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Full-Text Articles in Law

Increase Quota, Invite Opportunities, Improve Economy: An Examination Of The Educational And Employment Crisis Of Undocumented Immigrants And Individuals From Abroad, Brittany Fink Oct 2013

Increase Quota, Invite Opportunities, Improve Economy: An Examination Of The Educational And Employment Crisis Of Undocumented Immigrants And Individuals From Abroad, Brittany Fink

Brittany Fink

No abstract provided.


The Supreme Court Of Canada's Decision In Ezokola And The Harmonisation Of Article 1f(A) Of The Convention On The Status Of Refugees With International Criminal Law, Alan W. Freckelton Sep 2013

The Supreme Court Of Canada's Decision In Ezokola And The Harmonisation Of Article 1f(A) Of The Convention On The Status Of Refugees With International Criminal Law, Alan W. Freckelton

Alan W Freckelton

Canadian appellate courts have historically taken a very wide view of when there are “serious reasons to believe” that a person has committed the kinds of offences envisaged by Article 1F(a) of the Convention. In particular, they have taken the view that, in some cases at least, mere membership of a particular group is sufficient to exclude a person from protection under the Convention. However, in Ezokola v Canada (Citizenship and Immigration) the Supreme Court has attempted to reconcile the requirements for responsibility for war crimes and crimes against humanity at international criminal law, and the requirements for exclusion under …


The Forgotten Nuremberg Hate Speech Case: Otto Dietrich And The Future Of Persecution Law, Gregory S. Gordon Aug 2013

The Forgotten Nuremberg Hate Speech Case: Otto Dietrich And The Future Of Persecution Law, Gregory S. Gordon

Gregory S. Gordon

Among international jurists, the conventional wisdom is that atrocity speech law sprang fully formed from two judgments issued by the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg (IMT): the crimes against humanity conviction of Nazi newspaper editor Julius Streicher, and the acquittal on the same charge of Third Reich Radio Division Chief Hans Fritzsche. But the exclusive focus on the IMT judgments as the founding texts of atrocity speech law is misplaced. Not long after Streicher and Fritzsche, and in the same courtroom, the United States Nuremberg Military Tribunal (NMT) in the Ministries Case, issued an equally significant crimes against …


Reburying An Injustice: Indigenous Human Remains In Museums And The Evolving Obligations To Return Remains To Indigenous Groups, Alex Bernick Aug 2013

Reburying An Injustice: Indigenous Human Remains In Museums And The Evolving Obligations To Return Remains To Indigenous Groups, Alex Bernick

Alex Bernick

No abstract provided.


The Family Responsibilities Convention Reconsidered: The Work-Family Intersection In International Law Thirty Years On, Lee Adams Aug 2013

The Family Responsibilities Convention Reconsidered: The Work-Family Intersection In International Law Thirty Years On, Lee Adams

Lee Adams

This year marks the thirtieth anniversary of the International Labour Organization’s (ILO) Workers with Family Responsibilities Convention, 1981, No. 156 coming into force. Family responsibilities in the context of paid work and its implications for gender equality have been the subject of international regulation most specifically in ILO 156, although it remains a marginalized convention. Since then, the interaction of work and family and the conflict between them have exploded as a subject of scholarly importance. This article examines ILO 156 in the context of chronological development of other major international legal instruments which address the intersection of work and …


A Regime In Need Of A Balance: The Un Counter-Terrorism Regime Between Security And Human Rights, Isaac Kfir Jul 2013

A Regime In Need Of A Balance: The Un Counter-Terrorism Regime Between Security And Human Rights, Isaac Kfir

Isaac Kfir

Since 9/11, the UN’s counter-terrorism regime has developed two distinct approaches on combating international terrorism. The Security Council follows a traditional security doctrine that focuses on how to best protect states from the threat posed by international terrorists. This is largely due to the centrality of the state in Security Council thinking and attitudes. The General Assembly and the various UN human rights organs, influenced by the human security doctrine, have taken a more holistic, human rights-based approach to the threat of international terrorism. This paper offers a review of how the dichotomy above affects the application of UN policy …


Post-Conflict Justice In The Aftermath Of Modern Slavery, Roy L. Brooks Jul 2013

Post-Conflict Justice In The Aftermath Of Modern Slavery, Roy L. Brooks

Roy L. Brooks

Abstract

Modern slavery is defined as human exploitation over a period of time effectuated through coercion, fraud or trickery. An estimated 12.3 million people worldwide are held in some form of modern slavery, including forced labor, bonded labor, forced child labor, and sexual servitude. Children and women bear the brunt of modern slavery. Divided into three stages—trafficking, exploitation, and post-conflict—modern slavery has attracted much scholarly interest in recent years. However, relatively little scholarly attention has been given to the post-conflict stage. This article attempts to initiate such discussion by drawing upon the reparative framework crafted in the years since the …


"First, Do No Harm:" Interpreting The Crime Of Aggression To Exclude Humanitarian Intervention, Joshua L. Root Jul 2013

"First, Do No Harm:" Interpreting The Crime Of Aggression To Exclude Humanitarian Intervention, Joshua L. Root

Joshua L. Root

The yet to be implemented Article 8 bis of the Rome Statute criminalizes, as the crime of aggression, acts of aggression which by their “character, gravity and scale” constitute a “manifest violation” of the Charter of the United Nations. This article argues that Article 8 bis must be construed so as to exclude from the International Criminal Court’s jurisdiction uses of force which are facial violations of the UN Charter but which nonetheless comport with the principles and purposes of the Charter, such as bona fide humanitarian intervention unauthorized by the Security Council. This article applies the Vienna Convention on …


U.S. Institutionalized Torture With Impunity: Examining Rape And Sexual Abuse In Custody Through The Icty Jurisprudence, Allison Rogne Jul 2013

U.S. Institutionalized Torture With Impunity: Examining Rape And Sexual Abuse In Custody Through The Icty Jurisprudence, Allison Rogne

Allison Rogne

It is a well-established principle, both domestically and internationally, that rape is torture when suffered as part of confinement. It is also well documented, both domestically and internationally, that rape is rampant in U.S. prisons. And it is well established, both domestically and internationally, that those who torture should not do so with impunity, that that impunity is an affront to civilization and the human rights principles to which we all strive. And yet, in U.S. prisons, shocking numbers of women are systematically raped and sexually abused by those that would rehabilitate them. Female prisoners are victims of vaginal and …


The Right To Life Of The Unborn Child And The Case Artavia Murillo And Others V. Costa Rica, Emercio J. Aponten Núñez Phd May 2013

The Right To Life Of The Unborn Child And The Case Artavia Murillo And Others V. Costa Rica, Emercio J. Aponten Núñez Phd

Emercio J Aponten Núñez PHD

No abstract provided.


Why Is International Law Changing? Primary Factors In The Greater Complexity Of International Law, Marcelo Dias Varella Apr 2013

Why Is International Law Changing? Primary Factors In The Greater Complexity Of International Law, Marcelo Dias Varella

Marcelo D. Varella

This paper examines factors of change in post-national law, particularly the effects of globalization on the international legal order. The end of the cold enabled the strengthening of international law through new legal norms and the emergence of post-national law. Among the principal factors accelerating the internationalization of law has been the emergence of a multipolar political and economic order. In the political realm, the end of the bipolar system between the United States and the Soviet Union allowed the emergence of various actors and made possible the construction of power in the international sphere through legal rules. Economically, a …


Abduction, Torture, Interrogation - Oh My! An Argument Against Extraordinary Rendition, Kaitlyn E. Tucker Mar 2013

Abduction, Torture, Interrogation - Oh My! An Argument Against Extraordinary Rendition, Kaitlyn E. Tucker

Kaitlyn E Tucker

An American citizen waits patiently in an airport terminal in Jordan for a flight back to the United States. Several men – Jordanian officials – are watching the American and waiting for the right moment to approach him. The American gets up and starts to walk away, perhaps to get a cup of coffee. The Jordanian officials stop the American quickly and take him to a secluded part of the airport. For the next several days, the Jordanians question the American relentlessly, trying to discover his connection to the torture of hundreds of Muslim and Middle Eastern individuals. They do …


Enforcing International Law: States, Ios, And Courts As Shaming Reference Groups, Roslyn Fuller, Sandeep Gopalan Mar 2013

Enforcing International Law: States, Ios, And Courts As Shaming Reference Groups, Roslyn Fuller, Sandeep Gopalan

Roslyn Fuller

We seek to answer the question as to whether international law imposes meaningful constraints on state behaviour. Unabated drone strikes by the dominant superpower in foreign territories, an ineffective United Nations, and persistent disregard for international law obligations, as evidenced by states killing their own citizens, all suggest that the sceptics have won the debate about whether international law is law and whether it affects state behaviour. We argue that such a conclusion would be in error because it grossly underestimates the complex ways in which IL affects state behaviour. We argue that scholars who claim that the lack of …


Targeting Killings Outside The Traditional Battlefield: The Legality Of Targeted Attacks On Transnational Armed Terrorists., Marti Sleister Feb 2013

Targeting Killings Outside The Traditional Battlefield: The Legality Of Targeted Attacks On Transnational Armed Terrorists., Marti Sleister

Marti Sleister

This paper asks whether traditional laws can evolve to protect citizens in the face of targeted killings on transnational-armed groups. The resolution analyzes how the current war methods fail to fit into the old mold of war; suggests what modifications could be made; and briefly discusses the fate of the laws of war should changes not occur. First, this paper will discuss the legal treaties defining and controlling the current laws of war, specifically, the Geneva Conventions and their Additional Protocols. Second, this paper will analyze how International Human Rights Law (IHRL) applies, particularly in light of the limitations of …


Speech Along The Atrocity Spectrum, Gregory S. Gordon Feb 2013

Speech Along The Atrocity Spectrum, Gregory S. Gordon

Gregory S. Gordon

In the abstract, speech may have much intrinsic value with its power to facilitate democracy, self-actualization, and good will. But, in certain contexts, it can also be quite deleterious, spawning division, ignorance, and hatred. Within the crucible of atrocity, speech may be similarly Janus-faced. Its power to prevent mass violence is indubitable. But its capacity for enabling mass violence is similarly unquestionable. So the issue arises: when and how may speech work for good or ill in relation to atrocity? This Article grapples with that question. And, in doing so, it finds that the relationship between speech and atrocity should …