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Playing Monopoly With The Neighborhood: Impact Of Series Limited Liability Companies On Nuisance Abatement Actions And Housing Code Enforcement, Lauren Williams Apr 2023

Playing Monopoly With The Neighborhood: Impact Of Series Limited Liability Companies On Nuisance Abatement Actions And Housing Code Enforcement, Lauren Williams

Cleveland State Law Review

The City of Cleveland has been one of the most active cities in combating the negative effects of the 2008 financial crisis, utilizing nuisance abatement actions in combination with municipal programs aimed at assisting homeowners and renters. However, the Ohio Revised Limited Liability Company Act ("ORLLCA"), passed in 2021, may reverse the progress made in cities like Cleveland by enabling real estate investors to conceal assets in several series under the same limited liability company, resulting in rising vacancy rates and unstable communities. This will negatively impact the effectiveness of nuisance abatement actions and traditional housing code enforcement in curbing …


Changing The Rule That Changes Nothing: Protecting Evicted Tenants By Amending Cleveland Housing Court Rule 6.13, James J. Scherer Apr 2021

Changing The Rule That Changes Nothing: Protecting Evicted Tenants By Amending Cleveland Housing Court Rule 6.13, James J. Scherer

Cleveland State Law Review

Renting is on the rise, with all households seeing an increase in the prevalence of renting a home versus owning one from 2006 to 2016. As rental rates rise, so too do the rates of eviction. The detrimental effects of eviction are numerous and can be self-reinforcing, with a single eviction decreasing one’s chances of securing decent and affordable housing, escaping disadvantaged neighborhoods, and benefiting from affordable housing programs. All this was before the coronavirus pandemic that devastated jobs and savings accounts across the nation.

One of the biggest impacts that eviction has on renters is a public court record. …


Homeless And Helpless: How The United States Has Failed Those With Severe And Persistent Mental Illness, Ashley Gorfido Nov 2020

Homeless And Helpless: How The United States Has Failed Those With Severe And Persistent Mental Illness, Ashley Gorfido

Journal of Law and Health

The United States has failed its citizens who suffer from severe and persistent mental illness (SPMI). Homelessness is one of the most obvious manifestations of this failure. The combination of a lack of effective treatment, inadequate entitlement programs such as Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI), and subpar housing options form systemic barriers that prevent people suffering from mental illness from being able to obtain adequate housing. Cultural beliefs within the United States regarding who is homeless and what homelessness means also play a significant role in the development of positively impactful social welfare programs.

Part II of this Note reviews …


Testing Fannie Mae's And Freddie Mac's Post-Crisis Self-Preservation Policies Under The Fair Housing Act, Shelby D. Green May 2018

Testing Fannie Mae's And Freddie Mac's Post-Crisis Self-Preservation Policies Under The Fair Housing Act, Shelby D. Green

Cleveland State Law Review

Beginning in the 1930s, the federal government adopted programs and policies toward safe and decent housing for all. The initiatives included the creation of the Federal Housing Administration that, among other things, spurred mortgage lending by guaranteeing mortgage loans to low- and moderate-income borrowers. The creation of the secondary mortgage market by Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac (GSEs) helped provide more liquidity for loan originators. However, somewhere along the way, these GSEs lost their way, as they pursued profitability without regard to risk and heedlessly bought mortgages without considering quality.

The overabundance of poor quality mortgages led to the housing …


Treating Neighbors As Nuisances: Troubling Applications Of Criminal Activity Nuisance Ordinances, Joseph Mead, Megan E. Hatch, J. Rosie Tighe, Marissa Pappas, Kristi Andrasik, Elizabeth Bonham Mar 2018

Treating Neighbors As Nuisances: Troubling Applications Of Criminal Activity Nuisance Ordinances, Joseph Mead, Megan E. Hatch, J. Rosie Tighe, Marissa Pappas, Kristi Andrasik, Elizabeth Bonham

Et Cetera

Thousands of cities nationwide enforce Criminal Activity Nuisance Ordinances that catalyze the eviction of tenants when there are two or more police visits to a property. We report findings of an empirical study of enforcement of nuisance ordinances, finding that cities often target survivors of domestic violence, people experiencing a mental health crisis, nonprofit organizations serving people with disabilities, people seeking life-saving medical intervention to prevent a fatal drug overdose, and non-criminal behavior such as playing basketball or being “disrespectful.” Codifying into public policy a path to homelessness in these instances is not only cruel and counterproductive, but likely violates …


Reflections On The Persistence Of Racial Segregation In Housing, Alan C. Weinstein Jan 2017

Reflections On The Persistence Of Racial Segregation In Housing, Alan C. Weinstein

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

This article is Weinstein's reflection on the Annual Sullivan Lecture entitled Crossing Two Color Lines: Interracial Marriage and Residential Segregation in Chicago by Dorothy E. Roberts (2016).

INTRODUCTION My reflection on Professor Roberts' Sullivan Lecture poses two questions. First, how far have we come as a nation from the hypersegregated housing patterns of the 1930s through 1960s that Professor Roberts described in her lecture? Regrettably, the answer appears to be not far at all. Further, we are today faced with a second form of hypersegregation, one based on income rather than race. Second, why have we made so little progress …


Abating Neighborhood Blight With Collaborative Policy Networks—Where Have We Been? Where Are We Going?, Kermit J. Lind Jul 2016

Abating Neighborhood Blight With Collaborative Policy Networks—Where Have We Been? Where Are We Going?, Kermit J. Lind

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

Blight is a term with multiple meanings and a complex legal and policy history in the United States. Currently, blight and its community costs are frequently associated with vacant and often foreclosed homes, defective and abandoned buildings, litter, vacant lots, and graffiti. As a legal and policy term, blight has roots in the common law definitions of public nuisance. Researchers and scholars in other disciplines have cited blighted neighborhoods as both a cause and symptom of larger socioeconomic problems such as poverty, crime, poor public health, educational deficits, and other personal or systemic distress.

This Article traces the seeds of …


Perspectives On Abandoned Houses In A Time Of Dystopia, Kermit J. Lind Mar 2015

Perspectives On Abandoned Houses In A Time Of Dystopia, Kermit J. Lind

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

This article describes various perspectives on abandoned houses in urban neighborhoods and the reactions from those perspectives. It notes how conflicting reactions perpetuate the crisis of blight for individual residents and their communities. It argues that real solutions for management of abandonment must be based in local communities and tailored to local conditions. Priority must be placed on consistent maintenance in compliance with local housing and neighborhood health, safety and environmental codes. Housing preservation, rehabilitation, reutilization programs will not succeed without improved and sustained maintenance. Localities will need to take the lead in remodeling residential maintenance using new strategies, methods …


Fixing Toxic Titles, Kermit J. Lind Apr 2013

Fixing Toxic Titles, Kermit J. Lind

Kermit J. Lind

This is a presentation using a PowerPoint along with supplemental reading. I define the term "toxic title" and describe problems it causes to communities and individuals. Potential solutions and preventive actions are proposed.


Code Compliance Enforcement In The Mortgage Crisis, Kermit J. Lind Jan 2012

Code Compliance Enforcement In The Mortgage Crisis, Kermit J. Lind

Kermit J. Lind

This is a short presentation of suggestions for better code compliance enforcement. It takes into account the distresses brought about by the mortgage crisis. It calls for a strategic approach rather than a reactive approach. It assumes a necessity for making choices about what policing programs and actions will produce maximum compliance beneficial to residents and occupying homeowners in residential neighborhoods.


Responding To The Mortgage Crisis: Three Cleveland Examples, W. Dennis Keating, Kermit J. Lind Jan 2012

Responding To The Mortgage Crisis: Three Cleveland Examples, W. Dennis Keating, Kermit J. Lind

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

Just as SVD [Slavic Village Development] fought back against predatory lending, mortgage fraud, and speculator flipping, the City of Cleveland and Cuyahoga County also sought to prevent these practices and stem the rising tide of foreclosures. This included legislation, litigation, and homeowner counseling. This article will focus on three examples of the response to the mortgage crisis in Cleveland: the Cleveland Housing Court, the Cuyahoga County Land Reutilization Corporation (land bank), and community development corporations (CDCs) and local intermediaries (namely, the Cleveland Housing Network (CHN) and Neighborhood Progress, Inc. (NPI)). Each of these entities has developed initiatives aimed at the …


The People's Court, Kermit J. Lind Oct 2011

The People's Court, Kermit J. Lind

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

The Cleveland Housing Court adjudicates only one house and one owner at a time, while the investors and speculators in blighted properties operate in secret at high volume from a distance. However, the court's focus on housing code compliance and its (when needed) willingness to hand down strong measures is powerful. Even now, the City of Cleveland is implementing new strategic code compliance measures in partnership with neighborhood-based community development corporations, to the point where there is less profit in owning worthless houses in Cleveland, and the court is redirecting the disposal of low-value foreclosed houses to local land banks …


Can Public Nuisance Law Protect Your Neighborhood From Big Banks?, Kermit J. Lind Jan 2011

Can Public Nuisance Law Protect Your Neighborhood From Big Banks?, Kermit J. Lind

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

This article considers how the law of public nuisance might be applied to protect neighborhoods from the destructive forces of the mortgage crisis. For more than thirty years I have been a close observer and a participant in community development at the neighborhood level in Cleveland, Ohio. I now supervise a law school clinical practice that provides legal counsel to an array of nonprofit community development corporations that, for more than thirty-five years, have been renewing housing and neighborhood sustainability in a city going through major social and economic change.


Municipal Predatory Lending Regulation In Ohio: The Disproportionate Impact Of Preemption In Ohio's Cities, Brett Altier Jan 2011

Municipal Predatory Lending Regulation In Ohio: The Disproportionate Impact Of Preemption In Ohio's Cities, Brett Altier

Cleveland State Law Review

Whether in the case of predatory lending or other issues that will differ from location to location, municipalities should continue to protect their cities by exercising their power under the Home Rule Amendment to enforce regulations not in direct conflict with Ohio law. Even though the Framers of the Home Rule Amendment intended to protect municipal power by ensuring that only those ordinances in actual conflict would be voided, Ohio courts have denied municipalities their Home Rule police power by applying a conflict by implication test, contributing to the housing crisis still plaguing Ohio's cities. While Ohio courts have made …


Testimony On Oh Hb 323, Foreclosure Reform, November, 2009, Kermit J. Lind Jan 2009

Testimony On Oh Hb 323, Foreclosure Reform, November, 2009, Kermit J. Lind

Kermit J. Lind

Testimony of KERMIT J.LIND CLINICAL PROFESSOR OF LAW CLEVELAND MARSHALL COLLEGE OF LAW CLEVELAND STATE UNIVERSITY before the HOUSING AND URBAN REVITALIZATION COMMITTEE of the OHIO HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES for Hearings on FORECLOSURE REFORM H.B.NO. 323


The Need To Prioritize The Affirmative Furthering Of Fair Housing: A Case Statement, Symposium: New Strategies In Fair Housing, James Robert Breymaier Jan 2009

The Need To Prioritize The Affirmative Furthering Of Fair Housing: A Case Statement, Symposium: New Strategies In Fair Housing, James Robert Breymaier

Cleveland State Law Review

The affirmative furthering of fair housing involves racially and economically pro-integrative policies and programs to produce structural changes that expand housing choices and improve individual opportunities.


The Future Of Fair Housing And Fair Credit: From Crisis To Opportunity, Symposium: New Strategies In Fair Housing, John A. Powell, Jason Reece Jan 2009

The Future Of Fair Housing And Fair Credit: From Crisis To Opportunity, Symposium: New Strategies In Fair Housing, John A. Powell, Jason Reece

Cleveland State Law Review

The following paper provides an assessment of the current housing and credit crisis from a racial justice lens. The paper explores how race was interwoven into the current crisis and demonstrates the racialized impacts of the housing and credit crisis. We also explore some of the current challenges facing fair housing in our society, presenting concepts and models of reform to promote true integration with opportunity. We close with a new paradigm for addressing fair housing in the future and utilizing the opportunities presented by this crisis to produce a fair housing opportunity and a just society for all.


Jones V. Mayer Revisited, Symposium: New Strategies In Fair Housing, Mira Tanna Jan 2009

Jones V. Mayer Revisited, Symposium: New Strategies In Fair Housing, Mira Tanna

Cleveland State Law Review

This article revisits Jones v. Mayer. Jones v. Mayer, decided by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1968, was the first Supreme Court case to rule that the Civil Rights Act of 1866--which guarantees the same right of all citizens to inherit, purchase, lease, sell, hold, and convey real and personal property as is enjoyed by white citizens--applies not only to actions of the state but also to private parties.


New Strategies For Old Problems: The Fair Housing Act At 40, Symposium: New Strategies In Fair Housing, Jeffrey D. Dillman Jan 2009

New Strategies For Old Problems: The Fair Housing Act At 40, Symposium: New Strategies In Fair Housing, Jeffrey D. Dillman

Cleveland State Law Review

This article discusses the advances in fair housing since 1968 while analyzing the evidence of persistent discrimination and segregation. It looks at past strategies of the enforcement of the FHA by fair housing groups and the education and outreach performed by the groups. Additionally, the author provides commentary on the future of fair housing.


Essay: Current And Future Challenges To Local Government Posed By The Housing And Credit Crisis,, Alan Weinstein Jan 2009

Essay: Current And Future Challenges To Local Government Posed By The Housing And Credit Crisis,, Alan Weinstein

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

The ongoing problems in the housing and credit markets, caused by a toxic combination of wholesale deregulation of financial markets by the federal government and imprudent lending and investment practices by financial institutions, pose significant challenges to local and state government officials. Some of these challenges are obvious. How will cities cope with an unprecedented number of foreclosures at the same time that state and local tax revenues are decreasing? When will access to credit ease in a municipal bond market that has constricted as a result of both general credit concerns and questions about the companies insuring those bonds? …


Substantial Equivalency And The Future Of Fair Housing In Ohio, Symposium: New Strategies In Fair Housing, G. Michael Payton, Matthew D. Miko Jan 2009

Substantial Equivalency And The Future Of Fair Housing In Ohio, Symposium: New Strategies In Fair Housing, G. Michael Payton, Matthew D. Miko

Cleveland State Law Review

This article reviews recent Ohio court decisions and discusses their potential impact on the continued certification of the state's fair housing law as “substantially equivalent.” It also addresses several responsive steps being taken by the Ohio Civil Rights Commission in order to re-establish the rights and responsibilities under the state's fair housing law.


Responding To Foreclosures In Cuyahoga County: A Pilot Initiative, Interim Report, Alan C. Weinstein, Kathryn W. Hexter, Molly Schnoke May 2008

Responding To Foreclosures In Cuyahoga County: A Pilot Initiative, Interim Report, Alan C. Weinstein, Kathryn W. Hexter, Molly Schnoke

Law Faculty Reports and Comments

The Center for Civic Education and the Cleveland-Marshall College of Law released their report, on May 12, 2008. The report, prepared for the Cuyahoga County Board of Commissioners, is an assessment of the County's comprehensive approach to addressing foreclosures on two levels: 1) Making foreclosure proceedings faster and fairer and 2) Creating an early intervention program to help residents prevent foreclosure.


The Subprime Mortgage Crisis And Local Government: Immediate And Future Challenges, Alan C. Weinstein Jan 2008

The Subprime Mortgage Crisis And Local Government: Immediate And Future Challenges, Alan C. Weinstein

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

No abstract provided.


Responding To Foreclosures In Cuyahoga County: An Assessment Of Progress, Alan C. Weinstein, Kathryn W. Hexter, Molly Schnoke Nov 2006

Responding To Foreclosures In Cuyahoga County: An Assessment Of Progress, Alan C. Weinstein, Kathryn W. Hexter, Molly Schnoke

Law Faculty Reports and Comments

In August 2006, Cleveland State University was asked to conduct an initial assessment of the Cuyahoga County Commissioners' Report and Recommendations on Foreclosure that would assist the county in planning for future phases of the project. This report presents the findings of this initial assessment of the first 18 months of the initiative. It documents the process undertaken by the county, assesses the progress made toward reaching goals, identifies successes and concerns, and offers some preliminary recommendations about program operations. It also offers suggestions for a more formal evaluation process going forward


Book Review, W Dennis Keating Jan 2003

Book Review, W Dennis Keating

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

Reviewing L. Vale, Reclaiming Public Housing: A Half Century of Struggle in Three Public Neighborhoods, Harvard University Press (2002)


The Dilemma Of Old, Urban Neighborhoods, W Dennis Keating Jan 2000

The Dilemma Of Old, Urban Neighborhoods, W Dennis Keating

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

In his recounting of the suburban migration from America's cities, journalist and broadcaster Ray Suarez laments the loss of the "old neighborhood". He extols its virtues while explaining its decline. Suarez's nostalgic examples recall the virtues of the extended family kinship, neighborliness, and other features of the "urban village." These are often associated with those urban neighborhoods populated by recent immigratns. These urban villages were thought to have peaked in the decades between the American Civil War and the onset of the First World War, when many U.S. cities industrialized and grew very rapidly. However, a continuing movement of migrants …


The Parma Housing Racial Discrimination Remedy Revisited, W Dennis Keating Jan 1997

The Parma Housing Racial Discrimination Remedy Revisited, W Dennis Keating

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

In 1980, the city of Parma, Ohio, Cleveland's largest suburban city was found guilty of violating the Fair Housing Act. Federal District Court Judge Frank Battisti imposed an extensive remedy upon Parma. Upon approval by the Sixth Circuit of the imposed remedy, its implementation began in 1982. Controversy surrounded much of the remedy, and fourteen years later following Battisti's death, Federal District Court judge Kathleen O'Malley approved a new settlment aimed at ending the court's supervision of the modified remedy after another two years. Along with the Gautreaux, Mt. Laurel, and Yonkers cases, the Parma case represents a longstanding remedy …


The Challenge Of Providing Adequate Housing For The Elderly . . . Along With Everyone, Alan C. Weinstein Jan 1997

The Challenge Of Providing Adequate Housing For The Elderly . . . Along With Everyone, Alan C. Weinstein

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

Our patterns of land use and development have failed to accommodate the changed housing needs of an aging population. Primary among these needs is the desire of the elderly to be able to "age in place." To meet this need, America's suburban communities in particular will need to re-think their reliance on exclusive single-family zoning and begin planning and zoning for an increasingly large number of the elderly. Despite understandable concerns about maintaining housing values, this may well prove to be politically achievable simply because the very demographic changes that create the need will create a growing constituency in favor …


Essay: The Challenge Of Providing Adequate Housing For The Elderly...Along With Everyone Else, Alan C. Weinstein Jan 1996

Essay: The Challenge Of Providing Adequate Housing For The Elderly...Along With Everyone Else, Alan C. Weinstein

Journal of Law and Health

Finally, it seems fittingly ironic that a culture as youth-obsessed as ours faces a demographic future in which those over sixty-five will outnumber those under fourteen for the first time in our history. Irony aside, we are ill-prepared to deal with this new reality on several counts, not the least of which is the failure of our patterns of land use and development to accommodate the changed housing needs of an aging population. Primary among these needs is the stated desire of the elderly to be able to "age in place." To meet this need, America's suburban communities in particular …


Litigating A Fair Housing Case In The 90'S, Kenneth J. Kowalski, Edward Kramer Jan 1990

Litigating A Fair Housing Case In The 90'S, Kenneth J. Kowalski, Edward Kramer

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

Recent statutory amendments to the Federal Fair Housing Act of 1968, 42 U.S.C. Sections 3601 et seq., will be the impetus for substantial litigation in this decade. The Fair Housing Amendments Act of 1988, which was enacted on September 13, 1988 and became effective on March 12, 1989, established new protected classes, created an administrative law judge system to enforce the law, and strengthened many of the original provisions of the Act. This article will review the Amendments, their impact on litigating a fair housing case, and recent case law in the area.