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Human Rights Law

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Fleeing The Land Of The Free, Jayesh Rathod Jan 2023

Fleeing The Land Of The Free, Jayesh Rathod

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

This Essay is the first scholarly intervention, from any discipline, to examine the number and nature of asylum claims made by U.S. citizens, and to explore the broader implications of this phenomenon. While the United States continues to be a preeminent destination for persons seeking humanitarian protection, U.S. citizens have fled the country in significant numbers, filing approximately 14,000 asylum claims since 2000. By formally seeking refuge elsewhere, these applicants have calculated that the risks of remaining in the United States outweigh the bundle of rights that accompany U.S. citizenship. Given the United States’ recent flirtation with authoritarianism, and the …


Is "Guatemalan Women" A Viable Particular Social Group For Asylum Petitions? Circuit Split Between The United States Courts Of Appeal For The Ninth And Third Circuits, Jazmin Moya Dec 2022

Is "Guatemalan Women" A Viable Particular Social Group For Asylum Petitions? Circuit Split Between The United States Courts Of Appeal For The Ninth And Third Circuits, Jazmin Moya

Refugee Law & Migration Studies Brief

No abstract provided.


The Distinction Between Refugee Populations In Lebanon: A Look Into Lebanon's Treatment Of Palestinian Refugees Since 1948 Versus Its Treatment Of Syrian Refugees Since 2011, Mia Bodell Dec 2022

The Distinction Between Refugee Populations In Lebanon: A Look Into Lebanon's Treatment Of Palestinian Refugees Since 1948 Versus Its Treatment Of Syrian Refugees Since 2011, Mia Bodell

Refugee Law & Migration Studies Brief

No abstract provided.


The European Union Agency For Asylum: A Promising Improvement Or Vestige Of The European Asylum Support Office?, Alexandra Tarzikhan Dec 2022

The European Union Agency For Asylum: A Promising Improvement Or Vestige Of The European Asylum Support Office?, Alexandra Tarzikhan

Refugee Law & Migration Studies Brief

No abstract provided.


Local Human Rights Governance To Advance Migrants' Rights, Camilo Mantilla Dec 2022

Local Human Rights Governance To Advance Migrants' Rights, Camilo Mantilla

Refugee Law & Migration Studies Brief

No abstract provided.


Letter From The Editor, Isabella Zink Dec 2022

Letter From The Editor, Isabella Zink

Refugee Law & Migration Studies Brief

No abstract provided.


Brief Of Human Rights And Labor Rights Organizations And Experts As Amici Curiae In Support Of Petitioners, Janie A. Chuang Nov 2022

Brief Of Human Rights And Labor Rights Organizations And Experts As Amici Curiae In Support Of Petitioners, Janie A. Chuang

Amicus Briefs

Since Congress first enacted the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, it has expanded and strengthened it through successive reauthorizations. Congress has broadened the scope of the TVPRA in order to impose criminal and civil liability on individuals, corporations, and other legal persons who use, or knowingly benefit from ventures that use, forced labor, as well as those who aid and abet these practices. Through this legislation, Congress has bolstered efforts to hold traffickers accountable, opening the courthouse doors to victims of these egregious crimes.

The Ninth Circuit's decision below undermined the very statutory scheme Congress put in place to …


Transnational Migrant Deterrence, Anita Sinha Apr 2022

Transnational Migrant Deterrence, Anita Sinha

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

The governance of global migration increasingly relies on what critical migration scholarship refers to as externalized control. Externalization encompasses limiting human mobility through the imposition of migration control measures by transit states, as well as by states that are geographically proximate to destination states. Destination states are at a minimum complicit in the creation and operation of these externalized migration control systems. To capture this phenomenon, this Article offers a reconceptualization of externalization as transnational migration deterrence. The objective ofthis nomenclature is to provide a framework that highlights the role of destination states, to build a lexicon of accountability for …


Endnotes Mar 2022

Endnotes

Sustainable Development Law & Policy

No abstract provided.


Climate Migration Beyond The Refugee Framework: Creating Bridges Between Human Rights And International Climate Law, Mara Elisa Andrade Mar 2022

Climate Migration Beyond The Refugee Framework: Creating Bridges Between Human Rights And International Climate Law, Mara Elisa Andrade

Sustainable Development Law & Policy

No abstract provided.


Accounting For Climate Change In United States Regional Ocean Planning: Comparing The Obama And Trump National Ocean Policies To A Climate-Forward Approach, Taylor Goelz Mar 2022

Accounting For Climate Change In United States Regional Ocean Planning: Comparing The Obama And Trump National Ocean Policies To A Climate-Forward Approach, Taylor Goelz

Sustainable Development Law & Policy

No abstract provided.


Swallowing The Rule: Why Ferc’S “Immediate Need Exemption” Frustrates Competitive And Climate-Smart Electricity Sector Transmission Planning Under Order No. 1000, Philip Killeen Mar 2022

Swallowing The Rule: Why Ferc’S “Immediate Need Exemption” Frustrates Competitive And Climate-Smart Electricity Sector Transmission Planning Under Order No. 1000, Philip Killeen

Sustainable Development Law & Policy

No abstract provided.


“At What Cost?’: The Future Of Securities Enforcement In Climate Change Litigation, Angela Washington Mar 2022

“At What Cost?’: The Future Of Securities Enforcement In Climate Change Litigation, Angela Washington

Sustainable Development Law & Policy

No abstract provided.


About Sdlp Mar 2022

About Sdlp

Sustainable Development Law & Policy

The Sustainable Development Law & Policy Brief (ISSN 1552-3721) is a student-run initiative at American University Washington College of Law that is published twice each academic year. The Brief embraces an interdisciplinary focus to provide a broad view of current legal, political, and social developments. It was founded to provide a forum for those interested in promoting sustainable economic development, conservation, environmental justice, and biodiversity throughout the world.

Because our publication focuses on reconciling the tensions found within our ecosystem, it spans a broad range of environmental issues such as sustainable development; trade; renewable energy; environmental justice; air, water, and …


Editor's Note, Keanu Bader, Alexis Bauman Mar 2022

Editor's Note, Keanu Bader, Alexis Bauman

Sustainable Development Law & Policy

No abstract provided.


Endnotes Mar 2022

Endnotes

Sustainable Development Law & Policy

Endnotes


Risk Regulation And Management Against Illegal Wildlife Trade: Europe And America, Olonyi Bosire Mar 2022

Risk Regulation And Management Against Illegal Wildlife Trade: Europe And America, Olonyi Bosire

Sustainable Development Law & Policy

Introduction

The source or initial crime in the illegal wildlife trade chain is mostly committed beyond the shores of North America and Europe. However, the two regions continue to be massive destination markets and key transit hubs for illegal wildlife products. Illegal trade networks are shadowy and therefore problematic to study. This helps explain the wide valuation of illegal wildlife trade currently estimated by the Global Environment Facility (“GEF”) as ranging between 7 and 23 billion dollars per annum.

Policies and strategies to pre-empt or respond to illegal wildlife trade keep evolving as appreciation grows for the previously underestimated complexities, …


The Truth Is Always In Style: Targeting Greenwashed Advertising In The Fashion Industry, Sydney Helsel Mar 2022

The Truth Is Always In Style: Targeting Greenwashed Advertising In The Fashion Industry, Sydney Helsel

Sustainable Development Law & Policy

H&M’s 2019 “Conscious Collection” promotional images juxtapose lush green gardens with a hazy city skyline in the background. The collection, which advertises itself as “[t]he short cut to sustainable choices,” is just one example of many fashion brands’ attempts to capitalize on the increased demand for sustainable products. Each year, the fashion industry consumes approximately ninety-three billion cubic meters of water and produces an estimated ten percent of the world’s carbon emissions. The environmental effects of the fashion industry can be seen in images of the dried up Aral Sea in Uzbekistan and in the dye and chemical filled black …


The Overfished Pacific Bluefin Tuna: The Tragedy Of A Highly Migratory Fish Species, Theresa Geib Mar 2022

The Overfished Pacific Bluefin Tuna: The Tragedy Of A Highly Migratory Fish Species, Theresa Geib

Sustainable Development Law & Policy

Introduction

The ocean is an abundant resource; however, overutilization is becoming an increasing threat to biodiversity. Approximately 90% of the ocean’s fisheries are overexploited, fully exploited, or have collapsed entirely. The issue of overfishing arose in the mid-1900s after the industrialization of the fishing industry. Once dominated by local fishermen, the industry now features commercial fleets with the technology to locate, extract, and process large numbers of specific fish species. An early 2000s study reported that only 10% of large ocean fish remained after years of industrial fishing, including the highly migratory Pacific Bluefin Tuna (“PBT”).

In 2016, the PBT …


An Opportunity That Should Not Be Missed: Applying Chinese Policy That Promotes Efficient Air Conditioning To Countries That Need It, Xiaopu Sun, Houfu Yan, Shekun Wang, Tad Ferris Mar 2022

An Opportunity That Should Not Be Missed: Applying Chinese Policy That Promotes Efficient Air Conditioning To Countries That Need It, Xiaopu Sun, Houfu Yan, Shekun Wang, Tad Ferris

Sustainable Development Law & Policy

Introduction

As the world warms, the growing use of air conditioners (“ACs”) and other cooling equipment becomes essential for human comfort and public health. In addition, cooling-equipment energy and refrigerant consumption also presents tremendous climate mitigation opportunities. The most efficient ways to capture much of the climate benefit lie in the hands of a small number of AC manufacturing and exporting countries, including China, which manufactures over 80% of global room ACs with a large amount of this cooling equipment destined for export. This article highlights one of China’s policies, the “Same Line, Same Standard and Same Quality” policy (“Same-Line …


About Sdlp Mar 2022

About Sdlp

Sustainable Development Law & Policy

The Sustainable Development Law & Policy Brief (ISSN 1552-3721) is a student-run initiative at American University Washington College of Law that is published twice each academic year. The Brief embraces an interdisciplinary focus to provide a broad view of current legal, political, and social developments. It was founded to provide a forum for those interested in promoting sustainable economic development, conservation, environmental justice, and biodiversity throughout the world.

Because our publication focuses on reconciling the tensions found within our ecosystem, it spans a broad range of environmental issues such as sustainable development; trade; renewable energy; environmental justice; air, water, and …


Editor's Note, Keanu Bader, Alexis Bauman Mar 2022

Editor's Note, Keanu Bader, Alexis Bauman

Sustainable Development Law & Policy

Dear Readers,

The Sustainable Development Law & Policy Brief (SDLP) is celebrating twenty-one years of legal scholarship on issues related to environmental, energy, and international development law. We are honored to be the Editors-in-Chief at this pivotal moment in SDLP’s history. Over the past twenty one years, SDLP has addressed cutting-edge legal issues developing within international environmental law. This year is no different, as the COVID-19 Pandemic has impacted our communities, we rose to the challenge to continue to publish articles that push the limits of legal theory and policy, while giving a space for students to …


Endnotes, David Hunter Mar 2022

Endnotes, David Hunter

Sustainable Development Law & Policy

No abstract provided.


Nothing Shellfish About It: Why The Fad Needs To Update The Seafood List To Require Geographic Origin And Species-Specific Shrimp Labeling, Bree Evans Mar 2022

Nothing Shellfish About It: Why The Fad Needs To Update The Seafood List To Require Geographic Origin And Species-Specific Shrimp Labeling, Bree Evans

Sustainable Development Law & Policy

Introduction

Imagine you are seated at a nice restaurant down by the wharf where you live. You are celebrating a job offer, out for a romantic night with your partner, or just craving some salt air and a great meal. You would expect the shrimp tacos brought to your table to be fresh and local—the fishing boats are docked just across the boardwalk. But the seafood brought to your table seems off somehow, not quite the same as you remembered it. Unfortunately, this experience is more common than you might think, and it’s getting harder to know how fresh and …


A Silver Bullet: Could Data Linking Urban Heat Islands To Housing Discrimination Curtail Environmental Racism?, Russell Armstrong Mar 2022

A Silver Bullet: Could Data Linking Urban Heat Islands To Housing Discrimination Curtail Environmental Racism?, Russell Armstrong

Sustainable Development Law & Policy

“[A]ll things share the same breath— the beast, the tree, the man …the air shares its spirit with all the life it supports.”

Google “Chief Seattle” and you will likely find that quote. We now know it is a work of fiction after several misinterpretations and fabrications of Dr. Henry Smith’s original translation. We also know now that all people, particularly Black Americans, do not all breathe the same air. Instead, Black Americans and other underrepresented minorities are subjected to the toxic effects of climate change at increasingly disproportionate rates. Controlling for income, studies find racial identity is the most …


Manufacturers Beware Of Right To Repair: An Analysis Of The Resurgence Of Right To Repair & The Legal Consequences Of Third-Party Access To Embedded Software In The ‘Internet Of Things’ Era, Lindsey Barringto Mar 2022

Manufacturers Beware Of Right To Repair: An Analysis Of The Resurgence Of Right To Repair & The Legal Consequences Of Third-Party Access To Embedded Software In The ‘Internet Of Things’ Era, Lindsey Barringto

Sustainable Development Law & Policy

On March 18, 2019 California became the twentieth state to introduce Right to Repair legislation in one year. The policy objectives for Right to Repair are straightforward: advocate for federal and state laws that make it easier for owners of consumer goods to ix a device when it breaks rather than relying on the Apple store. However, since 2014, small farmers have joined the Right to Repair movement because major manufacturers, such as John Deere, have consolidated dealer networks in response to the consolidation of farming in the past decade.

While proponents for Right to Repair legislation argue that consumers …


Climate Gentrification: An Imminent Threat To Oceanfront Cities, Marcel Apple Mar 2022

Climate Gentrification: An Imminent Threat To Oceanfront Cities, Marcel Apple

Sustainable Development Law & Policy

Overview

Traditionally, gentrification occurs when real estate prices appreciate, leading to significant cultural change in low-income communities and involuntary displacement of low-income residents. In recent years, Miami, Florida is beginning to feel the impacts of “climate gentrification.” High-income buyers, who historically develop property close to the ocean, are affected by rising sea levels and increasingly look inland to develop areas on higher ground. The influx of real estate investments in these is expected to lead to spiking home prices and property taxes, forcing many longtime community members to abandon their homes.

Homeowners in these communities already report approaches from developers …


Canada’S Arctic Policy Framework: Governance Transformation In Nunavut, C. Mark Macneill Mar 2022

Canada’S Arctic Policy Framework: Governance Transformation In Nunavut, C. Mark Macneill

Sustainable Development Law & Policy

On August 28, 2017 Canada’s Prime Minister, Justin Trudeau committed to a renewed relationship with Indigenous Peoples based on the recognition of rights, respect, co-operation and partnership. To accomplish this mission, major structural changes in how the Government of Canada engages and relates with Indigenous peoples across the country were co-developed with indigenous, territorial and provincial partners to form a new Arctic Policy Framework (APF). This has had major implications of departmental transformation, particularly for the former Department of Indigenous and Northern Affairs (INAC), Nunavut. Regional Office (NRO), its staff, programs, and operations.


Splitting Canada’S Northern Strategy: Is It Polar Mania?, C. Mark Macneill Mar 2022

Splitting Canada’S Northern Strategy: Is It Polar Mania?, C. Mark Macneill

Sustainable Development Law & Policy

On July 15, 2019, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau’s legislation splitting Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC) into two new departments and dissolving INAC came into effect. The same legislation also formally established the mandates of the two new departments, Crown-Indigenous Relations and Northern Affairs (CIRNAC) and Indigenous Services Canada (ISC). The Government of Canada passed the legislation to develop deeper relations and higher levels of collaboration with Canada’s Indigenous people to build stronger and healthier northern communities. Dovetailing with the splitting of INC, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau announce the Arctic Policy Framework (APF). The APF was co-developed with indigenous, territorial, …


Transboundary Air Pollution In Northeast Asia: Two Pathways Forward For China And South Korea, Yeeun Uhm, Creighton Barry Mar 2022

Transboundary Air Pollution In Northeast Asia: Two Pathways Forward For China And South Korea, Yeeun Uhm, Creighton Barry

Sustainable Development Law & Policy

Simply put, air pollution kills. Each year, more than 5.5 million people die from illnesses caused by breathing polluted air worldwide. In 2013 alone, one in ten deaths globally were associated with air pollution. Such alarming statistics ought to provide governments a strong incentive to combat air pollution, but toxic air unrelentingly blankets places like New Delhi, Seoul, and Bangkok. Fundamentally, this may be because humans take the atmosphere for granted as a place to dump industrial waste. This article will discuss two alternative pathways to addressing transboundary air pollution between China and South Korea. One involves binding international dispute …