly claim life without parole (LWOP) as their genuinely popular substitute punishment for the worst of the worst. These abolitionists embrace LWOP as cheaper, equally just, and equally effective - a punishment that eliminates the state’s exercise of an inhumane power to kill helpless human beings who pose no immediate threat. Furthermore, they insist, LWOP allows the criminal justice system to reverse sentencing mistakes. Some even characterize it as a punishment worse than death.

Thousands of hours in several states, interviewing and observing more than a hundred convicted killers, along with dozens of correctional officers who …