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Teitiota V New Zealand, Climate Migration And Non-Refoulement: A Case Study Of Canada’S Obligations Under The Charter And The Iccpr, Mari Galloway Sep 2022

Teitiota V New Zealand, Climate Migration And Non-Refoulement: A Case Study Of Canada’S Obligations Under The Charter And The Iccpr, Mari Galloway

Dalhousie Law Journal

Climate change is expected to have an unprecedented impact on human migration and displacement over the next decade. Individuals forced to migrate on the basis of climate change or natural disasters remain, however, on the periphery of international and domestic environmental and refugee protections. Teitiota, a landmark decision by the UN Human Rights Committee (the Committee) in 2020 could, however, point the way toward filling these legal gaps by using the principle of non-refoulement under human rights law to prevent the deportation of those whose lives are at risk. As such, this paper seeks to explore the application of Teitiota …


Issue Brief: Impact Assessment And Responsible Business Guidance Tools In The Extractive Sector: An Environmental Human Rights Toolbox For Government, Business, Civil Society & Indigenous Groups, Sara L. Seck, Penelope Simmons, Charlotte Connolly Sep 2022

Issue Brief: Impact Assessment And Responsible Business Guidance Tools In The Extractive Sector: An Environmental Human Rights Toolbox For Government, Business, Civil Society & Indigenous Groups, Sara L. Seck, Penelope Simmons, Charlotte Connolly

Responsible Business Conduct and Impact Assessment Law

This issue brief provides an overview of the impact assessment and responsible business conduct toolbox for the extractive sector. The toolbox provides guidance on how governments, businesses, civil society, and Indigenous groups may encourage and adopt a human rights approach to impact assessment (IA). It forms part of a broader research project aimed at highlighting the interrelationship between IA laws and Responsible Business Conduct (RBC) tools, funded by the Social Sciences & Humanities Research Council (SSHRC) Knowledge Synthesis Grant: Informing Best Practices in Environmental & Impact Assessments (the “KSG”).


Impact Assessment And Responsible Business Conduct Tools In The Extractive Sector: An Environmental Human Rights Toolbox For Government, Business, Civil Society, And Indigenous Groups, Sara L. Seck, Charlotte Connolly, Penelope Simons, Audrey Axten Jul 2022

Impact Assessment And Responsible Business Conduct Tools In The Extractive Sector: An Environmental Human Rights Toolbox For Government, Business, Civil Society, And Indigenous Groups, Sara L. Seck, Charlotte Connolly, Penelope Simons, Audrey Axten

Responsible Business Conduct and Impact Assessment Law

This toolbox provides guidance on how governments, businesses, civil society, and Indigenous groups may encourage and adopt a human rights approach to impact assessment (IA). It forms part of a broader research project aimed at highlighting the interrelationship between IA laws and Responsible Business Conduct (RBC) tools, funded by the Social Sciences & Humanities Research Council (SSHRC) Knowledge Synthesis Grant: Informing Best Practices in Environmental & Impact Assessments (the “KSG”).


Patents And Plants: Rethinking The Role Of International Law In Relation To The Appropriation Of Traditional Knowledge Of The Uses Of Plants (Tkup), Ikechi Mgbeoji May 2022

Patents And Plants: Rethinking The Role Of International Law In Relation To The Appropriation Of Traditional Knowledge Of The Uses Of Plants (Tkup), Ikechi Mgbeoji

PhD Dissertations

Legal control and ownership of plants and traditional knowledge of the uses of plants (TKUP) is often a vexed issue, particularly at the international level because of the conflicting interests of states or groups of states in the matter. The most widely used form of juridical control of plants and TKUP is the patent system which originated in Europe. This thesis rethinks the role of international law and legal concepts, the major patent systems of the world and international agricultural research institutions as they affect legal ownership and control of plants and TKUP. The analysis is cast in various contexts …


Doing Better For Indigenous Children And Families: Jordan’S Principle Accountability Mechanisms Report, Naiomi Metallic, Hadley Friedland, Shelby Thomas Mar 2022

Doing Better For Indigenous Children And Families: Jordan’S Principle Accountability Mechanisms Report, Naiomi Metallic, Hadley Friedland, Shelby Thomas

Reports & Public Policy Documents

In Part 1 of this report, we attempt to summarize the long history that forms the context of the need for independent accountability measures to meaningfully address the discrimination identified by the CHRT in Caring Society and prevent similar practices in the future. Drawing from this context, in Part 2, we set out what we identify as 10 key accountability needs of Indigenous children and families that must be addressed in order to provide effective accountability. Finally, in Part 3, we discuss features of effective accountability mechanisms and propose three interconnected mechanisms that we believe address the accountability …


Business, Human Rights, & The Triple Planetary Crisis: Confronting Overconsumption, Sara Seck Mar 2022

Business, Human Rights, & The Triple Planetary Crisis: Confronting Overconsumption, Sara Seck

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

According to the United Nations, the world is facing a triple planetary crisis of climate change, nature (biodiversity) loss, and pollution and waste, with the most egregious consequences felt by those least responsible. These crises are also intertwined: nature-based solutions are promoted as climate change solutions even as heat domes fuel forest fires; extraction of minerals for green energy solutions negatively impacts biodiversity and creates pollution and waste; and carbon major companies are also among the largest producers of plastic pollution. International human rights law is increasingly grappling with environmental rights and responsibilities, as evidenced by the work of special …


Voices From Below—Africa’S Contribution To The Development Of The Norm Of Corporate Responsibility To Respect Human Rights, Akinwumi Olawuyi Ogunranti Jan 2022

Voices From Below—Africa’S Contribution To The Development Of The Norm Of Corporate Responsibility To Respect Human Rights, Akinwumi Olawuyi Ogunranti

PhD Dissertations

The long conversations about corporate responsibility predominantly take place in forums and conferences in the Global North. Yet, the majority of the human rights abuses and their impacts are felt by peasants, farmers, children, and women in local communities in the Global South who do not have a voice in the institutionalized governance systems that animate global affairs. This thesis answers the question of how norms and human rights institutions in Africa can influence the corporate responsibility to respect (CR2R) norm as embedded in pillar II of the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights. Through the theory …


Unep And Marine & Environmental Law Institute, "Plastics Toolbox: Business, Human Rights, And The Environment" (Last Updated November 2021) (Dalhousie University, Schulich School Of Law), Marine And Environmental Law Institute Nov 2021

Unep And Marine & Environmental Law Institute, "Plastics Toolbox: Business, Human Rights, And The Environment" (Last Updated November 2021) (Dalhousie University, Schulich School Of Law), Marine And Environmental Law Institute

Human Rights-based Approaches to Plastic Pollution

The Plastics Toolbox: Business, Human Rights, and the Environment, compiles good practices and cross-cutting guidance on a human rights-based approach to plastic pollution prevention and management with a focus on capacity building of governments and businesses in the East Asian Seas region. This compilation of resources, guidance, tools and trainings was prepared by a team of researchers at Dalhousie University's Marine and Environmental Law Institute under the direction of project lead Dr Sara L Seck, with funding from the United Nations Environment Programme. The materials in the toolbox were gathered from May to August 2021 and updated in November 2021. …


Mapping Human Rights-Based Climate Litigation In Canada, Lisa Benjamin, Sara L. Seck Nov 2021

Mapping Human Rights-Based Climate Litigation In Canada, Lisa Benjamin, Sara L. Seck

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

In line with global trends, there has been an increase in human rights-based climate litigation brought in Canadian courts in recent years. Some litigants invoke human rights as found in the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms to push federal and provincial governments to take seriously the implementation of their climate obligations. Other litigants invoke procedural environmental human rights to engage in free speech and peaceful protest in the face of government action supporting fossil fuel consumption or expansion. At the same time, the Supreme Court of Canada has recognized that Canadian courts could develop civil remedies for corporate violations …


Divine Intervention, Part Ii: Narratives Of Norm Entrepreneurship In Canadian Religious Freedom Litigation, Kathryn Chan, Howard Kislowicz Oct 2021

Divine Intervention, Part Ii: Narratives Of Norm Entrepreneurship In Canadian Religious Freedom Litigation, Kathryn Chan, Howard Kislowicz

Dalhousie Law Journal

Constitutional litigation has become a central arena for debate about human rights. Groups from all points on the political spectrum have turned to legal advocacy, “intervening” in judicial proceedings in an effort to advance their preferred interpretations of particular rights.

Judges and scholars remain divided on whether and how interveners are valuable. This paper evaluates a main rationale for intervention: interveners improve adjudication by enriching courts’ understandings of the issues before them. We use qualitative analysis to examine the extent to which interveners in Canada have succeeded in contributing to judicial pronouncements on the scope and meaning of religious freedom. …


Fiscal Decolonization-Indigenous Fiscal Autonomy And Tax Jurisdiction, Riad Kherallah Oct 2021

Fiscal Decolonization-Indigenous Fiscal Autonomy And Tax Jurisdiction, Riad Kherallah

LLM Theses

This thesis focuses on the relationship between Indigenous fiscal autonomy and self-determination. Indigenous nations’ ability to achieve self-determination is dependent upon their ability to autonomously finance self-government. Unfortunately, Canada’s colonial policies have weakened Indigenous economies and rendered them dependent upon the Crown. Due to Indigenous nations’ lack of fiscal autonomy, Crown policies designed to promote Indigenous self-government have proven inadequate. This thesis argues for using the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples as a blueprint for developing more equitable economic relations. While there are various elements to Crown-Indigenous economic relations, this thesis focuses on the distribution of …


Climate Justice And The Etos, Sara L. Seck Sep 2021

Climate Justice And The Etos, Sara L. Seck

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

This chapter will explore whether the Maastricht Principles have contributed to the clarification of ETOs for human rights in relation to climate justice. I will first consider some conceptual issues of relevance to both the ETOs and the quest for climate justice. Second, with reference to several examples, I will illustrate how the concept of extraterritoriality may create confusion rather than clarity in the climate context. I will then illustrate how this confusion may be overcome if attention is paid to the precise nature of the relationships at issue to which obligations attach, rather than reinforcing the bright line of …


International Arbitration: The New Frontier Of Business And Human Rights Dispute Resolution?, Tamar Meshel Jun 2021

International Arbitration: The New Frontier Of Business And Human Rights Dispute Resolution?, Tamar Meshel

Dalhousie Law Journal

The question of redress for corporate human rights violations remains daunting. Access to justice challenges faced by rights holders before domestic courts have placed this issue at the forefront of international discourse, and many initiatives have attempted to improve rights holders’ access to effective remedies. This article examines one such initiative, namely international arbitration. The article focuses on the use of international arbitration in the business and human rights context pursuant to the 2013 Accord on Fire and Building Safety in Bangladesh and the recently launched Hague Rules on Business and Human Rights Arbitration. It evaluates the extent to which …


Responsible Business Conduct In The Extractive Industries: Prospect Of Respecting Women's Human Rights In Ghana, Veronica Dossah May 2021

Responsible Business Conduct In The Extractive Industries: Prospect Of Respecting Women's Human Rights In Ghana, Veronica Dossah

LLM Theses

Business operations in the extractive industries (EI) continue to violate women’s human rights and the environment in the communities in which they operate. In Ghana, existing laws and regulations do not preclude businesses from such violations. This makes it important to reflect on innovative means including soft laws which could encourage companies operating in the EI in Ghana to respect women’s human rights and the environment over and above compliance with national laws and regulations. This thesis examines the problem of land grabbing by EI companies operating in Ghana, the unique negative impacts women in mining communities face as a …


Shadow Pandemic: Covid-19 Lockdown Brings Increased Risk Of Violence For Rohingya Women And Girls, Sara Edwards Jan 2021

Shadow Pandemic: Covid-19 Lockdown Brings Increased Risk Of Violence For Rohingya Women And Girls, Sara Edwards

Law in a Post-Pandemic World

This blog is a reflection on the increases in gender-based violence (GBV) against Rohingya women in Bangladesh due to the COVID-19 pandemic.


The Effects Of Covid-19 On A Damaged System: How The Pandemic Exacerbated The Violation Of International Human Rights In The United States Immigration Detention Facilities, Alyson Sutton Jan 2021

The Effects Of Covid-19 On A Damaged System: How The Pandemic Exacerbated The Violation Of International Human Rights In The United States Immigration Detention Facilities, Alyson Sutton

Law in a Post-Pandemic World

This blog post highlights several issues within immigration detention facilities in the United States that violate International Human Rights Laws and how the pandemic further exacerbated them.


Submission To The Toronto Police Services Board’S Use Of New Artificial Intelligence Technologies Policy- Leaf And The Citizen Lab, Suzie Dunn, Kristen Mj Thomasen, Kate Robertson, Pam Hrick, Cynthia Khoo, Rosel Kim, Ngozi Okidegbe, Christopher Parsons Jan 2021

Submission To The Toronto Police Services Board’S Use Of New Artificial Intelligence Technologies Policy- Leaf And The Citizen Lab, Suzie Dunn, Kristen Mj Thomasen, Kate Robertson, Pam Hrick, Cynthia Khoo, Rosel Kim, Ngozi Okidegbe, Christopher Parsons

Reports & Public Policy Documents

We write as a group of experts in the legal regulation of artificial intelligence (AI), technology-facilitated violence, equality, and the use of AI systems by law enforcement in Canada. We have experience working within academia and legal practice, and are affiliated with LEAF and the Citizen Lab who support this letter.

We reviewed the Toronto Police Services Board Use of New Artificial Intelligence Technologies Policy and provide comments and recommendations focused on the following key observations:

1. Police use of AI technologies must not be seen as inevitable
2. A commitment to protecting equality and human rights must be integrated …


Mental Illness And Professional Regulation: The Duty To Report A Fellow Lawyer To The Society, Andrew Flavelle Martin Jan 2021

Mental Illness And Professional Regulation: The Duty To Report A Fellow Lawyer To The Society, Andrew Flavelle Martin

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

Lawyers have a largely overlooked duty to report other lawyers to the law society in a range of circumstances. This duty contemplates mental illness, explicitly or implicitly, as a reportable condition and thus engages issues of stigma and discrimination. This article analyzes this reporting duty with a focus on its implications for lawyers with disabilities. The article begins by examining the history and text of the rule and considering several legal problems it presents. It then canvasses law societies’ duties to their members with disabilities under human rights law and analyzes how the duty to report interacts with human rights …


Human Rights And Transnational Organized Crime, Robert Currie, Sarah Douglas Jan 2021

Human Rights And Transnational Organized Crime, Robert Currie, Sarah Douglas

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

This chapter will scrutinize the points at which these two legal regimes intersect with and infuse each other. It will proceed in three sections. The first section will provide a brief overview of the international human rights law system, specifically tailored to ground the following parts. The second section will examine the means by which protection is given to the human rights of individuals who are targeted for criminal investigation and prosecution as a result of their alleged involvement in TOC (referred to for efficiency as “accused persons” or “the accused”). It will first briefly explain the means by which …


Reasonable Expectations Of Privacy In An Era Of Drones And Deepfakes: Expanding The Supreme Court Of Canada’S Decision In R V Jarvis, Suzie Dunn, Kristen Mj Thomasen Jan 2021

Reasonable Expectations Of Privacy In An Era Of Drones And Deepfakes: Expanding The Supreme Court Of Canada’S Decision In R V Jarvis, Suzie Dunn, Kristen Mj Thomasen

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

Perpetrators of Technology-Facilitated gender-based violence are taking advantage of increasingly automated and sophisticated privacy-invasive tools to carry out their abuse. Whether this be monitoring movements through stalker-ware, using drones to non-consensually film or harass, or manipulating and distributing intimate images online such as deep-fakes and creepshots, invasions of privacy have become a significant form of gender-based violence. Accordingly, our normative and legal concepts of privacy must evolve to counter the harms arising from this misuse of new technology. Canada’s Supreme Court recently addressed Technology-Facilitated violations of privacy in the context of voyeurism in R v Jarvis (2019). The discussion of …


Is It Actually Violence? Framing Technology-Facilitated Abuse As Violence, Suzie Dunn Jan 2021

Is It Actually Violence? Framing Technology-Facilitated Abuse As Violence, Suzie Dunn

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

When discussing the term “Technology-Facilitated violence” (TFV) it is often asked: “Is it actually violence?” While international human rights standards, such as the United Nations’ Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, have long recognized emotional and psychological abuse as forms of violence, including many forms of technology-facilitated abuse, law makers and the general public continue to grapple with the question of whether certain harmful technology-facilitated behaviors are actually forms of violence. This chapter explores this question in two parts. First, it reviews three theoretical concepts of violence and examines how these concepts apply to technology-facilitated …


Faith And/In Medicine: Religious And Conscientious Objections To Maid, Daphne Gilbert Dec 2020

Faith And/In Medicine: Religious And Conscientious Objections To Maid, Daphne Gilbert

Dalhousie Law Journal

Across Canada, health care institutions that operate under the umbrella of religious traditions refuse to offer medical assistance in dying (MAiD) on the grounds that it violates their Charter-protected rights to freedom of religion and conscience. This article analyses the Supreme Court jurisprudence on section 2(a) and concludes that it should not extend to the protection of institutional rights. While the Court has not definitively pronounced a view on this matter, its jurisprudence suggests that any institutional right to freedom of religion would not extend to decisions on publicly-funded and legal health care. MAiD is a constitutionally-protected option for individuals …


Dispute Settlement Under The African Continental Free Trade Area Agreement: A Preliminary Assessment, Olabisi D. Akinkugbe Nov 2020

Dispute Settlement Under The African Continental Free Trade Area Agreement: A Preliminary Assessment, Olabisi D. Akinkugbe

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

The African Continental Free Trade Area Agreement (AfCFTA) will add a new dispute settlement system to the plethora of judicial mechanisms designed to resolve trade disputes in Africa. Against the discontent of Member States and limited impact the existing highly legalized trade dispute settlement mechanisms have had on regional economic integration in Africa, this paper undertakes a preliminary assessment of the AfCFTA Dispute Settlement Mechanism (DSM). In particular, the paper situates the AfCFTA-DSM in the overall discontent and unsupportive practices of African States with highly legalized dispute settlement systems and similar WTO-Styled DSMs among other shortcomings. Notwithstanding the transplantation of …


Using Canadian Law To Prevent, Respond To And Remedy Maltreatment In Sport: Listening To And Learning From Athletes, Wendy Macgregor Oct 2020

Using Canadian Law To Prevent, Respond To And Remedy Maltreatment In Sport: Listening To And Learning From Athletes, Wendy Macgregor

LLM Theses

This thesis addresses maltreatment of athletes in Canada, in the post-Nassar era, by considering applicable law, policy, academic literature and a qualitative study. Athlete maltreatment may include: psychological, physical and sexual maltreatment, and neglect. Prevalence and impacts of maltreatment are examined. Legal and administrative options available to complainants are discussed, as well as applicable international human rights and child rights conventions, Canadian legislation, legal principles, and jurisprudence. An academic literature review provides maltreatment definitions in order to lay the groundwork for the discussion. Academic perspectives and proposals for redress are considered. A qualitative athlete study produced four key themes which …


An Analysis Of The Human Rights Approach To Climate Change: The Right To A Healthy Environment, Intergenerational Equity And Climate Litigation, Unwana Emmanuel Udo Oct 2020

An Analysis Of The Human Rights Approach To Climate Change: The Right To A Healthy Environment, Intergenerational Equity And Climate Litigation, Unwana Emmanuel Udo

LLM Theses

Climate change litigation is a viable tool in the fight against climate change. For the past 2 decades, climate litigation has largely been based on torts and administrative law. However, courts have recently been quite receptive to human rights arguments in climate cases, thereby necessitating recognition of the human rights approach as an important facet of climate litigation. It is important for intergenerational equity to be integrated into the human rights approach to climate change. One of the major benefits of intergenerational equity to the human rights approach is its potential to catalyze the recognition of the right to a …


Wrongful Extradition: Reforming The Committal Phase Of Canada's Extradition Law, Robert Currie Sep 2020

Wrongful Extradition: Reforming The Committal Phase Of Canada's Extradition Law, Robert Currie

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

There has recently been an upswing in interest around extradition in Canada, particularly in light of the high-profile and troubling case of Hassan Diab, who was extradited to France on the basis of what turned out to be an ill-founded case. Diab’s case highlights some of the problems with Canada’s Extradition Act and proceedings thereunder. This paper argues that: the “committal stage” of extradition proceedings, involving a judicial hearing into the basis of the requesting state’s case, is unfair and may not be compliant with the Charter; and that the manner in which the Crown conducts these proceedings contributes to …


The Political Economy Of Nigeria’S Digital Tax Experiment, Okanga Ogbu Okanga Jul 2020

The Political Economy Of Nigeria’S Digital Tax Experiment, Okanga Ogbu Okanga

Articles, Book Chapters, & Popular Press

In January 2020 when I first read Nigeria’s Finance Act 2019, one of the instinctive questions that came to me was “is Nigeria serious about taxing digital trade now”? There were a few reasons for this skepticism. First, the Act seeks to tax nonresident companies (NRCs) that have a “significant economic presence” (SEP) in Nigeria but then delegates the definition of that pivotal phrase. Second, I questioned how Nigeria can enforce/administer this unilateral tax, which is payable by companies outside its borders. Third, I imagined that Nigeria’s unilateral attempt to tax digital trade could undermine relations with a strategic …


Evidence Brief: Impact Assessment And Responsible Business Conduct, Sara L. Seck, Penelope Simons, Adebayo Majekolagbe Jun 2020

Evidence Brief: Impact Assessment And Responsible Business Conduct, Sara L. Seck, Penelope Simons, Adebayo Majekolagbe

Responsible Business Conduct and Impact Assessment Law

This Evidence Brief provides a concise overview of the April 2020 report, Sara Seck & Penelope Simons, "Impact Assessment and Responsible Business Guidance Tools in the Extractive Sector: Implications for Human Rights, Gender and Stakeholder Engagement" (Draft Final Report for the SSHRC Knowledge Synthesis Grant: Informing Best Practices in Environmental and Impact Assessments, 13 April 2020).


Impact Assessment And Responsible Business Guidance Tools In The Extractive Sector: Implications For Human Rights, Gender And Stakeholder Engagement, Sara L. Seck, Penelope Simons May 2020

Impact Assessment And Responsible Business Guidance Tools In The Extractive Sector: Implications For Human Rights, Gender And Stakeholder Engagement, Sara L. Seck, Penelope Simons

Responsible Business Conduct and Impact Assessment Law

This report aims to identify RBC tools referenced in the literature as relevant and/or promoted to Canadian extractive companies operating within and outside Canada. While not appraising or pronouncing on the quality of RBC tools, we consider the different actors that promote these diverse tools and whether there is a coherent framework for the efficient and effective application of current and future tools. We focus on RBC tools on human rights, stakeholder engagement, the rights of Indigenous peoples, and the rights of women and girls. Further, we review the position of scholars on the relationship between RBC and IA.


Business And Human Rights In The Context Of Sanctions: A Road To Filling The Governance Gap, Bahareh Jafarian May 2020

Business And Human Rights In The Context Of Sanctions: A Road To Filling The Governance Gap, Bahareh Jafarian

LLM Theses

As concerns about the negative impacts of sanctions on the human rights of civilians and the environment increases, it is necessary to reflect upon the lawfulness and legal status of such measures in international law, and their impact on business enterprises and the field of Business and Human Rights (BHR). While current academic literature tends to focus on implementation, enforcement and business compliance with unilateral and multilateral sanctions, the negative impacts of sanctions on non-state actors and resulting human rights violations are overlooked. Specifically, the relationship between sanctions law and the responsibility of businesses to respect human rights and the …