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Renewing Freedom Of Expression, Part Two: From The Contextual Approach To Proportionality Balancing, Jamie Cameron Jan 2023

Renewing Freedom Of Expression, Part Two: From The Contextual Approach To Proportionality Balancing, Jamie Cameron

All Papers

This article continues the project to renew the Charter’s methodology of expressive freedom in two parts. Part One explained that the Court’s approach to s.2(b) decision making is skewed against expressive freedom and must be addressed holistically, under ss.2(b) and s.1. (see J. Cameron, “Resetting the Foundations: Renewing Freedom of Expression under Section 2(b) of the Charter”, in B. Bird and D. Ross, eds., Forgotten Foundations of the Canadian Constitution. (LexisNexis Canada, 2022). Part One provided a critique of the current methodology, addressed the meaning of freedom under s.2(b), proposed a revised standard of breach, and sketched a …


Written Submission To The House Of Commons’ Justice And Human Rights Committee On Bill C-9: An Act To Amend The Judges Act, Craig M. Scott Nov 2022

Written Submission To The House Of Commons’ Justice And Human Rights Committee On Bill C-9: An Act To Amend The Judges Act, Craig M. Scott

Commissioned Reports, Studies and Public Policy Documents

This is a brief entered into evidence before the Canadian House of Commons’ Justice and Human Rights Committee during its consideration of Bill C-9, An Act to amend the Judges Act. Bill C-9 was introduced on First reading by the Government of Canada on December 16, 2021. The amendments in Bill C-9 concern the procedures by which the Canadian Judicial Council handles complaints of judicial misconduct. The brief argues that the Bill C-9 presents problems of transparency that undermine accountability of the judiciary in the face of concerns of misconduct. It seeks to demonstrate that Bill C-9’s effort to hide …


State Crimes, François Tanguay-Renaud Jan 2022

State Crimes, François Tanguay-Renaud

All Papers

Is a category of state crimes theoretically sound and important?

This chapter defends the view that it is, based on some of John Gardner’s key theoretical commitments about the possibility of state agency and wrongdoing. The central contention is that the category of state crimes is useful as a means of singling out those condemnable state wrongdoings that warrant punishment. Other existing normative categories such as state injustices and violations of human rights are not sufficiently discerning to pick out this important subset of state wrongs. The category also helps focus inquiries about the justification of the more deliberately burdensome …


20 Years Later, Walkerton Inquiry Members Discuss Impact Of Recommendations With Wcwc Staff, Colin Burrowes, Gus Van Harten Sep 2021

20 Years Later, Walkerton Inquiry Members Discuss Impact Of Recommendations With Wcwc Staff, Colin Burrowes, Gus Van Harten

Editorials and Commentaries

No abstract provided.


The Grounds Of Human Rights, Brian Slattery May 2021

The Grounds Of Human Rights, Brian Slattery

All Papers

What is the rational foundation for the doctrine of universal human rights? Some philosophers, such as Alan Gewirth, argue that it may be discovered simply by reflection on certain essential features of the human constitution. However this approach has significant problems, achieving its ends by smuggling certain tacit premises into the argument. A better approach is one that appeals to the communal practices and traditions within which doctrines of human rights have evolved historically. It is here that Alasdair MacIntyre's work becomes relevant, because it maintains that traditions have a rationality of their own, and that all rationality is in …


Experimenting With Credibility In Refugee Adjudication: Gaydar, Sean Rehaag, Hilary Evans Cameron Jul 2020

Experimenting With Credibility In Refugee Adjudication: Gaydar, Sean Rehaag, Hilary Evans Cameron

Articles & Book Chapters

Canada offers refugee protection to sexual minorities facing persecution abroad. While success rates for sexual minority refugee claims have generally been higher than the overall average at Canada’s Immigration and Refugee Board, hundreds of such claims are nonetheless turned down each year. The most common reason for denying these claims is that assertions about the claimants’ sexual orientations are determined not to be credible. Scholars have raised concerns about how such credibility determinations are made. This article contributes to the critical literature in this area by exploring sexual minority refugee claim credibility assessments through an experimental study involving simulated refugee …


Human Rights In Global Health: Rights- Based Governance For A Globalizing World Edited By Benjamin M. Meier And Lawrence O. Gostin1, Regiane Garcia, Kristi Heather Kenyon May 2020

Human Rights In Global Health: Rights- Based Governance For A Globalizing World Edited By Benjamin M. Meier And Lawrence O. Gostin1, Regiane Garcia, Kristi Heather Kenyon

Osgoode Hall Law Journal

THIS GROUNDBREAKING COMPILATION, edited by two scholars who helped to establish the “health and human rights” field, systematically explores the structures and processes of human rights implementation in global health institutions while arguing that a rights-based approach to health governance advances global health. The 640-page volume brings together forty-six experienced scholars and practitioners who have contributed to twenty-five chapters organized into six thematic sections. This “unprecedented collection of experts” provides unique, hands-on insights into how the “institutional determinants of the rights-based approach to health” facilitate—or hinder—the “mainstreaming” of human rights into global health interventions. The institutional determinants, which—in the contributors’ …


Holocaust, Genocide, And The Law: A Quest For Justice In A Post-Holocaust World By Michael J. Bazyler, Irina Samborski May 2020

Holocaust, Genocide, And The Law: A Quest For Justice In A Post-Holocaust World By Michael J. Bazyler, Irina Samborski

Osgoode Hall Law Journal

LAW IS COMMONLY THOUGHT OF as an antidote to genocide rather than its facilitator. In Holocaust, Genocide, and the Law, Professor Michael Bazyler of Chapman University’s Fowler School of Law refutes the notion that the Holocaust was an extralegal event—instead, he isolates the law as the preferred instrument of wholesale murder and destruction. The book traces the long shadow that the Holocaust has cast on the contemporary corpus of international law and many legal systems across the world. While it tells the unfolding catastrophe of the Holocaust as a legal history, the book considers the legal triumphs that followed the …


Opening The Doors To Justice In Africa: Analyzing State Acceptance Of The Right Of Individual Application To The African Court On Human And Peoples' Rights, Simon Zschirnt May 2020

Opening The Doors To Justice In Africa: Analyzing State Acceptance Of The Right Of Individual Application To The African Court On Human And Peoples' Rights, Simon Zschirnt

The Transnational Human Rights Review

The African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights took its place as the youngest of the three regional human rights courts with its establishment in 2006. However, the Court’s jurisdiction remains a work in progress. Thirty of the African Union’s fifty-five member states have ratified the protocol allowing the African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights to refer cases to the Court but only ten have made the optional declaration allowing individuals direct access. Previous research has indicated that transitional states desirous of “locking in” new commitments to democracy and human rights have been particularly likely to ratify the protocol …


Implementing Undrip In Canada: Any Role For Corporations?, Basil Ugochukwu May 2020

Implementing Undrip In Canada: Any Role For Corporations?, Basil Ugochukwu

The Transnational Human Rights Review

The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) offers guidance on how the rights of indigenous populations could be protected in the context of member states of the United Nations. While the Declaration prescribes what states need to do to effectively realize its objective, question is whether there are expectations on non-state actors such as corporations to contribute towards attaining those objectives. Though on the one hand the UNDRIP is textually not directed at corporations, on the other hand, corporations are routinely implicated in environments where massive violations of indigenous rights have occurred in various regions of …


Book Review: Irini Papanicolopulu, International Law And The Protection Of People At Sea (Oxford: Oxford University Press) 2018, Ramat Tobi Abudu May 2020

Book Review: Irini Papanicolopulu, International Law And The Protection Of People At Sea (Oxford: Oxford University Press) 2018, Ramat Tobi Abudu

The Transnational Human Rights Review

No abstract provided.


International Accountability In The Implementation Of The Right To Development And The “Wonderful Artificiality” Of Law: An African Perspective, Obiora C. Okafor, Uchechukwu Ngwaba May 2020

International Accountability In The Implementation Of The Right To Development And The “Wonderful Artificiality” Of Law: An African Perspective, Obiora C. Okafor, Uchechukwu Ngwaba

The Transnational Human Rights Review

The landscape for the implementation of the right to development has undergone significant transformative shifts with the recent establishment of a new expert mechanism on the right to development by the UN Human Rights Council, and the finalisation of a draft treaty on the right to development. Yet, much more can clearly still be done to strengthen UN, state and non-state actors thinking on accountability in the implementation of the right to development, to add to the already considerable progress that has taken place. Our paper explores what can be done, focusing on the African and international context. We conclude …


Where Do We Go From Here? Reflections On The Lco’S Consultation And Conference, Daithí Mac Síthigh Sep 2019

Where Do We Go From Here? Reflections On The Lco’S Consultation And Conference, Daithí Mac Síthigh

Osgoode Hall Law Journal

This is a report on the Law Commission of Ontario’s one-day conference on defamation law and the Internet by the conference rapporteur. After reviewing the topical nature of the event (including its relationship with debate on defamation law in Ontario and elsewhere), this article discusses the position of defamation in a wider legal landscape. Points include the relationship between defamation and privacy, the impact of data protection, and the appropriateness of procedures. Then, the impact of technological change is assessed, referring to the liability of intermediaries, the enforcement of decisions, and the degree to which online communication can support a …


Intersectional Human Rights At Cedaw: Promises Transmissions And Impacts, Amanda Barbara Allen Dale Aug 2018

Intersectional Human Rights At Cedaw: Promises Transmissions And Impacts, Amanda Barbara Allen Dale

PhD Dissertations

Starting from the premise that international human rights law is not a neutral fact, this dissertation is a critical exploration of the promises, transmissions and impacts of intersectionality as an approach to gender protections in international human rights law. I begin with a definition of intersectionality at the individual claimant and jurisprudential levels, as an approach to anti-discrimination and equality law that attempts to move beyond static conceptions and fixed identities of discriminated subjects, and, based on Kimberl Crenshaws powerful metaphor of a traffic intersection, delineates the flow of discrimination as multi-directional, and injury as seldom attributable to a single …


A Right To Universal Health Coverage In Resource-Constrained Nations? Towards A Blueprint For Better Health Outcomes, Uchechukwu Ngwaba Apr 2018

A Right To Universal Health Coverage In Resource-Constrained Nations? Towards A Blueprint For Better Health Outcomes, Uchechukwu Ngwaba

The Transnational Human Rights Review

Universal health coverage, as conceived by the World Health Organization (WHO) and adopted in the programmatic framework of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), is a clarion call for states to strengthen their health financing systems to avoid catastrophic and impoverishing health spending. However, the framing of the goals of universal health coverage fails to take account of underlying determinants of health and appears to abandon decades of health rights scholarship and jurisprudence. This scholarship and jurisprudence, although not entirely free from disagreements and shortcomings, is argued to offer a better framework for universal health coverage when strengthened with the paradigm …


Deprivation Of Nationality As A Counter-Terrorism Tool: A Comparative Analysis Of Canadian And Dutch Legislation, Tom Boekestein Apr 2018

Deprivation Of Nationality As A Counter-Terrorism Tool: A Comparative Analysis Of Canadian And Dutch Legislation, Tom Boekestein

The Transnational Human Rights Review

No abstract provided.


Economic Wrongs And Social Rights: Analyzing The Impact Of Systemic Corruption On Realization Of Economic And Social Rights In Kenya And The Potential Redress Offered By The Optional Protocol To The International Covenant On Economic, Social Rights And Cultural Rights, Caroline Omari Lichuma Apr 2018

Economic Wrongs And Social Rights: Analyzing The Impact Of Systemic Corruption On Realization Of Economic And Social Rights In Kenya And The Potential Redress Offered By The Optional Protocol To The International Covenant On Economic, Social Rights And Cultural Rights, Caroline Omari Lichuma

The Transnational Human Rights Review

No abstract provided.


Report Of The Independent Expert On Human Rights And International Solidarity, Obiora C. Okafor Jan 2018

Report Of The Independent Expert On Human Rights And International Solidarity, Obiora C. Okafor

Commissioned Reports, Studies and Public Policy Documents

This is the first report prepared by Obiora Chinedu Okafor in his capacity as Independent Expert on human rights and international solidarity. In the report, submitted pursuant to Human Rights Council resolution 35/3, the Independent Expert sets out his vision for the mandate, summarizes the work undertaken so far by his predecessors, outlines his objectives and methods of work, and discusses possible thematic priorities for the mandate.


Stewart V. Elk Valley: The Case Of The Cocaine-Using Coal Miner, Faisal Bhabha Jan 2018

Stewart V. Elk Valley: The Case Of The Cocaine-Using Coal Miner, Faisal Bhabha

All Papers

It has for some time been settled under section 15 of the Charter and within anti-discrimination code definitions that "disability" includes "addictions". Labour boards and human rights tribunals have long accepted that "alcohol and drug addiction are illnesses and are physical and mental disabilities for the purposes of the Human Rights Code. There are no reasons to consider them any less an illness or disability than any other serious affliction."' The shift in expert consensus led to notable changes to the key American diagnostic instrument, the DSM 5, adopted in 2013 with a completely revised approach to addictions. What is …


Evaluating Canadian And South African Collaborative Human Rights Initiatives: A Preliminary Analysis And Research Agenda, Moses Retselisitsoe Phooko Aug 2017

Evaluating Canadian And South African Collaborative Human Rights Initiatives: A Preliminary Analysis And Research Agenda, Moses Retselisitsoe Phooko

The Transnational Human Rights Review

South Africa’s now defunct, autocratic apartheid government was based on minority rule, racially discriminatory laws, and disregard for the fundamental human rights of almost all black people. At that time, Parliament was supreme and could do anything that it wished, including enacting laws that denied the vast majority of the population from the right to vote. This regime lasted until the 1990s when parliamentary supremacy was replaced by constitutional supremacy. The adoption of the Interim Constitution of South Africa in 1993 eventually paved way for, among other things, respect for the fundamental human rights of all peoples without any distinctions …


Canada-Botswana Human Rights Engagements: A Critical Assessment Of The Literature And A Research Agenda, Bonolo Ramadi Dinokopila Aug 2017

Canada-Botswana Human Rights Engagements: A Critical Assessment Of The Literature And A Research Agenda, Bonolo Ramadi Dinokopila

The Transnational Human Rights Review

This article discusses the past and present of Canada-Botswana human rights engagements, offering an insight into their nature and significance. The article highlights that despite the absence of strong diplomatic ties between the two countries, there nonetheless have been significant human rights engagements. The engagements, though not entirely systematic or clearly defined in their focus, have certainly improved the human rights situation in Botswana. It is also noted that the sustainability of these engagements is questionable considering that the weak ties between the two countries have resulted in reduced Canadian funding to Botswana. In the end, the article emphasizes that …


Canadian-Tanzanian Human Rights Engagements: A Critical Assessment Of The Literature And A Research Agenda, Julena Jumbe Gabagambi Aug 2017

Canadian-Tanzanian Human Rights Engagements: A Critical Assessment Of The Literature And A Research Agenda, Julena Jumbe Gabagambi

The Transnational Human Rights Review

This article examines the historical background of human rights in Tanzania and the ways in which Canada has been engaging with Tanzania on the improvement of human rights. In the past, Tanzania was ruled by colonial powers, for which respect for human rights was never a priority. Having attained independence in 1961, however, the country did not adequately respect human rights. This is in part due to the argument that, if the British themselves did not practice it, then independent Tanzania should not be forced to. Furthermore, the introduction of human rights at the time held the potential to paralyze …


Canadian-Zambian Human Rights Engagements: A Critical Assessment Of The Literature And Research Agenda, Misozi Lwatula Aug 2017

Canadian-Zambian Human Rights Engagements: A Critical Assessment Of The Literature And Research Agenda, Misozi Lwatula

The Transnational Human Rights Review

Canada’s engagements with African states with regards to human rights began about five decades ago, and different countries in Africa have since benefited from such engagements. With Zambia specifically, such engagements have mainly centered along human rights issues. Recently, Canada has heavily invested in Zambia’s mining sector. This article explores Canada’s human rights engagements with Zambia. The article first reviews the economic performance of Zambia since its independence and the effect that this has had on the country. The article then looks at Canadian engagements with Zambia in terms of health, women’s rights, refugees’ rights and mining. It acknowledges that …


Canadian-Anglophone African Human Rights Engagement: A Critical Assessment Of The Literature On Health Rights, Uchechukwu Ngwaba Aug 2017

Canadian-Anglophone African Human Rights Engagement: A Critical Assessment Of The Literature On Health Rights, Uchechukwu Ngwaba

The Transnational Human Rights Review

Contrary to common expectations, the engagement between Canada and Anglophone African countries on the issue of health rights has not been a “one-way-street” whereby Canada is the “giver” and Anglophone African countries are the “takers” of health benefits. This article, which undertakes a preliminary and critical assessment of the literature documenting this engagement, finds that both Canada and Anglophone African countries have mutually benefitted from their engagement in the area of health rights. These benefits have taken the form of Canada’s financial and technical contributions to various initiatives that seek to improve the availability and accessibility of health-related goods and …


Human Rights Discourses In Nigeria Across Time: Trajectory, Successes And Potentials For Canadian-Nigerian Engagement, Solomon Ukhuegbe Aug 2017

Human Rights Discourses In Nigeria Across Time: Trajectory, Successes And Potentials For Canadian-Nigerian Engagement, Solomon Ukhuegbe

The Transnational Human Rights Review

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Canada has, for decades, been actively involved in funding and providing support for the development of legal and political institutions and rights advocacy activities in Nigeria. A careful documentation and assessment of this support will likely show that its impact has been significant and perhaps critical in some areas. This article, however, considers a different form of engagement, or rather, a possible engagement. Although Canada’s human rights jurisprudence, especially the Charter of Rights case law, is highly regarded the world over, its influence on Nigerian courts has been limited. Yet, there is a great opportunity for meaningful engagement here, …


Canadian-African Human Rights Engagements –A Literature Review And An Agenda For Future Research: An Introduction, Obiora Chinedu Okafor Aug 2017

Canadian-African Human Rights Engagements –A Literature Review And An Agenda For Future Research: An Introduction, Obiora Chinedu Okafor

The Transnational Human Rights Review

No abstract provided.


Background: Towards A Critical Assessment Of Canadian-Nigerian Bilateral Relations, Olabisi Akinkugbe Aug 2017

Background: Towards A Critical Assessment Of Canadian-Nigerian Bilateral Relations, Olabisi Akinkugbe

The Transnational Human Rights Review

Although the diplomatic relations between Canada and Nigeria is almost six decades old, the nature of this bilateral relationship has not been the subject of rigorous academic research. While a recent body of research by international relations scholars has taken up the broad critical study of Canadian-African relations, a significant gap exists with respect to studies that focus on the context of Canada’s engagement with individual African countries. Against this background, this paper briefly examines the bilateral trade and investment engagements between Nigeria and Canada. The modest aim is to highlight the existing framework that guides the relations of both …


Assessing Universalism And The Rhetoric Of Development Assistance In Human Rights Research: Canadian-Ghanaian Human Rights Engagements, Sylvia Bawa Aug 2017

Assessing Universalism And The Rhetoric Of Development Assistance In Human Rights Research: Canadian-Ghanaian Human Rights Engagements, Sylvia Bawa

The Transnational Human Rights Review

This article is a contribution to the question of how Canada engages human rights in Ghana and Anglophone sub-Saharan Africa in general. In order to critically assess human rights engagement between Ghana and Canada, I situate the discussion within the broader global human rights milieu to deconstruct the myriad ways in which power dynamics in the global arena shape human rights practice and discourse. Using the rights concerns of women and minorities in Ghana as an entry point, I discuss the interconnected nature of first- and second-generation rights and cultural relativism in universal rights discourses. This discussion aims to propose …


Women’S Health Rights In Canadian-Anglophone African Human Rights Engagements: Normativity, Indigeneity And The Spaces Beyond The Norm Life Cycle, Irehobhude Iyioha Aug 2017

Women’S Health Rights In Canadian-Anglophone African Human Rights Engagements: Normativity, Indigeneity And The Spaces Beyond The Norm Life Cycle, Irehobhude Iyioha

The Transnational Human Rights Review

Canada has a demonstrated interest in sustaining a human rights agenda in Anglophone Africa. While this commitment is of common knowledge, its nature and achievements, as well as associated complications and possibilities have not been subjected to as much critical analysis as these issues deserve. This paper takes a prelusive step towards a rigorous assessment of human rights engagements between Canada and the Anglophone African region within the specific field of women’s health. It conducts a summative appraisal of the nature of norms and a dialectic enquiry into the origin of norms within the context of Finnemore and Sikkink’s theory …


Towards Justiciability Of Economic, Social, And Cultural Rights In Nigeria: A Role For Canadian-Nigerian Cooperation?, Halima Doma Kutigi Aug 2017

Towards Justiciability Of Economic, Social, And Cultural Rights In Nigeria: A Role For Canadian-Nigerian Cooperation?, Halima Doma Kutigi

The Transnational Human Rights Review

On the broad level, this article discusses ESC rights in Nigeria in the context of the international human rights architecture, and in the context of the reality and play of global affairs. In these contexts, bilateral as well as other international agreements maintain a vital role in fostering transnational cooperation in the field of human rights. It is within this framework that Canadian-Nigerian engagement in the fulfilment of ESC rights is considered. The article also considers the theoretical aspects of ESC rights juxtaposed against CP rights, thereby expounding interdependence of these categories of rights. In the course of the discussion, …