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Full-Text Articles in Law

International Rights Affecting The Covid–19 Vaccine Race, Samantha Johnson May 2022

International Rights Affecting The Covid–19 Vaccine Race, Samantha Johnson

University of Miami Inter-American Law Review

The impact of the COVID–19 pandemic has been felt world-wide, and despite having several vaccines in the market at this point, there are still issues of accessibility for certain countries. International intellectual property law has been a breeding ground for the exploration of intellectual curiosity and creation as it provides strong protections to creators. These strong protections have allowed for the monopolization of certain goods, such as vaccines, under the concept of patents. While patents are important to incentivize pharmaceutical companies to create life–saving medicines, these protections have also become a barrier for access to medicines, especially in less–developed countries. …


Taking Responsibility Under International Law: Human Trafficking And Colombia’S Venezuelan Migration Crisis, Luz Estella Nagle, Juan Manuel Zarama May 2022

Taking Responsibility Under International Law: Human Trafficking And Colombia’S Venezuelan Migration Crisis, Luz Estella Nagle, Juan Manuel Zarama

University of Miami Inter-American Law Review

For more than six million Venezuelans, crossing international borders has become imperative to ensuring security and a livelihood that their country has failed to assure. These migrants and refugees, particularly young women and children, are vulnerable to many depredations, criminal acts, and the risk of becoming trafficking victims for forced labor and sexual slavery. This article focuses on State responsibility for migrant populations and analyzes conditions in Venezuela that caused a massive migration, the conditions in Colombia as a host State, the uncertain status of Venezuelan migrants in Colombia, and human trafficking and its impact on the migrant population.


Why Reproductive Health Rights Should No Longer Be A Partisan Issue: A Call To Invest In Family Planning, Sofia Waterhouse May 2022

Why Reproductive Health Rights Should No Longer Be A Partisan Issue: A Call To Invest In Family Planning, Sofia Waterhouse

University of Miami Inter-American Law Review

The concepts of family planning and reproductive health rights are often obscured by the controversy that surrounds the topic of abortion. This controversy has substantially impacted the U.S.’s outlook on reproductive health rights and its support toward family planning organizations, often limiting funding and aid depending on each administration’s political views. While international law has recognized the importance of reproductive health rights and the necessity of family planning programs, the U.S. continues to fall be-hind when it comes to promoting such rights. This article calls for a bipartisan effort to end these regressive and harmful anti–abortion policies so that the …


The Iachr’S Comprehensive Response To The Covid-19 Pandemic And Its Intersectional Impacts On Human Rights, Antonia Urrejola Noguera, Soledad Garcia Muñoz May 2022

The Iachr’S Comprehensive Response To The Covid-19 Pandemic And Its Intersectional Impacts On Human Rights, Antonia Urrejola Noguera, Soledad Garcia Muñoz

University of Miami International and Comparative Law Review

The region of the Americas is facing unprecedented humanitarian and social challenges as a consequence of the Covid-19 pandemic. As such, the regional institutions need to deliver rapid and effective responses to the region’s inhabitants. In this way, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (hereinafter IACHR or the Commission) has aimed to deliver a timely answer so that States, the Civil Society, and stakeholders can assure individuals that the treatment of the pandemic incorporates a human rights approach from the Inter-American System’s framework. The purpose of this work will be to give a brief takeaway on how the IACHR has …


The Duty To Protect Survivors Of Gender-Based Violence In The Age Of Covid-19: An Expanded Human Rights Framework, Caroline Bettinger-Lopez, R. Denisse Córdova Montes, Max Zoberman May 2022

The Duty To Protect Survivors Of Gender-Based Violence In The Age Of Covid-19: An Expanded Human Rights Framework, Caroline Bettinger-Lopez, R. Denisse Córdova Montes, Max Zoberman

University of Miami International and Comparative Law Review

Many commentators have referred to domestic violence and other forms of gender-based violence (GBV) in the age of COVID-19 as a “double pandemic.” Based on results of a mixed-methods study on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on GBV in South Florida, conducted by the Human Rights Clinic of the University of Miami School of Law, in close collaboration with community-based organizations,1 this article offers a proposal for an expanded normative human rights framework to address domestic violence and other forms of GBV. The local study sought to elucidate the pathways that link pandemics such as COVID-19 and GBV, highlight …


Covid–19, Housing And Evictions: A Comparative Case Study Of Housing Law And Policy In The United States And Argentina Through An International Human Rights Lens, Lily Frances Fontenot Dec 2021

Covid–19, Housing And Evictions: A Comparative Case Study Of Housing Law And Policy In The United States And Argentina Through An International Human Rights Lens, Lily Frances Fontenot

University of Miami Inter-American Law Review

This Note seeks to address the impact of international human rights obligations on domestic housing laws and policies through a comparative case study of Argentina and the United States. Specifically, it will discuss each country’s response to the COVID-19 pandemic, their housing obligations under international human rights law, and how each country is addressing their own unique housing and eviction crises. Finally, this Note will offer recommendations on how each country should modify their housing policies in light of the pandemic in order to comply with international human rights standards.


Challenging Domestic Injustice Through International Human Rights Advocacy: Addressing Homelessness In The United States, Eric Tarst, Tamar Ezer, Melanie Ng, David Stuzin, Conor Arevalo Jun 2021

Challenging Domestic Injustice Through International Human Rights Advocacy: Addressing Homelessness In The United States, Eric Tarst, Tamar Ezer, Melanie Ng, David Stuzin, Conor Arevalo

Articles

This Article explores how international human rights norms and procedures can serve as a powerful tool in addressing injustice in the United States context, using work addressing the criminalization of homelessness as a case study. Moreover, it explores how civil and political rights and negative obligations by the government can serve as an entry point for asserting a more robust understanding of rights that includes social and economic rights and affirmative obligations by government. The Article documents and analyzes original work led by the National Homelessness Law Center and other pioneering advocates, reflecting on lessons learned and next steps to …


Foreword, Elizabeth M. Iglesias May 2021

Foreword, Elizabeth M. Iglesias

University of Miami Race & Social Justice Law Review

No abstract provided.


Climate Mobility And The Pandemic: Art-Science Lessons For Societal Resilience, Jessica Owley Jan 2021

Climate Mobility And The Pandemic: Art-Science Lessons For Societal Resilience, Jessica Owley

Articles

As climate change leads to both internal displacement and mass migrations, we need not only new places for people to live but also new locations for infrastructure projects and other public needs. Some of the most attractive areas for these new land uses are currently unoccupied land, including land set aside for conservation. Numerous laws restrict the availability and possible uses of public conservation land. Individual agreements and property restrictions encumber private conservation land, varying in the ease with which the restrictions can be modified. For example, privately protected areas in the United States are often encumbered with perpetual conservation …


The Neglect Of Persons With Severe Brain Injury To The United States: An International Human Rights Analysis, Tamar Ezer, Megan S. Wright, Joseph J. Wright Jun 2020

The Neglect Of Persons With Severe Brain Injury To The United States: An International Human Rights Analysis, Tamar Ezer, Megan S. Wright, Joseph J. Wright

Articles

Brain injury contributes more to death and disability globally than any other traumatic incident. While the past decade has seen significant medical advances, laws and policies remain stumbling blocks to treatment and care. The quality of life of persons with severe brain injury often declines with unnecessary institutionalization and inadequate access to rehabilitation and assistive technologies. This raises a host of rights violations that are hidden, given that persons with severe brain injury are generally invisible and marginalized. This article highlights the current neglect and experiences of persons with severe brain injury in the United States, analyzing the rights to …


The Honduran Exodus: Understanding The Migrant Crisis At The Southwest Border, Ashley Saul May 2020

The Honduran Exodus: Understanding The Migrant Crisis At The Southwest Border, Ashley Saul

University of Miami Inter-American Law Review

No abstract provided.


Queering The Dream—The Impact Trump’S Decision Has On Lgbtq+ Dreamers, Candelario Saldana Apr 2020

Queering The Dream—The Impact Trump’S Decision Has On Lgbtq+ Dreamers, Candelario Saldana

University of Miami Race & Social Justice Law Review

On June 15, 2012, President Obama created the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (“DACA”) program, which was an exercise of prosecutorial discretion that provided temporary relief from deportation to youth known as Dreamers. On September 5, 2017, the Trump administration announced that it would begin phasing out the program. The fate of the program has recently been litigated in courts including the Supreme Court, with a decision pending from the Supreme Court anytime in 2020 (although there is a push to stall a decision due to the COVID-19 pandemic). In this article I discuss the historical context of DACA and …


Ten Years Fighting Hate, David A. Hall Apr 2020

Ten Years Fighting Hate, David A. Hall

University of Miami Race & Social Justice Law Review

On October 28, 2009, President Barack Obama signed into law the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act (“the Act”). One of the goals of the Act was to broaden protections against crimes motivated by hatred for a person’s group membership (her perceived race, national origin, gender or gender identity, sexual orientation, disability, or religion). The Act intends to address the need for US law to recognize the particularly destructive and virulent nature of crimes motivated by this kind of animus toward minority groups. Such crimes can often have an outsized effect, because they are intended to …


Our Trade Law System, Kathleen Claussen Jan 2020

Our Trade Law System, Kathleen Claussen

Articles

No abstract provided.


Haiti – U.S. Migration Through A Labor Lens: The H-2 Visa Program, The Temporary Protected Status (Tps), And Its Policy Implications, Tatiana Devia Dec 2019

Haiti – U.S. Migration Through A Labor Lens: The H-2 Visa Program, The Temporary Protected Status (Tps), And Its Policy Implications, Tatiana Devia

University of Miami Inter-American Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Impact Of Racism On Maternal Health Outcomes For Black Women, Gabrielle T. Wynn Dec 2019

The Impact Of Racism On Maternal Health Outcomes For Black Women, Gabrielle T. Wynn

University of Miami Race & Social Justice Law Review

No abstract provided.


A Modest Proposal: The Federal Government Should Use Firing Squads To Execute Federal Death Row Inmates, Stephanie Moran Nov 2019

A Modest Proposal: The Federal Government Should Use Firing Squads To Execute Federal Death Row Inmates, Stephanie Moran

University of Miami Law Review

The Eighth Amendment prohibits cruel and unusual punishment in the criminal justice system. As the federal government looks to reinstate the death penalty, this Note argues that it should include firing squad as an option for carrying out executions. While firing squads may shock the senses, this Note argues that they are in fact the only way to comport with the requirements of the Eighth Amendment.


Un Antagonism Towards The State Of Israel Resolution 2334 Of The Un Security Council: A Misinterpretation Of International Law, Jacob Dolinger Jan 2019

Un Antagonism Towards The State Of Israel Resolution 2334 Of The Un Security Council: A Misinterpretation Of International Law, Jacob Dolinger

University of Miami Inter-American Law Review

No abstract provided.


U.N. Sovereign Immunity: Using The Haitian Experience To Transition From Absolute To Qualified Immunity, Brianna Sainte Oct 2018

U.N. Sovereign Immunity: Using The Haitian Experience To Transition From Absolute To Qualified Immunity, Brianna Sainte

University of Miami Law Review

The United Nations (“U.N.”) has been looked at globally and historically as an international organization that has given aid to millions of people in the hopes of promoting peace and reducing human rights violations. It is no surprise then that many countries have welcomed U.N. troops with open arms in the hopes of stabilizing communities. However, instead of receiving aid, imagine receiving a deadly disease. Imagine having the nearby river that has been your only source of water for drinking, laundry, and bathing for decades turned into a waste dump. It is from that river turned waste dump that you—and …


The Bring Your Own Tampon Policy: Why Menstrual Hygiene Products Should Be Provided For Free In Restrooms, Elizabeth Montano Oct 2018

The Bring Your Own Tampon Policy: Why Menstrual Hygiene Products Should Be Provided For Free In Restrooms, Elizabeth Montano

University of Miami Law Review

Like toilet paper, menstrual hygiene products, such as tampons and pads, are necessities for managing natural and unavoidable bodily functions. However, menstrual hygiene products widely receive separate treatment in restrooms across the globe. While it would be absurd today to carry a roll of toilet paper at all times, it is considered necessary and common sense for all menstruators to carry menstrual hygiene products at all times, for approximately forty years, in case of an emergency. This is the “Bring Your Own Tampon” (“BYOT”) policy and it is a violation of human rights and equal protection.

This Note seeks to …


Does Trade Trump Law In The Protection Of Human Rights? International Trade, Law, And Human Rights In South Africa And South Korea, Cristina Campo Jun 2018

Does Trade Trump Law In The Protection Of Human Rights? International Trade, Law, And Human Rights In South Africa And South Korea, Cristina Campo

University of Miami International and Comparative Law Review

International relations have become categorically dependent on the sophisticated trading systems that interconnect and empower sovereign states. Thus, a state’s focus on protecting the rights of its individuals comprising and affected by that system would appear to come secondary to the economic decisions involved in conducting trade agreements. This article asks whether the international trade regime can be used to further the protection of human rights or whether such protection should be better left in the hands of legal entities in international bodies and sovereign states. I analyze South Korea and South Africa’s legal and trade regimes—two of the world’s …


Energy, Governance, And Market Mechanisms, Alice Kaswan Mar 2018

Energy, Governance, And Market Mechanisms, Alice Kaswan

University of Miami Law Review

As climate modelers’ projections materialize through intense storms, catastrophic flooding, unprecedented heat waves, and more, the need for substantial decarbonization within the next few decades has become increasingly clear. Transitioning to clean energy will bring benefits and drawbacks and will create winners and losers. Who will decide how we transition? Our choice of policy tools will have significant implications for who controls the transition and how it unfolds.

Many economists promote the role of market-based mechanisms like carbon taxes or cap-and-trade, mechanisms that rely largely on private actors to make crucial decisions. Under this view, government measures would fill in …


The Climate For Human Rights, Rebecca M. Bratspies Mar 2018

The Climate For Human Rights, Rebecca M. Bratspies

University of Miami Law Review

Climate change is the defining challenge of the 21st century. The United States government is currently ignoring the problem, but wishful thinking alone will not keep global mean temperature rise below 2ºC. This Article proposes a way forward. It advises environmental decision-makers to use human rights norms to guide them as they make decisions under United States law. By reframing their discretion through a human rights lens, decision-makers can use their existing authority to respond to the super-wicked problem of climate change


Climate Change And Human Trafficking After The Paris Agreement, Michael B. Gerrard Mar 2018

Climate Change And Human Trafficking After The Paris Agreement, Michael B. Gerrard

University of Miami Law Review

At least 21 million people globally are victims of human trafficking, typically involving either sexual exploitation or forced labor. This form of modern-day slavery tends to increase after natural disasters or conflicts where large numbers of people are displaced from their homes and become highly vulnerable. In the decades to come, climate change will very likely lead to a large increase in the number of people who are displaced and thus vulnerable to trafficking. The Paris Climate Agreement of 2015 established objectives to limit global temperature increases, but the voluntary pledges made by nearly every country fall far short of …


Limiting The National Right To Exclude, Katrina M. Wyman Mar 2018

Limiting The National Right To Exclude, Katrina M. Wyman

University of Miami Law Review

This essay argues that the robust right to exclude that nation states currently enjoy will be harder to justify in an era of climate change. Similar to landowners, nation states have virtual monopolies over portions of the earth. However, the right of landowners to control who enters their land is considerably more constrained than the right of nation states to control who enters their territory. Climate change will alter the areas of the earth suitable for human habitation and the broad right of nation states to exclude will be more difficult to justify in this new environment.


Climate Change And The Challenges To Democracy, Marcello Di Paola, Dale Jamieson Mar 2018

Climate Change And The Challenges To Democracy, Marcello Di Paola, Dale Jamieson

University of Miami Law Review

This Article explores the uneasy interaction between climate change and democracy, particularly liberal democracy. Its central claim is that climate change and other problems of the Anthropocene—this new epoch into which no earthly entity, process, or system escapes the reach and influence of human activity—expose and exacerbate existing vulnerabilities in democratic theory and practice, particularly in their currently dominant liberal form; and that both democracies’ failures and their most promising attempts at managing these problems expose democracies to significant legitimacy challenges.


Severe Brain Injury, Disability, And The Law: Achieving Justice For A Marginalized Population, Megan S. Wright, Nina Varsava, Joel Ramirez, Kyle Edwards, Nathan Gueveremont, Tamar Ezer, Joseph J. Fins Jan 2018

Severe Brain Injury, Disability, And The Law: Achieving Justice For A Marginalized Population, Megan S. Wright, Nina Varsava, Joel Ramirez, Kyle Edwards, Nathan Gueveremont, Tamar Ezer, Joseph J. Fins

Articles

Thousands of persons with severe brain injury who are minimally conscious or "locked in" are wrongly treated as if they are unconscious. Such individuals are unable to advocate for themselves and are typically segregated from society in hospitals or nursing homes. As a result, they constitute a class of persons who often lack access to adequate medical care, rehabilitation, and assistive devices that could aid them in communication and recovery. While this problem is often approached from a medical or scientific point of view, here we frame it as a legal issue amenable to legal remedies. This Article comprehensively explores …


The Transformation Of Human Rights Litigation: The Alien Tort Statute, The Anti-Terrorism Act, And Jasta, Stephen J. Schnably Aug 2017

The Transformation Of Human Rights Litigation: The Alien Tort Statute, The Anti-Terrorism Act, And Jasta, Stephen J. Schnably

University of Miami International and Comparative Law Review

A quarter century ago, the prospects for federal civil litigation of international human rights violations under the Alien Tort Statute (ATS) seemed bright. With the statute’s modern revival, a decade earlier in Filártiga, foreign nationals, often with no recourse in their own countries, had a forum for judicial vindication of a broad range of wrongs by state officials, multinational corporations, and even, in limited circumstances, foreign states themselves. The Supreme Court’s Kiobel decision in 2013, however, may signal the end of the Filártiga revolution, with Congress’s seeming acquiescence: Congress, after all, could amend the ATS if it disagreed with …


The Silencing Of Human Rights Activists In Egypt Post-Revolution, Jennifer Helmy Aug 2017

The Silencing Of Human Rights Activists In Egypt Post-Revolution, Jennifer Helmy

University of Miami International and Comparative Law Review

No abstract provided.


Labor Violations In Mexico: Can New Trade Agreements Effectuate Change?, Nicole Downey Moss May 2017

Labor Violations In Mexico: Can New Trade Agreements Effectuate Change?, Nicole Downey Moss

University of Miami Inter-American Law Review

Child labor and forced labor remain pervasive problems on Mexican farms. Millions of workers on these farms are forced to work and live in inhumane conditions, only to leave the season’s harvest just as poor as they were before. To date, human rights and labor treaties and agreements that Mexico is party to have failed to protect workers. In early 2016, however, negotiations on the Trans-Pacific Partnership (“TPP”) concluded and, if ratified, the party-countries claim that the TPP will hold Mexico to higher standards than previously faced because the TPP will link labor rights with trade law. However, this was …