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Full-Text Articles in Law

Biometrics And An Ai Bill Of Rights, Margaret Hu Jul 2022

Biometrics And An Ai Bill Of Rights, Margaret Hu

Faculty Publications

This Article contends that an informed discussion on an AI Bill of Rights requires grappling with biometric data collection and its integration into emerging AI systems. Biometric AI systems serve a wide range of governmental purposes, including policing, border security and immigration enforcement, and biometric cyberintelligence and biometric-enabled warfare. These systems are increasingly categorized as "high-risk" when deployed in ways that may impact fundamental constitutional rights and human rights. There is growing recognition that high-risk biometric AI systems, such as facial recognition identification, can pose unprecedented challenges to criminal procedure rights. This Article concludes that a failure to recognize these …


Hitting The Brakes On Child Trafficking: An Analysis Of Anti-Trafficking Legislation In Viet Nam, Linh K. Dai May 2022

Hitting The Brakes On Child Trafficking: An Analysis Of Anti-Trafficking Legislation In Viet Nam, Linh K. Dai

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

Viet Nam is considered a country of origin for child sex trafficking, especially to Thailand, Cambodia, and China, all significant destinations for child sex tourism, a form of prostitution. Despite existing laws and policies in Viet Nam and elsewhere in Southeast Asia, child trafficking operations in the region have flourished. Viet Nam has been characterized as a country whose “[g]overnment . . . does not fully meet the [Trafficking Victims Protection Act’s] minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking but is making significant efforts to do so.” Viet Nam has demonstrated its commitment to preventing human trafficking, both within and …


Neuroscience, Criminal Sentencing, And Human Rights, Elizabeth Shaw Mar 2022

Neuroscience, Criminal Sentencing, And Human Rights, Elizabeth Shaw

William & Mary Law Review

This Article discusses ways in which neuroscience should inform criminal sentencing in the future. Specifically, it compares the ethical permissibility of traditional forms of punishment, such as incarceration, on the one hand, and rehabilitative “neurointerventions” on the other. Rehabilitative neurointerventions are interventions that aim directly to modify brain activity in order to reduce reoffending. Various jurisdictions are already using techniques that could be classed as neurointerventions, and research suggests that, potentially, an even wider range of rehabilitative neurointerventions may be developed. This Article examines the role of human rights (in particular, the moral right to mental integrity and the legal …


Increasing Accountability For Rape In Liberia: The Need For A Forensic System To Increase The Success Rates Of Prosecution, Pela Boker Wilson Jun 2021

Increasing Accountability For Rape In Liberia: The Need For A Forensic System To Increase The Success Rates Of Prosecution, Pela Boker Wilson

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

The need for a fully functioning forensic system has been identified by the Liberian government and international partners, but it has not been addressed. This Article argues that despite a robust framework put in place to create accountability for rape, Liberia needs a system of collecting and processing forensic evidence to increase the success rate of prosecutions that currently fail due to the inadequacy of non-forensic evidence.


Shelter From The Storm: Human Rights Protections For Single-Mother Families In The Time Of Covid-19, Theresa Glennon, Alexis Fennell, Kaylin Hawkins, Madison Mcnulty Jun 2021

Shelter From The Storm: Human Rights Protections For Single-Mother Families In The Time Of Covid-19, Theresa Glennon, Alexis Fennell, Kaylin Hawkins, Madison Mcnulty

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

COVID-19’s arrival, and the changes it has unleashed, reveal how longstanding legal and policy decisions produced structural inequalities that have left so many families, and especially single-parent families with children, all too insecure. The fragility of single-mother families is amplified by the multifaceted discrimination they face. While all single parents, including single fathers and other single relatives who are raising children, share many of these burdens, this Article focuses on the challenges confronting single mothers.

Federal policy choices stand in sharp contrast to the political rhetoric of government support for families. Social and economic policy in the twentieth century developed …


Accelerating The Gains Of The Free Maternity Care In Kenya's Urban Informal Settlements, Juliet K. Nyamao May 2021

Accelerating The Gains Of The Free Maternity Care In Kenya's Urban Informal Settlements, Juliet K. Nyamao

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

The 2010 Constitution of Kenya recognizes the special group of women living in urban informal settlements, and provides for their access to the highest attainable standards of health care, including reproductive health care. The Health Act, which was enacted in 2017, recognizes the significant challenges of accessing maternal health services among the poorest populations. Pursuant to the resolutions of the African Union, the Health Act abolished user fees for pregnant women. The Health Act instructs the county and national governments to expand free maternity care and childhood immunizations through funding. Despite Kenya’s commitment to increase the national budget for health …


Relieved Of All Punishment By Human Hands: The Status Of International Criminal Convictions, Dorothy M. Canevari Mar 2021

Relieved Of All Punishment By Human Hands: The Status Of International Criminal Convictions, Dorothy M. Canevari

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Family In The Balance: Barton V. Barr And The Systematic Violation Of The Right To Family Life In U.S. Immigration Enforcement, David Baluarte Mar 2021

Family In The Balance: Barton V. Barr And The Systematic Violation Of The Right To Family Life In U.S. Immigration Enforcement, David Baluarte

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

The United States systematically violates the international human right to family life in its system of removal of noncitizens. Cancellation of removal provides a means for noncitizens to challenge their removal based on family ties in the United States, but Congress has placed draconian limits on the discretion of immigration courts to cancel removal where noncitizens have committed certain crimes. The recently issued U.S. Supreme Court decision in Barton v. Barr illustrates the troubling trend of affording less discretion for immigration courts to balance family life in removal decisions that involve underlying criminal conduct. At issue was the “stop-time rule” …


Revisiting Individual Rights And Personal Responsibilities Amid Covid-19, Christie Warren Aug 2020

Revisiting Individual Rights And Personal Responsibilities Amid Covid-19, Christie Warren

Popular Media

No abstract provided.


Reintegration Of Female Rape Survivors: The Overlooked Priority Of Transitional Justice In The Face Of Mass Wartime Rape, Layla Abi-Falah Apr 2020

Reintegration Of Female Rape Survivors: The Overlooked Priority Of Transitional Justice In The Face Of Mass Wartime Rape, Layla Abi-Falah

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

While mass wartime rape has become a core characteristic of modern armed conflict, transitional justice mechanisms have continuously failed to bring about successful achievement of justice, reconciliation, and truth for female survivors. The abuse, exile, and humiliation of large numbers of female rape survivors by their families and communities leaves entire societies destabilized and susceptible to prolonged instability and state failure, thus obstructing attempts by transitional justice mechanisms to usher in long-lasting peace and stability. To achieve more successful post-conflict reconstruction, transitional justice mechanisms situated in the aftermath of wars marked by mass rape must first focus on the reintegration …


Towards A Transnational Critical Race Theory In Education: Proposing Critical Race Third World Approaches To Education Policy, Steven L. Nelson Apr 2020

Towards A Transnational Critical Race Theory In Education: Proposing Critical Race Third World Approaches To Education Policy, Steven L. Nelson

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

Scholars have applied Critical Race Theory in both domestic and international contexts; however, a theory on the transnational role of race and racism in education policy has not emerged. In this Article, I borrow from the tenets of Critical Race Theory (CRT) and Third World Approaches to International Law (TWAIL) to formulate Critical Race Third World Approaches to Education Policy (TWAEPCrit). In constructing this theory, I argue that Black Americans are in practice and lived experience treated as third world citizens, even as they reside in the United States. I prove the third world status of Black peoples in the …


To Be Gay And African: Addressing The Gross Human Rights Violations Of Homosexuals In Cameroon And Uganda, And Legislative Remedies For Their Mistreatment, Danielle E. Makia Jun 2019

To Be Gay And African: Addressing The Gross Human Rights Violations Of Homosexuals In Cameroon And Uganda, And Legislative Remedies For Their Mistreatment, Danielle E. Makia

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Challenging The Constitutionality Of Private Prisons: Insights From Israel, Angela E. Addae Jun 2019

Challenging The Constitutionality Of Private Prisons: Insights From Israel, Angela E. Addae

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Universal Human Rights And Constitutional Change, David Sloss, Wayne Sandholtz May 2019

Universal Human Rights And Constitutional Change, David Sloss, Wayne Sandholtz

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

Scholars have written volumes about the dramatic constitutional changes that occurred in the United States in the decades after World War II. Several leading scholarly accounts adopt an internal perspective, focusing primarily on domestic factors that drove constitutional change. Other scholars adopt a more transnational perspective, linking domestic constitutional change in the United States to Cold War politics, or to the rise of totalitarianism. This Article builds on the work of scholars like Mary Dudziak and Richard Primus who have emphasized the transnational factors that contributed to constitutional change in the United States. However, our account differs from both Dudziak …


Forced Marriage: Terminological Coherence And Dissonance In International Criminal Law, Valerie Oosterveld May 2019

Forced Marriage: Terminological Coherence And Dissonance In International Criminal Law, Valerie Oosterveld

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

No abstract provided.


Leveling The Playing Field: Advancing Free Legal Aid For The Family Law Claims Of Ethiopian Women, Maereg Tewoldebirhan Alemayehu Apr 2019

Leveling The Playing Field: Advancing Free Legal Aid For The Family Law Claims Of Ethiopian Women, Maereg Tewoldebirhan Alemayehu

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Russian Politics Of Masculinity And The Decay Of Feminism: The Role Of Dissent In Creating New "Local Norms", Alexandra V. Orlova Apr 2019

Russian Politics Of Masculinity And The Decay Of Feminism: The Role Of Dissent In Creating New "Local Norms", Alexandra V. Orlova

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

Over the past decade, the Russian state has been deliberately pursuing politics of masculinity that aim to actively undermine feminist dissenting voices by presenting feminism as something that is foreign and inappropriate for the Russian context. This Article examines why Russian domestic feminism has failed to generate a re-examination of entrenched gender stereotypes and barriers in Russia. The Article concludes that in order to effectively combat gender stereotyping and reduce structural barriers that continuously relegate women to the private sphere, new "local norms" based on gender equality need to develop. In order for these new local norms to gain public …


Human Rights In International Criminal Proceedings—The Impact Of The Judgment Of The Kosovo Specialist Chambers Of 26 April 2017, Göran Sluiter Mar 2019

Human Rights In International Criminal Proceedings—The Impact Of The Judgment Of The Kosovo Specialist Chambers Of 26 April 2017, Göran Sluiter

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

By their very nature, international criminal tribunals will in their operation impact individual rights, such as the right to liberty and the right to a fair trial. Without a constitution and without a history in developing due process norms, international criminal tribunals have to provide for instant incorporation of human rights in their respective criminal proceedings.

However, the circumstances under which international criminal tribunals are established are often complex, while at the same time their creation is considered to be a matter of urgency. As a result, there may not always be sufficient attention to human rights law’s position and …


Common Law Evidence And The Common Law Of Human Rights: Towards A Harmonic Convergence?, John D. Jackson Mar 2019

Common Law Evidence And The Common Law Of Human Rights: Towards A Harmonic Convergence?, John D. Jackson

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

This Article considers the impact which European Human Rights Law has made upon the common law rules of evidence with reference to the approach the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) has adopted towards exclusionary rules of evidence. Particular attention will be given to rules that have been developed by the ECtHR in relation to the right to counsel during police questioning (the so-called “Salduz” doctrine) and the right to examine witnesses (the so-called “sole or decisive” evidence rule). The Article argues that the effect of these rules has encouraged common law judges to engage more holistically with the effect …


Epilogue: From Too Tall To Trim And Small, Mark A. Drumbl Mar 2019

Epilogue: From Too Tall To Trim And Small, Mark A. Drumbl

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

No abstract provided.


Understanding Crime Gravity: Exploring The Views Of International Criminal Law Experts, Stuart Ford Mar 2019

Understanding Crime Gravity: Exploring The Views Of International Criminal Law Experts, Stuart Ford

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

No abstract provided.


The Bemba Appeals Chamber Judgment: Impunity For Sexual And Gender-Based Crimes?, Susana Sácouto, Patricia Viseur Sellers Mar 2019

The Bemba Appeals Chamber Judgment: Impunity For Sexual And Gender-Based Crimes?, Susana Sácouto, Patricia Viseur Sellers

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

No abstract provided.


Unequal Enforcement Of The Law: Targeting Aggressors For Mass Atrocity Prosecutions, Nancy Amoury Combs Mar 2019

Unequal Enforcement Of The Law: Targeting Aggressors For Mass Atrocity Prosecutions, Nancy Amoury Combs

Faculty Publications

It is a central tenet of the laws of war that they apply equally to all parties to a conflict. For this reason, a party that illegally launches a war benefits from all the same rights as a party that must defend against the illegal aggression. Countless philosophers have shown that this so-called equal application doctrine is morally indefensible and that defenders should have more rights and fewer responsibilities than aggressors. The equal application doctrine retains the support of legal scholars, however, because they reasonably fear that applying different rules to different warring parties will substantially reduce overall compliance with …


The Role Of International Human Rights Law In Mediating Between The Rights Of Parents And Their Children Born With Intersex Traits In The United States, Cristian González Cabrera Mar 2018

The Role Of International Human Rights Law In Mediating Between The Rights Of Parents And Their Children Born With Intersex Traits In The United States, Cristian González Cabrera

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Reimagining Justice For Gender-Based Crimes At The Margins: New Legal Strategies For Prosecuting Isis Crimes Against Women And Lgbtiq Persons, Lisa Davis Mar 2018

Reimagining Justice For Gender-Based Crimes At The Margins: New Legal Strategies For Prosecuting Isis Crimes Against Women And Lgbtiq Persons, Lisa Davis

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Gender Violence And Human Rights In An Era Of Backlash, Julie Goldscheid Mar 2018

Gender Violence And Human Rights In An Era Of Backlash, Julie Goldscheid

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

This Article brings the lens of civil cases seeking accountability for gender violence to the question of how international human rights decisions interpret gender and gender norms. It argues that a broad interpretation of gender is particularly critical as we face increasing backlash globally. It demonstrates how international human rights decisions assessing state responses to gender violence recognize the role of historic gender biases and stereotypes in holding states to account for redressing discriminatory responses to abuse, and considers structural limitations in those instruments that could impede those instruments’ transformative reach.


Amnesty For Even The Worst Offenders, Jay Butler Apr 2017

Amnesty For Even The Worst Offenders, Jay Butler

Faculty Publications

In recent years, global policy makers have declared that heads of state must be held accountable through criminal prosecution for internationally wrongful acts. Scholars too have insisted that the international system’s embrace of accountability excludes or renders illegal the granting of amnesty. This Article argues that that position is too narrow and uses the ongoing conflict in Syria, as well as other contemporary examples, to examine some of consequences of the clamor for prosecution.

The Article rejects the binary juxtaposition of amnesty and accountability in current international legal scholarship, and instead seeks to broaden the terms of the conversation by …


Sex Workers And Human Rights: A Critical Analysis Of Laws Regarding Sex Work, Rachel Marshall Nov 2016

Sex Workers And Human Rights: A Critical Analysis Of Laws Regarding Sex Work, Rachel Marshall

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Three Grotian Theories Of Humanitarian Intervention, Evan J. Criddle Jul 2015

Three Grotian Theories Of Humanitarian Intervention, Evan J. Criddle

Faculty Publications

This Article explores three theories of humanitarian intervention that appear in, or are inspired by, the writings of Hugo Grotius. One theory asserts that natural law authorizes all states to punish violations of the law of nations, irrespective of where or against whom the violations occur, to preserve the integrity of international law. A second theory, which also appears in Grotius’s writings, proposes that states may intervene as temporary legal guardians for peoples who have suffered intolerable cruelties at the hands of their own state. Each of these theories has fallen out of fashion today based on skepticism about their …


Standing For Human Rights Abroad, Evan J. Criddle Jan 2015

Standing For Human Rights Abroad, Evan J. Criddle

Faculty Publications

When may states impose coercive measures such as asset freezes, trade embargos, and investment restrictions to protect the human rights of foreign nationals abroad? Drawing inspiration from Hugo Grotius’s guardianship account of humanitarian intervention, this Article offers a new theory of states’ standing to enforce human rights abroad: under some circumstances, international law authorizes states to impose countermeasures as fiduciary representatives, asserting the human rights of oppressed foreign peoples for the benefit of those peoples. The fiduciary theory explains why all states may use countermeasures to vindicate the human rights of foreign nationals abroad despite the fact that they do …