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Health Law and Policy

2020

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Functional Statehood In Contemporary International Law, William Thomas Worster Dec 2020

Functional Statehood In Contemporary International Law, William Thomas Worster

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

The international community lacks a form of territorial-based, international legal personality distinct from statehood, and yet, non-state, territorial entities of varying degrees of autonomy or independence need to function within the international community in some form. Some of these entities cannot be recognized as states because their creation violates jus cogens norms, though others are not recognized based on an assessment that they may not fully qualify as a state or that there are political reasons to refuse recognition. However, existing states still need to engage with these territorial quasi-states through the only paradigm the international community has—statehood. For example, …


Directors’ Duty Of Care In Times Of Financial Distress Following The Global Epidemic Crisis, Leon Yehuda Anidjar Dec 2020

Directors’ Duty Of Care In Times Of Financial Distress Following The Global Epidemic Crisis, Leon Yehuda Anidjar

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

The global COVID-19 pandemic is causing the large-scale end of life and severe human suffering globally. This massive public health crisis created a significant economic crisis and is reflected in a recession of global production and the collapse of confidence in the functions of markets. Corporations and boards of directors around the world are required to design specific strategies to tackle the negative consequences of the crisis. This is especially true for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that suffered tremendous economic loss, and their continued existence as ongoing concern is under considerable risk. Given these uncertain financial times, this Article …


The Regulatory Production Of Vaccine Hesitancy, Eugene Mccarthy Dec 2020

The Regulatory Production Of Vaccine Hesitancy, Eugene Mccarthy

Brooklyn Law Review

This article argues that U.S. vaccine law produces the “anti-vax” movement. The anti-vax movement is a growing problem, as more than half of American parents have concerns about vaccinating their children. Remarkably, these “vaccine-hesitant” individuals tend to be highly educated, wealthy, and experienced parents. Three legal structures cause vaccine hesitancy: strict immunization mandates, lax regulatory oversight, and blanket limited liability for vaccine manufacturers. The United States stands alone with regard to its vaccine mandates—no other developed democracy requires its citizens to receive such a large number of childhood vaccines. Meanwhile, the law permits financial conflicts of interest in vaccine approval …


Mandating Covid-19 Vaccines, Lawrence O. Gostin, Daniel A. Salmon, Heidi J. Larson Dec 2020

Mandating Covid-19 Vaccines, Lawrence O. Gostin, Daniel A. Salmon, Heidi J. Larson

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines hold promise to control the pandemic, and help restore normal social and economic life. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted emergency use authorization (EUA) for 2 mRNA vaccines and will likely issue full biologics licenses in the coming months. Anticipating vaccine scarcity, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice (ACIP) published guidance on vaccine priorities.

Data show 95% efficacy for vaccines granted an EUA, but even highly effective vaccines cannot curb the pandemic without high population coverage and maintenance of other mitigation strategies. Recent data from 1,676 adults surveyed November 30-December …


The "People's Total War On Covid-19": Urban Pandemic Management Through (Non-)Law In Wuhan, China, Philipp Renninger Dec 2020

The "People's Total War On Covid-19": Urban Pandemic Management Through (Non-)Law In Wuhan, China, Philipp Renninger

Washington International Law Journal

Although COVID-19 was first detected in the People’s Republic of China, the pandemic now appears contained there. Western and Chinese media attribute this apparent success to the central level of the Chinese state and the Communist Party. However, this article reveals that local entities provided critical contributions to China’s COVID-19 management, particularly in the pandemic’s first epicenter: Wuhan city in Hubei province. Chinese cities like Wuhan can fight public health emergencies through legal and nonlegal instruments. Although Wuhan had prepared for possible pandemics, its existing plans, institutions, and warning systems initially failed against COVID-19. The city did not contain the …


Right To Health In Gats: Can The Public Health Exception Pave The Way For Complementarity?, Swati Gola Dec 2020

Right To Health In Gats: Can The Public Health Exception Pave The Way For Complementarity?, Swati Gola

Pace International Law Review

This paper demonstrates how a right to health approach in the interpretation of the public health exception outlined in GATS Article XIV(b) can bring about a harmonious application of international human rights and international trade law regimes. Focusing on the interpretive value of the right to health for the public health exception in GATS, it examines whether a WTO Member, who has committed itself under GATS to fully liberalize all service sectors that have implications for health (e.g., hospital and other healthcare services), still retains the regulatory space to undertake measures to fulfill their right to health obligations and can …


An Australian Conundrum: Genomic Technology, Data, And The Covidsafe App, David Morrison, Patrick T. Quirk Dec 2020

An Australian Conundrum: Genomic Technology, Data, And The Covidsafe App, David Morrison, Patrick T. Quirk

Pace International Law Review

This paper examines the difficulties that have arisen in Australia in the use of its contact-tracing app. We examine the privacy implications around the use of the app, the wider economic imperative, and the balancing of those concerns against the health threat of the COVID-19 pandemic. We posit that default options are superior in times of emergency and rather than begging for the adoption of lifesaving technology, we suggest that the evidence gathered by behavioral economists provides an apposite and powerful alternative worthy of consideration.


Proposed Federal Osha Standards For Wildfire Smoke, Keenan Layton Dec 2020

Proposed Federal Osha Standards For Wildfire Smoke, Keenan Layton

Seattle Journal of Technology, Environmental & Innovation Law

With the rise of global temperatures, climatologists predict a corresponding increase in the frequency and severity of wildfires in the Pacific Northwest. Rising temperatures are expected to create drier conditions in forests, thereby creating environmental conditions more prone to forest fires. Wildfires have become a common enough occurrence in the Pacific Northwest that summers have become synonymous with smoky conditions, but the issue is not constrained to this region. Though the Pacific Northwest has recently acted as a harbinger of increasing wildfires, environmental scientists forecast an increase in fire risk throughout the Western United States. The predicted rise in forest …


The Ethical Challenge For Hipaa’S Privacy Rule In The Genomics Era Of Data Analytics., Reem Shinawi Dec 2020

The Ethical Challenge For Hipaa’S Privacy Rule In The Genomics Era Of Data Analytics., Reem Shinawi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The thesis of this dissertation focuses on the Ethical Challenge for HIPAA’s Privacy Rule in the Genomics Era of Data Analytics. Data Analytics in Genomic Medicine challenges the individuals’ right to privacy. Hence, a balance is needed between the previous centrality of individual privacy and the need for population information to make breakthroughs in Genomic Medicine using Data Analytics. Such a problem demands regulatory solutions. And such solutions require the collaboration of professionals. Genomic Medicine is a field that deals with sensitive genetic information in both medicine, and research, it is essential to view it through HIPAA as it is …


The Crossroads Of Wellness And Second Victim Syndrome: Identifying Factors That Alter The Pathway Of Caregiver Recovery Following An Unanticipated Adverse Patient Outcome, Kimia Zarabian, A. Katharine Hindle, Ivy Benjenk, Anita Vincent, Jamil M. Kazma, Benjamin Shambon, Raymond Pla, Eric Heinz Dec 2020

The Crossroads Of Wellness And Second Victim Syndrome: Identifying Factors That Alter The Pathway Of Caregiver Recovery Following An Unanticipated Adverse Patient Outcome, Kimia Zarabian, A. Katharine Hindle, Ivy Benjenk, Anita Vincent, Jamil M. Kazma, Benjamin Shambon, Raymond Pla, Eric Heinz

Journal of Wellness

Introduction: Second Victim Syndrome (SVS) describes the phenomenon in which a caregiver experiences a traumatic psychological and emotional response to an adverse patient event or medical error. Using quantitative survey analysis, we aim to better understand the personal factors that affect SVS development and recovery.

Methods: Caregivers at a small urban academic medical center who had experienced an adverse patient event in the past six months were invited to take part in this institution-wide, voluntary, quantitative, cross-sectional study. Three surveys were administered; the Holmes-Rahe Life Stress Inventory (HRLSI) was used as a surrogate to measure stressful life events. The …


Beetles For Breakfast: What The Fda Should Be Telling You, Kaycee L. Wolf Dec 2020

Beetles For Breakfast: What The Fda Should Be Telling You, Kaycee L. Wolf

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Imagine sitting down to breakfast and eating strawberry yogurt with a glass of grapefruit juice. You think you are eating a healthy meal, but along with vitamins, calcium, and nutrients, you are getting a side of crushed beetles. Cochineal extract and carmine, two color additives derived from the cochineal beetle, color many foods such as strawberry yogurt. When people consume products with color additives, most do not realize that they could be ingesting insects, which can also be potentially dangerous, not to mention possibly unappetizing or upsetting. Imagine that one minute you are sitting down to eat a healthy cup …


Uncapping The Bottle: A Look Inside The History, Industry, And Regulation Of Bottled Water In The United States, Joyce S. Ahn Dec 2020

Uncapping The Bottle: A Look Inside The History, Industry, And Regulation Of Bottled Water In The United States, Joyce S. Ahn

Journal of Food Law & Policy

"Agu chupa! Agu chupa!" As we drove through the lush rolling hills of northwestern Rwanda, a crowd of young children appeared from the tea fields and repeatedly shouted these words to us. The taxi driver explained that the children wanted our "water bottes." Aware that visitors often drink bottled water, the children run alongside taxis with the hopes of obtaining the plastic bottles. Although Rwandan children typically carry their drinking water in tightly-woven baskets, the modern plastic bottles have become popular and prized possessions.


The Battle Of The Bulge: Evaluating Law As A Weapon Against Obesity, Margaret Sova Mccabe Dec 2020

The Battle Of The Bulge: Evaluating Law As A Weapon Against Obesity, Margaret Sova Mccabe

Journal of Food Law & Policy

"Silly rabbit, Trix are for kids." Since the 1970s, kids have gotten to know the silly rabbit created to promote sugary, fruit-flavored cereal in television ads. Today, "i'm lovin' it" is the McDonald's slogan, but to millions of children the more recognizable symbol is Ronald McDonald. Ronald McDonald is so recognizable that one study pegged recognition of Ronald among American children at 96% and another at 80% by children in nine other countries. Giventhe "obesity crisis," many question whether these ads should be permitted, with some questioning whether such products are even safe for children's consumption. The Trix Rabbit and …


The Clean Air Act: How It Can Be Localized To Promote Both Environmental And Social Justice, Tate Kirk Dec 2020

The Clean Air Act: How It Can Be Localized To Promote Both Environmental And Social Justice, Tate Kirk

Seattle Journal of Technology, Environmental & Innovation Law

Legislators attempt to achieve intended goals by enacting laws that provide for regulatory enforcement. However, many times laws are unable to achieve their stated goals and in some ways may create new or exacerbate existing issues. Luckily, upon review, many of these issues can be fixed with quick modifications to either their implementation or enforcement mechanisms. In its current form, the Clean Air Act does not effectively account for differences in regional climate patterns, and, moreover, it perpetuates environmental injustice. If local governments were given more autonomy to enforce the Clean Air Act, they could shape its enforcement to more …


Cannabis For Therapeutic Purposes: Older Adult Perspectives, User Characteristics And Motivations For Use, Lean Fiedeldey Dec 2020

Cannabis For Therapeutic Purposes: Older Adult Perspectives, User Characteristics And Motivations For Use, Lean Fiedeldey

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Use of cannabis among adults 55 years of age and older is increasing. In Q4 of 2018, slightly over half of cannabis users used for therapeutic purposes at least once, where many reported using for both medical and non-medical reasons (mixed use). Research on older adults regarding the use of Cannabis for Therapeutic Purposes (CTP) is fragmented and there are no comprehensive or in-depth studies on their perceptions or self-reported motivations. Understanding in these areas is important to inform policy that takes the protection of public health and safety as central aims. Does policy affect one of, if not both, …


The Stellenbosch Consensus On Legal National Responses To Public Health Risks: Clarifying Article 43 Of The International Health Regulations, Roojin Habibi, Steven J. Hoffman, Gian Luca Burci, Thana Cristina De Campos, Danwood Chirwa, Margherita Cinà, Stéphanie Dagron, Mark Eccleston-Turner, Lisa Forman, Lawrence O. Gostin, Benjamin Mason Meier, Stefania Negri, Gorik Ooms, Sharifah Sekalala, Allyn Taylor, Alicia Ely Yamin Dec 2020

The Stellenbosch Consensus On Legal National Responses To Public Health Risks: Clarifying Article 43 Of The International Health Regulations, Roojin Habibi, Steven J. Hoffman, Gian Luca Burci, Thana Cristina De Campos, Danwood Chirwa, Margherita Cinà, Stéphanie Dagron, Mark Eccleston-Turner, Lisa Forman, Lawrence O. Gostin, Benjamin Mason Meier, Stefania Negri, Gorik Ooms, Sharifah Sekalala, Allyn Taylor, Alicia Ely Yamin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The International Health Regulations (IHR), of which the World Health Organization is custodian, govern how countries collectively promote global health security, including prevention, detection, and response to global health emergencies such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Countries are permitted to exercise their sovereignty in taking additional health measures to respond to such emergencies if these measures adhere to Article 43 of this legally binding instrument. Overbroad measures taken during recent public health emergencies of international concern, however, reveal that the provision remains inadequately understood. A shared understanding of the measures legally permitted by Article 43 is a necessary step in …


The Stellenbosch Consensus On The International Legal Obligation To Collaborate And Assist In Addressing Pandemics: Clarifying Article 44 Of The International Health Regulations, Margherita Cinà, Steven J. Hoffman, Gian Luca Burci, Thana Cristina De Campos, Danwood Chirwa, Stéphanie Dagron, Mark Eccleston-Turner, Lisa Forman, Lawrence O. Gostin, Roojin Habibi, Benjamin Mason Meier, Stefania Negri, Gorik Ooms, Sharifah Sekalala, Allyn Taylor, Alicia Ely Yamin Dec 2020

The Stellenbosch Consensus On The International Legal Obligation To Collaborate And Assist In Addressing Pandemics: Clarifying Article 44 Of The International Health Regulations, Margherita Cinà, Steven J. Hoffman, Gian Luca Burci, Thana Cristina De Campos, Danwood Chirwa, Stéphanie Dagron, Mark Eccleston-Turner, Lisa Forman, Lawrence O. Gostin, Roojin Habibi, Benjamin Mason Meier, Stefania Negri, Gorik Ooms, Sharifah Sekalala, Allyn Taylor, Alicia Ely Yamin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The International Health Regulations (IHR), of which the World Health Organization is custodian, govern how countries collectively promote global health security, including prevention, detection, and response to potential global health emergencies such as the ongoing covid-19 pandemic. While Article 44 of this binding legal instrument requires countries to collaborate and assist each other in meeting their respective obligations, recent events demonstrate that the precise nature and scope of these legal obligations are ill-understood. A shared understanding of the level and type of collaboration legally required by the IHR is a necessary step in ensuring these obligations can be acted upon …


Disparities In Oral Health: Socioeconomic Status And Policies To Increase Access To Primary Dental Care, Mckenzie Nutter Dec 2020

Disparities In Oral Health: Socioeconomic Status And Policies To Increase Access To Primary Dental Care, Mckenzie Nutter

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

Primary dental care is a patient-centered service consisting of routine dental checkups. The oral cavity is the first point of entrance to the body for many harmful pathogens. Therefore, primary dental care is essential to not only prevent and treat conditions in the mouth, but to also reduce the number of systemic diseases in the rest of the body. However, people with higher incomes or wealth have increased access to primary dental care. People with low socioeconomic status have decreased access to primary dental care, at least in part due to difficulties in paying for separate dental insurance. Disparities in …


Caps On Capsules: Prescription For Lower Drug Prices In The United States, Christine Chasse Dec 2020

Caps On Capsules: Prescription For Lower Drug Prices In The United States, Christine Chasse

Student Scholarship

The United States is the foremost innovator of pharmaceutical therapies in the world. That innovation, however, comes at a price—literally. Americans pay more for their medications than any other country. In a country without universal healthcare, the topics of economics, human rights, and healthcare intersect at the crossroads of pharmaceutical pricing. In contrast to most other countries, the United States has no regulations on pharmaceutical price control. One major argument against government regulation is its inherent opposition to the free market system: the heart of the American economy. Further still is the argument that profit restriction would create a chilling …


Feminist Perspectives On Disaster, Pandemics, And Intimate Partner Violence, Margaret Drew Dec 2020

Feminist Perspectives On Disaster, Pandemics, And Intimate Partner Violence, Margaret Drew

Faculty Publications

The COVID-19 pandemic brought international awareness to the likelihood of increased abuse of those in abusive intimate partner relationships because of the forced confinement with their abusers (Bettinger-Lopez and Bro, A double pandemic: domestic violence in the age of COVID 19, Council on Foreign Relations. https://www.cfr.org/in-brief/double-pandemic-domestic-violence-age-covid-19, 2020). While this awareness was much discussed, assistance to survivors of abuse was limited because survivors often could not reach out for help, nor could advocates wishing to offer assistance safely reach in to advise them (Taub, A new Covid-19 crisis: domestic abuse rises worldwide. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/06/world/coronavirus-domestic-violence.html, 2020). The ever-present influence of the …


A Qualitative Analysis Of End-Of-Life Healthcare In Tennessee: Politics, Principles, And Perceptions, Erin Mauck Dec 2020

A Qualitative Analysis Of End-Of-Life Healthcare In Tennessee: Politics, Principles, And Perceptions, Erin Mauck

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The unprecedented growth of the aging population in Tennessee is a significant demographic trend that highlights the necessity for healthcare policy that tackles end-of-life issues. This study examined the perceived quality of end-of-life healthcare in Tennessee, areas that are in need of improvement, policies that have the potential to influence improvements, and the role of politics in end-of-life healthcare policy. It also assessed the support for end-of-life healthcare policy that would advance quality of care and expand end-of-life choices for Tennesseans, while evaluating the policy-making process that legislators employ.

For this study, data were collected using semi-structured, in-depth interviews with …


“A Climate Of Lawlessness”: Upholding A Government’S Affirmative Duty To Protect The Environment Using Deshaney’S Special Relationship Exception, Katherine G. Horner Dec 2020

“A Climate Of Lawlessness”: Upholding A Government’S Affirmative Duty To Protect The Environment Using Deshaney’S Special Relationship Exception, Katherine G. Horner

Journal of Law and Policy

The Industrial Revolution introduced an era of exceptional technological advances. However, it also led to rampant environmental pollution and degradation. The proliferation of toxic pollutants in the air, water and soil has led us to the precipice of an unimaginable future; a future defined by climate change. This Note argues for the use of the special relationship exception, affirmed by the Supreme Court in DeShaney v. Winnebago, in environmental litigation in order to uphold governments’ affirmative duty to protect the environment. As federal and state governments have the sole power to regulate environmental pollution and enforce environmental protections, individuals are …


Survivor: An Analysis Of The Term From India, Pravin Patkar Dec 2020

Survivor: An Analysis Of The Term From India, Pravin Patkar

Dignity: A Journal of Analysis of Exploitation and Violence

This article discusses the need for greater conceptual clarity of the term survivor. It raises questions about the propriety of the term to refer to the victims of sex trafficking. It points out that in the Indian context, the term victim is legally and operationally defined. It cautions against the hasty incorporation of the term survivor into public policies addressing the trafficked victims' problems. Different social platforms use the term survivor differently, and the difference is not nominal. The use of the term survivor is both casual as well as intentional. The term survivor trivializes the exploitation and makes invisible …


Cost, Coverage, And The Underuse Of Medications Among People With Cf, Semret Seyoum, Marsha Regenstein, Lea Nolan Dec 2020

Cost, Coverage, And The Underuse Of Medications Among People With Cf, Semret Seyoum, Marsha Regenstein, Lea Nolan

Health Policy and Management Issue Briefs

No abstract provided.


Torts: Covid-19 Pandemic Business Safety Act & Executive Order By The Governor Designating Auxiliary Management Workers And Emergency Management Activities, Angelena Velaj, Troy Viger Dec 2020

Torts: Covid-19 Pandemic Business Safety Act & Executive Order By The Governor Designating Auxiliary Management Workers And Emergency Management Activities, Angelena Velaj, Troy Viger

Georgia State University Law Review

The Executive Order expanded immunity from liability for volunteer health care workers as emergency management workers performing emergency management activities. The Order was not limited to only COVID-19-related activities. When the legislature reconvened, legislators passed the Georgia COVID-19 Pandemic Business Safety Act, which provided liability limitation to businesses against tort claims arising from the pandemic.


Splendid Isolation: Va’S Failure To Provide Due Process Protections And Access To Justice To Veterans And Their Caregivers, Yelena Duterte Dec 2020

Splendid Isolation: Va’S Failure To Provide Due Process Protections And Access To Justice To Veterans And Their Caregivers, Yelena Duterte

Journal of Law and Policy

Imagine you are a spouse and caregiver of a severely injured post-9/11 veteran. Your spouse served in the Marine Corps, with several deployments to Iraq. During their last deployment, your spouse sustained a severe traumatic brain injury and suffers from post-traumatic stress disorder. Due to these injuries, they need consistent care throughout the day. Thankfully, upon their return, the VA provided a caregiver program that allowed you to step away from your job and focus on caring for your spouse full time. As part of this program, you received a caregiver stipend of $2,400 per month, healthcare, and support from …


Decriminalizing Prostitution: Embracing The Swedish Model By Removing The Mistake-Of-Age Defense From New York’S Stop Violence In The Sex Trade Act, Carley Cooke Dec 2020

Decriminalizing Prostitution: Embracing The Swedish Model By Removing The Mistake-Of-Age Defense From New York’S Stop Violence In The Sex Trade Act, Carley Cooke

Journal of Law and Policy

In recent years, New York has re-focused on the widely debated topic of how to best manage and regulate prostitution in the United States. As a state-level issue, the debate presents an invaluable opportunity to re-examine how New York as a society views sex work. The answer in New York focuses on the idea that sex work is real work, where workers should be able to carry out their profession without stigma or fear of arrest. As it stands, the proposed reform largely focuses on decriminalizing both the purchase and sale of sex. This approach contrasts with the legal structure …


Sonograms And Speech: Informed Consent, Professional Speech, And Physicians' First Amendment Rights, Oliana Luke Dec 2020

Sonograms And Speech: Informed Consent, Professional Speech, And Physicians' First Amendment Rights, Oliana Luke

Washington Law Review

Abortion is an extremely divisive topic that has caused waves of litigation. The right to access abortion has traditionally been challenged based on due process, equal protection, and privacy grounds. However, in a more recent string of cases, physicians have been challenging laws that require the physician to narrate an ultrasound before an abortion as an abridgment of their First Amendment rights. These cases require courts to balance the government’s ability to reasonably regulate a physician through professional licensing with the physician’s First Amendment protections against government-compelled speech. This Comment argues that, to balance these ideals and survive First Amendment …


Preemption: Executive Order By The Governor To Ensure A Safe & Healthy Georgia, Marisa P. Ahlzadeh, Fanny Chac Dec 2020

Preemption: Executive Order By The Governor To Ensure A Safe & Healthy Georgia, Marisa P. Ahlzadeh, Fanny Chac

Georgia State University Law Review

The doctrine of preemption expresses the idea that “a higher authority of law will displace a lower authority of law when the two authorities come into conflict.” Preemption exists on both the federal and state level. According to the Georgia Constitution, local laws are permissible if they do not conflict with the state law on the subject. During a Public Health State of Emergency, the Governor of Georgia maintains certain expanded powers to take necessary action for the health and safety of the public. On April 2, 2020, Governor Brian Kemp (R) used these expanded powers to enact an Executive …


Health Insurance Portability And Accountability Act Of 1996: Health & Public Welfare, Erin L. Hayes, Kathryn A. Vance Dec 2020

Health Insurance Portability And Accountability Act Of 1996: Health & Public Welfare, Erin L. Hayes, Kathryn A. Vance

Georgia State University Law Review

The Standards for Privacy of Individually Identifiable Health Information (“Privacy Rule”) establish a standard for the use and protection of individuals’ health information and apply to certain covered entities or their business associates. Covered entities may only disclose an individual’s protected health information in limited situations. Covered entities or individuals that fail to comply with the Privacy Rule standards may be subject to civil or criminal penalties.