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Bias And Sexism: The Racial And Gender Wage Gap Affecting Black Women Jan 2022

Bias And Sexism: The Racial And Gender Wage Gap Affecting Black Women

Florida A & M University Law Review

The objective of this Article is to address the racial wage gap between Black and White women and provide a solution. Part I of this Article will discuss the history of Black women and White women in the workforce. Part II will discuss the gender wage gap as it applies to Black and White women in the 21st century. Part III will discuss how Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Equal Pay Act has failed to address the gender and race issues that Black women face when it comes to work wages. Part IV will …


Traffickers' "F"Ing Behavior During A Pandemic: Why Pandemic Online Behavior Has Heightened The Urgency To Prevent Traffickers From Finding, Friending, And Facilitating The Exploitation Of Youth Via Social Media, Nicola A. Boothe-Perry Jan 2021

Traffickers' "F"Ing Behavior During A Pandemic: Why Pandemic Online Behavior Has Heightened The Urgency To Prevent Traffickers From Finding, Friending, And Facilitating The Exploitation Of Youth Via Social Media, Nicola A. Boothe-Perry

Journal Publications

During the trans-Atlantic slave trade, millions of native Africans were tricked into slavery. Today trans-continental deception continues, ensnaring victims from every corner of the world, many of whom are vulnerable children deceived and enslaved through violence and abuse. Ranked as the second most prevalent criminal enterprise, human trafficking is a multi-billion-dollar enterprise in the United States and across the world, with many of the victims recruited, solicited and exploited via social media. The correlation between this social media exploitation and the use of technology during the 2020 pandemic (hereinafter referred to as "Pandemic Online Behavior" or "POB") highlights the need …


Historically Black Colleges & Universities: A Model For American Education, Jennifer M. Smith Jan 2021

Historically Black Colleges & Universities: A Model For American Education, Jennifer M. Smith

Journal Publications

Hungry for freedom and knowledge, enslaved Blacks engaged in a massive general strike against slavery by transferring their labor from the Confederate planter to the Northern invader, and this decided the Civil War. In 1865, the North conquered the South, and slavery officially ended. Having been starved of the opportunity to learn to read or write, the recently emancipated Blacks were eager to learn. Within a year after slavery ended, however, Florida and other Southern states enacted laws to ensure the continuation of the vestiges of slavery in the United States. The legacy of slavery and racism evolved into an …


Am I Angry? You Bet I Am! Watching The George Floyd Murder Trial, Cheryl Page Jan 2021

Am I Angry? You Bet I Am! Watching The George Floyd Murder Trial, Cheryl Page

Journal Publications

We have come a mighty long way in our criminal justice system. We have gone from a period of time when people of African descent were not considered humans and were deliberately excluded from serving on jury panels to seeing Black judges, defense attorneys and prosecuting attorneys taking part in selecting more diverse juries. Progress has been made, but how far have we really journeyed, and are the vestiges of racial animus and discrimination from the Jim Crow era truly eradicated? One need not look further than the current criminal trial we are witnessing of former Minneapolis police officer Derek …


Bibliography Of Journal And Law Review Articles Discussing Virgil Hawkins And His Legal And Social Impact, Paul J. Mclaughlin Jan 2020

Bibliography Of Journal And Law Review Articles Discussing Virgil Hawkins And His Legal And Social Impact, Paul J. Mclaughlin

Documents

No abstract provided.


North Carolina's H.B.2: A Case Study In Lgbtq Rights, Preemption, And The (Un)Democratic Process, Mark Dorosin Jan 2020

North Carolina's H.B.2: A Case Study In Lgbtq Rights, Preemption, And The (Un)Democratic Process, Mark Dorosin

Journal Publications

In 2014, community advocates in Charlotte, North Carolina, began organizing to press the city to amend its antidiscrimination ordinance to add several new protected classes, including sexual orientation, gender identity, and gender expression. After a contentious hearing where opponents argued that the change-which would allow transgender people to use public restrooms according to their gender identity-would subject women and children to "sexual predators," the city council voted down the amendment. Undaunted, advocates worked over the next several months to elect new council members and a mayor who supported LGBTQ rights. The amendments to the civil rights ordinance were then brought …


Doctrine Of Dignity: Making A Case For The Right To Die With Dignity In Florida Post-Obergefell Jan 2020

Doctrine Of Dignity: Making A Case For The Right To Die With Dignity In Florida Post-Obergefell

Florida A & M University Law Review

The discussions about the right to privacy have evolved, and the national landscape on physician-assisted suicide has changed since Krischer. Surely, it is time Floridian citizens are given the opportunity to decide whether the right to privacy guaranteed by the Florida constitution includes the right to die with dignity. Numerous states across the nation have adopted legislative provisions which afford those within that state’s borders the ability to die with dignity through physician-assisted suicide. In addition, the seemingly unrelated decision of the United States Supreme Court in Obergefell v. Hodges has reopened the discussion of Glucksberg and its holding. In …


Ban Child Marriages: Florida Is Not Acting In The Best Interest Of The Child Jan 2020

Ban Child Marriages: Florida Is Not Acting In The Best Interest Of The Child

Florida A & M University Law Review

This Note argues that Florida must follow Delaware and New Jersey and ban all minor marriages, without exception. Although the right to marry is a fundamental right, the states have the power to set the age requirements to obtain a marriage license. Permitting any minor to marry, even with specific limitations, is harmful to a child. Thus, Florida must ban all marriages of any person under the age of eighteen. Florida’s current marriage statute sets the minimum age to marry at seventeen, once specific exceptions are met. The statute is an improvement from Florida’s previous marriage statute, which is now …


If Animals Are Like Our Children Let Us Treat Them Alike: Creating Tests Of An Animal's Intelligence For Determinations Of Legal Personhood, Paul J. Mclaughlin Apr 2019

If Animals Are Like Our Children Let Us Treat Them Alike: Creating Tests Of An Animal's Intelligence For Determinations Of Legal Personhood, Paul J. Mclaughlin

Library Faculty Publications

The notion that animals could be granted rights under the law was once ridiculed, but now courts and legislatures have begun to move towards granting animals greater protections from cruelty and emotional trauma. Animal law as a course of study was not available in law schools until the early 1970's. It has since grown into a field of debate and study that has drawn in experts from around the world." The rules of law that treat animals as property have been fought by animal rights advocates as being archaic similarly to the laws that once allowed for slavery. Animal owners …


Disparities In The Use Of Prophylactic Treatments In Reproductive Health Between The Sexes: A Recommendation For The Use Of Hpv Vaccination Schemes Rather Than Surgical Interventions To Reduce Inequities And Threats To The Public's Health, Paul J. Mclaughlin Jan 2019

Disparities In The Use Of Prophylactic Treatments In Reproductive Health Between The Sexes: A Recommendation For The Use Of Hpv Vaccination Schemes Rather Than Surgical Interventions To Reduce Inequities And Threats To The Public's Health, Paul J. Mclaughlin

Library Faculty Publications

On the issue of prophylactic treatment of reproductive diseases, the sexes have historically been treated differently under medical ethics guidelines and the laws of the United States. Women have drawn the focus of medical and legal scrutiny on issues of prophylactic reproductive health. Women were often required to undergo quarantine and forced to recieve treatment for reproductive diseases considered dangerous to public health. Women are now afforded protections against involuntary prophylactic procedures to prevent diseases in reproductive organs. Specifically, women are provided access to vaccinations against the human papillomavirus at a higher rate than males despite the disease's ability to …


The Double Whammy Of Being Female And African-American: How Black Women Are More Vulneralbe To Trafficking And Other Forms Of Discrimination, Cheryl Page Jan 2019

The Double Whammy Of Being Female And African-American: How Black Women Are More Vulneralbe To Trafficking And Other Forms Of Discrimination, Cheryl Page

Journal Publications

Commercial sexual exploitation discriminates even among those that fall prey to this heinous criminal enterprise. It is impossible to comprehensively discuss this topic without addressing the fact that the majority of victims are female, females of color, traditionally are from a lower economic status, tend to not have as many educational opportunities, have experienced some form of abuse and trauma, have been a part of the foster care system, and have other vulnerabilities that make them even more susceptible to being trafficked. This discussion would be incomplete without also addressing how trafficking is connected to race and racial discrimination, poverty, …


Grant Of Clemency To Cyntoia Brown Highlights Deep Rooted Social Issues, Cheryl Page Jan 2019

Grant Of Clemency To Cyntoia Brown Highlights Deep Rooted Social Issues, Cheryl Page

Journal Publications

Society and our criminal justice system place a value on victims and defendants. We manifest this valuation in how we mete out punishment, how we choose who will be stopped, frisked, searched, arrested, charged, given probation, have charges dismissed and even expunged. We show the worth we place in people by the fact that 95% of elected prosecutors are white males and they have control and say over a jail and prison population that is increasingly People of Color.


Unbowed, Unbroken, And Unsung: The Unrecognized Contributions Of African American Women In Social Movement, Politics, And The Maintenance Of Democracy, Patricia A. Broussard Jan 2019

Unbowed, Unbroken, And Unsung: The Unrecognized Contributions Of African American Women In Social Movement, Politics, And The Maintenance Of Democracy, Patricia A. Broussard

Journal Publications

Black women have made huge contributions to American society in movements, politics, and maintenance of the democracy. Black women have been relegated to footnotes, turned in memes, and largely ignored in politics and other areas of power. Notwithstanding the disrespect, disregard, and failures of the larger society to acknowledge that black own have made significant contributions, not only in the in entertainment industry, but in numerous other ways that have shaped out cultural and political landscape, black women's contributions to the larger society have been huge and impactful; yet there are so many blank spaces where their stories should reside. …


The Rock: The Role Water Plays In Our Lives, Ronald Griffin Jan 2019

The Rock: The Role Water Plays In Our Lives, Ronald Griffin

Faculty Books and Book Contributions

We witness increasing interconnectedness of issues, internationalization of flows of goods and movement of labor, intergovernmental cooperation, new attitudes to personal rights and meaning of family, including human rights, as well as changes of values, moral principles and ethical conceptions.We live in a pervious world. Traditional boundaries have become permeable. One of the great challenges of our time is the response of the law to current developments. The authors of the collection of essays offered in this book seek to analyze some of these challenges.The essays are revised versions based on presentations at the International Conferences on Law organized by …


A Life Worth Living: Fighting Filicide Against Children With Disabilities Jan 2019

A Life Worth Living: Fighting Filicide Against Children With Disabilities

Florida A & M University Law Review

This article aims to explore filicide as it relates to children with disabilities. Filicide is a specific type of killing where a parent murders his or her own child. Part II gives a historical perspective on filicide. Part II also explains the various reasons behind filicide and why those reasons specifically apply to the killings of children with disabilities. Further, Part III explores the relationship between sentencing disparities in cases where society sympathizes with the parents of children with disabilities and condemns parents of nondisabled children. Part III also argues that children with disabilities face additional barriers in the fight …


A Damaging Cure: Queer Youth And Conversion Therapy Jan 2019

A Damaging Cure: Queer Youth And Conversion Therapy

Florida A & M University Law Review

This article proceeds in six parts. Part I dissects the development of the conservative narrative that queerness is a contagious trait, how the gender norm perpetuates a broad rejection of homosexuality, and the concept of “cured passing” in terms of conversion therapy success stories. Part II examines the progression of the general LGBT rights movement by highlighting its historic adult-centered victories and elaborating how these victories allowed for the necessary space and momentum for the contemporary movement of state conversion therapy bans to gain traction. Part III provides the background and history of conversion therapy by exploring its medical origin …


Racial Justice And Federal Habeas Corpus As Postconviction Relief From State Convictions, Leroy Pernell Jan 2018

Racial Justice And Federal Habeas Corpus As Postconviction Relief From State Convictions, Leroy Pernell

Journal Publications

It is the purpose of this Article not to simply document the influence of race on our criminal system and its role in the current racial crisis of overrepresentation of minorities in our prisons, but rather to focus on the future and importance of a key tool in the struggle for racial equity – federal habeas corpus as a postconviction remedy. By looking first at the racial context of several “landmark” criminal justice reform decisions, this Article considers how race serves as the root of the procedural due process reform that began in earnest during the Warren Court. This Article …


Old Issues New Perspectives, Ronald Griffin Jan 2018

Old Issues New Perspectives, Ronald Griffin

Faculty Books and Book Contributions

The book commences with Ronald C. Griffin‟s essay Ghost Town: The Death of Marriage, the Birth of Cohabitation, and the Emergence of the Single Woman. In his essay he revisits the history of marriage, the economics of marriage, the rise and demise of childhood, the emergence of new couplings and the social traumas that come with them.


Slave Gambling In The Antebellum South, Robert M. Jarvis Jan 2018

Slave Gambling In The Antebellum South, Robert M. Jarvis

Florida A & M University Law Review

In the Antebellum Era (c. 1800-60), Southern slaves gambled regularly, both with each other and with free blacks and poor whites. This fact has received a fair amount of scholarly attention. Curiously, however, the reported court opinions involving such gambling have been all but overlooked. Accordingly, this article collects and discusses these decisions. As will be seen, Southern judges often were exasperated by the less-than-precise wording of the laws that were put in place to punish slaves who gambled and whites who facilitated or participated in such gambling.


Leveraging Academic Law Libraries To Expand Access To Justice, Paul Jerome Mclaughlin Jr. Oct 2017

Leveraging Academic Law Libraries To Expand Access To Justice, Paul Jerome Mclaughlin Jr.

Library Faculty Publications

Academic law libraries are in a unique position to help citizens gain access to the court system and legal information. By creating clinics that focus on helping pro se patrons find and complete legal forms, academic law libraries would not only benefit their schools but also the justice system.


Liba2j! The Continuum Of Access To Justice Services, Yolanda Jones Jan 2017

Liba2j! The Continuum Of Access To Justice Services, Yolanda Jones

Library Faculty Publications

Some have urged law libraries to undergo what appears to be a large-scale transformation, where access to justice in incorporated as a core feature of the library mission. While Access to Justice (A2J) services are provided by many libraries, they can be seen by law library managers as costly, unfunded mandate. One way of approaching the issue is to consider library access to justice services as a continuum within the broader range of legal services. Within this Library Access to Justice Continuum (LIBA2J), librarians can select access to justice services consistent with their mission, budget, and general library resources. For …


What Is That Hamburger Doing To My Child's Grades? Childhood Obesity And Its Effects On A Student's Academic Performance, Cheryl Page Jan 2017

What Is That Hamburger Doing To My Child's Grades? Childhood Obesity And Its Effects On A Student's Academic Performance, Cheryl Page

Journal Publications

This paper addresses childhood obesity and its correlating effects on an obese child's academic development. The terms and studies outlined in this paper specifically address the issue of obesity in children. It is important to state this distinction because obesity among children is defined and measured differently than it is among adults. Before discussing the differences in the academic development of non-obese children and obese children, I will begin by defining the following terms: "Body Mass Index (BMI)," "BMI-for-age," "Overweight," "Percentile Rates," and "Childhood Obesity."


Recent Developments In Climate Justice, Randall S. Abate, Rachel Jean-Baptiste, Maria Antonia Tigre, Patricia Ferreira, Wil Burns Jan 2017

Recent Developments In Climate Justice, Randall S. Abate, Rachel Jean-Baptiste, Maria Antonia Tigre, Patricia Ferreira, Wil Burns

Journal Publications

Climate justice can be defined generally as addressing the disproportionate burden of climate change impacts on poor and marginalized communities. It seeks to promote more equitable allocation of these burdens at the local, national, and global levels through proactive regulatory initiatives and reactive judicial remedies that draw on international human rights and domestic environmental justice theories. Yet, efforts to define climate justice as a field of inquiry remain elusive and underinclusive; a recent book, Climate Justice: Case Studies in Global and Regional Governance Challenges (ELI Press 2016), seeks to fill that void by providing an overview of the landscape of …


Males As Victims Of Sex Trafficking In East Tennessee, Cheryl Page Jan 2017

Males As Victims Of Sex Trafficking In East Tennessee, Cheryl Page

Journal Publications

Public awareness of the human trafficking epidemic in East Tennessee has been on the rise in recent years. Local task forces have been formed, and citizens are more aware of the specific issues involving commercial sexual exploitation. However, the tendency has been to focus on female victims, as females are more commonly victims in human trafficking cases. What are the issues faced by males who are trafficked, assaulted and abused for commercial sexual exploitation? Males make up nearly 20% of all human trafficking victims in Tennessee and nationwide. Based upon national numbers, a child is sold for commercial sex every …


Congress Did Not Give The President Unfettered Discretion To Exclude, Maritza I. Reyes Jan 2017

Congress Did Not Give The President Unfettered Discretion To Exclude, Maritza I. Reyes

Journal Publications

No abstract provided.


Is The United States Judicial System Failing Transgender Women? A Critical Overview, Taylor J. House Jan 2017

Is The United States Judicial System Failing Transgender Women? A Critical Overview, Taylor J. House

Florida A & M University Law Review

This paper will discuss the rise of the transgender civil rights movement, the problems in the judicial system, and the rights that should be afforded to transgender women. In part one, I will address the LGBTQA civil rights movement led by transgender women. In part two, I will address the transphobia in the prison system. In part three, I will address the lack of visibility of black transgender issues in the current black civil rights movement. In the fourth part, I will address whether there should be certain fundamental rights given to transgender women. In the fifth part of this …


The Injustice Of Sea Level Rise: Ethics And Evidence, Lies And Liability--Slides And Data Presentation, Professor Keith Rizzardi Jan 2016

The Injustice Of Sea Level Rise: Ethics And Evidence, Lies And Liability--Slides And Data Presentation, Professor Keith Rizzardi

Lectures and Presentations

The Center for International Law & Justice (CILJ) and the Environment, Development & Justice Program (EDJP) present the Second Annual Climate and Energy Justice Lecture by Professor Keith Rizzardi. Professor Rizzardi, an experienced government lawyer and litigator, teaches at St. Thomas University School of Law.


The Injustice Of Sea Level Rise: Ethics And Evidence, Lies And Liability--Event Poster, Professor Keith Rizzardi Jan 2016

The Injustice Of Sea Level Rise: Ethics And Evidence, Lies And Liability--Event Poster, Professor Keith Rizzardi

Lectures and Presentations

The Center for International Law & Justice (CILJ) and the Environment, Development & Justice Program (EDJP) present a lecture by Professor Keith Rizzardi. Professor Rizzardi, an experienced government lawyer and litigator, teaches at St. Thomas University School of Law.


The Injustice Of Sea Level Rise: Ethics And Evidence, Lies And Liability--Text Of Speech, Professor Keith Rizzardi Jan 2016

The Injustice Of Sea Level Rise: Ethics And Evidence, Lies And Liability--Text Of Speech, Professor Keith Rizzardi

Lectures and Presentations

The Center for International Law & Justice (CILJ) and the Environment, Development & Justice Program (EDJP) present the Second Annual Climate and Energy Justice Lecture by Professor Keith Rizzardi. Professor Rizzardi, an experienced government lawyer and litigator, teaches at St. Thomas University School of Law.


Legal And Medical Ethical Entanglements Of Infant Male Circumcision And International Law, Paul Jerome Mclaughlin Jr. Jan 2016

Legal And Medical Ethical Entanglements Of Infant Male Circumcision And International Law, Paul Jerome Mclaughlin Jr.

Library Faculty Publications

The practice of infant male circumcision has been debated by legal and medical experts for years. The practice, once seen as a social norm, has come under opposition by children’s rights, legal, and medical organisations around the world. In order to meet the requirements of international treaty law and allow infant male children the fullest opportunity for self determination, infant male circumcision must be treated under the law and by medical practitioners with the same degree of opposition that female genital mutilation has received.