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Rubbing The Rabbit's Foot: Gallows Superstitions And Public Healthcare In England During The Eighteenth And Nineteenth Centuries, Roberta M. Harding Jul 2016

Rubbing The Rabbit's Foot: Gallows Superstitions And Public Healthcare In England During The Eighteenth And Nineteenth Centuries, Roberta M. Harding

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Superstitions possess an ancient pedigree. With the passage of time thematic superstitions developed; for example, some solely addressed the public’s health care needs. In fact, as far back as the fifth century many English subjects believed magical spells and jewels had curative properties. Law was another context that generated a body of superstitions. Capital punishment was one area that generated many superstitions. In fact, so many that a specific category was established: gallows superstitions. With hanging as the primary method of execution in England for centuries, this group of superstitions became a relatively large one. By merging the health care …


Health Care And The Myth Of Self-Reliance, Nicole Huberfeld, Jessica L. Roberts Jan 2016

Health Care And The Myth Of Self-Reliance, Nicole Huberfeld, Jessica L. Roberts

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

King v. Burwell asked the Supreme Court to decide if, in providing assistance to purchase insurance “through an Exchange established by the State,” Congress meant to subsidize policies bought on the federally run exchange. With its ruling, the Court saved the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act’s low-income subsidy. But King is only part of a longer, more complex story about health care access for the poor. In a move toward universal coverage, two pillars of the ACA facilitate health insurance coverage for low-income Americans, one private and one public: (1) the subsidy and (2) Medicaid expansion. Although both have …


Instrumental And Transformative Medical Technology, Nicole Huberfeld Jan 2016

Instrumental And Transformative Medical Technology, Nicole Huberfeld

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

This Article considers how medical technologies impact universality in health care. The universality principle, as embodied in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), eliminated widespread discriminatory practices and provided financial assistance to those otherwise unable to become insured—a democratizing federal act that was intended to stabilize health care policy nationwide. This Article posits that medical technology, as with all of medicine, can be universalizing or exclusionary and that this status roughly correlates to its being “instrumental technology” or “transformative technology.” Instrumental technology acts as a tool of medicine and often serves an existing aspect of health care; in …


The Future Of The Cadillac Tax, Kathryn L. Moore Jan 2016

The Future Of The Cadillac Tax, Kathryn L. Moore

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

The Affordable Care Act includes a 40 percent excise tax on high-cost employer-sponsored health care coverage. Often referred to as the “Cadillac tax,” this excise tax is one of the most controversial elements of the Affordable Care Act.

Currently scheduled to go into effect in 2020, the Cadillac tax poses serious challenges and uncertainty for employers. On the one hand, recent estimates suggest that the Cadillac tax may hit as many as 20 percent of employers with health care plans in 2020. On the other hand, there is a serious question as to whether the tax will be repealed before …


An Empirical Perspective On Medicaid As Social Insurance, Nicole Huberfeld, Jessica L. Roberts Apr 2015

An Empirical Perspective On Medicaid As Social Insurance, Nicole Huberfeld, Jessica L. Roberts

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

This Essay begins to explore how Medicaid, after the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, metamorphoses from exclusion and limitations in access and benefits to a form of social insurance that implicates theories of social justice. The social justice aspect of universality provides an important lens for understanding these numbers, both in terms of the states that are expanding and the states that are opting out. States that refuse to expand their Medicaid programs are denying millions of Americans the benefit of a precious legal entitlement. It is essential that the states understand the power—and the potential—of this evolving social …


The Universality Of Medicaid At Fifty, Nicole Huberfeld Jan 2015

The Universality Of Medicaid At Fifty, Nicole Huberfeld

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

This essay explores how the law of Medicaid after fifty years creates a meaningful principle of universalism by shifting from fragmentation and exclusivity to universality and inclusivity. The universality principle provides a new trajectory for all of American health care, one that is not based on individual qualities that are unrelated to medical care but rather grounded in non-judgmental principles of unification and equalization (if not outright solidarity). To that end, this Essay first will study the legislative reformation that led to universality and its quantifiable effects. The Essay then will assess and evaluate Medicaid’s new universality across four dimensions, …


The Pay Or Play Penalty Under The Affordable Care Act: Emerging Issues, Kathryn L. Moore Jan 2014

The Pay Or Play Penalty Under The Affordable Care Act: Emerging Issues, Kathryn L. Moore

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

The Affordable Care Act does not require that employers provide employees with health care coverage. It does, however, impose an excise tax on large employers that fail to offer their employees affordable employer-sponsored health care coverage. The excise tax, commonly referred to as a “pay-or-play penalty,” was scheduled to go into effect beginning in 2014. The United States Treasury Department (“Treasury”), however, has delayed enforcement of the penalty until 2015 for employers with 100 or more full-time employees, and until 2016 for employers with 50 to 99 employees.

Implementation of the pay-or-play penalty has given rise to a host of …


Medicaid Expansion As Completion Of The Great Society, Nicole Huberfeld, Jessica L. Roberts Jan 2014

Medicaid Expansion As Completion Of The Great Society, Nicole Huberfeld, Jessica L. Roberts

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

On the doorstep of its fiftieth anniversary, Medicaid at last could achieve the ambitious goals President Lyndon B. Johnson enunciated for the Great Society upon signing Medicare and Medicaid into law in 1965. Although the spotlight shone on Medicare at the time, Medicaid was the “sleeper program” that caught America’s neediest in its safety net—but only some of them. Medicaid’s exclusion of childless adults and other “undeserving poor” loaned an air of “otherness” to enrollees, contributing to its stigma and seeming political fragility. Now, Medicaid touches every American life. One in five Americans benefits from Medicaid’s healthcare coverage, and that …


With Liberty And Access For Some: The Aca's Disconnect For Women's Health, Nicole Huberfeld May 2013

With Liberty And Access For Some: The Aca's Disconnect For Women's Health, Nicole Huberfeld

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

This Article will scrutinize the separation of abortion from other aspects of women's health through the vehicle of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). Part I will examine briefly why the fragmented nature of American healthcare has facilitated the separation of abortion from women's health, despite the fact that abortion is a medically necessary procedure for many women. To that end, this Part will explore the disjointed history of access to medicine juxtaposed against the strangely non-woman-centric nature of the fundamental rights at play in reproductive health. Part II will provide an overview of the ACA to explain …


A Comparison Of The Role Of The Employer In The French And U.S. Health Care Systems, Kathryn L. Moore Apr 2013

A Comparison Of The Role Of The Employer In The French And U.S. Health Care Systems, Kathryn L. Moore

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

The United States is unique among developed nations in its heavy reliance on employment-based health insurance. The United States, however, is not the only nation in which employers play an important role in the financing of health care. Indeed, long before employment-based health insurance became common in the United States, countries with social insurance systems, such as France, Germany, Hungary, and the Czech Republic, provided for the delivery of mandatory social insurance benefits, including health insurance, through the workplace.

This article explores the role of the employer in the health care system in one such country: France. The French health …


Heed Not The Umpire (Justice Ginsburg Called Nfib), Nicole Huberfeld Jan 2013

Heed Not The Umpire (Justice Ginsburg Called Nfib), Nicole Huberfeld

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

The pervasiveness of our healthcare problem seems to have bypassed most justices on the Supreme Court in the landmark case National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius (NFIB). And early commentary predominantly has focused on the constitutionality of the individual mandate, which codified the idea that Americans must have minimum health insurance coverage by January 1, 2014 or pay a tax penalty. Further narrowing the conversation, much of the postdecision commentary has also focused on Chief Justice Roberts’s constitutional analysis and its interplay with the joint dissent. This narrow scrutiny has resulted in missed opportunities: first, a critique of …


Plunging Into Endless Difficulties: Medicaid And Coercion In National Federation Of Independent Business V. Sebelius, Nicole Huberfeld, Elizabeth Weeks Leonard, Kevin Outterson Jan 2013

Plunging Into Endless Difficulties: Medicaid And Coercion In National Federation Of Independent Business V. Sebelius, Nicole Huberfeld, Elizabeth Weeks Leonard, Kevin Outterson

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Until the 2011 Term, no Supreme Court decision since the New Deal had struck down an act of Congress as exceeding the federal spending power. The question of unconstitutionally coercive conditions was also novel. Indeed, no federal court had ever found any legislation to be an unconstitutionally coercive exercise of the spending power until the Court decided National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius (NFIB) on June 28, 2012. This Article proceeds as follows: Part I discusses the Affordable Care Act's Medicaid expansion in the context of the history and purpose of the Medicaid Act, paying particular attention to facts …


Where There Is A Right, There Must Be A Remedy (Even In Medicaid), Nicole Huberfeld Jan 2013

Where There Is A Right, There Must Be A Remedy (Even In Medicaid), Nicole Huberfeld

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

This Article will explore the power struggle that Medicaid invites and its potential elevation due to the pressures that will follow the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act’s (ACA) expansion. Part I of this Article will describe the three phases of private enforcement litigation and how they have affected Medicaid reimbursement rates. This Part also will highlight the deceptive stability that has taken root in the lower federal courts by describing the recent state attempts to end private enforcement actions. The first Part will conclude by briefly considering the nature of the federalism arguments that states are making. Part II …


Post-Reform Medicaid Before The Court: Discordant Advocacy Reflects Conflicting Attitudes, Nicole Huberfeld Jan 2012

Post-Reform Medicaid Before The Court: Discordant Advocacy Reflects Conflicting Attitudes, Nicole Huberfeld

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

The United States Supreme Court heard two Medicaid cases this term that raise major questions about the program and the tensions it creates between the federal and state governments. On October 3, 2011, the Court heard oral arguments in Douglas v. Independent Living Center of Southern California, a dispute between California and its Medicaid providers regarding reimbursement cuts resulting from California's budget crisis. The Medicaid providers argued that the proposed cuts are so extreme as to violate federal law and thus the Supremacy Clause of the United States Constitution. Their contention hinged on the Equal Access Provision of the Medicaid …


Book Review | The Politics Of Medicaid By Laura Katz Olson, Nicole Huberfeld Jan 2012

Book Review | The Politics Of Medicaid By Laura Katz Olson, Nicole Huberfeld

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

In this book review, Professor Nicole Huberfeld examines The Politics of Medicaid, by Laura Katz Olson, which was published in 2010 by Columbia University Press.


Federalizing Medicaid, Nicole Huberfeld Dec 2011

Federalizing Medicaid, Nicole Huberfeld

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

This Article is one of only a small number of proposals over the past forty-six years for federalizing Medicaid. None of these proposals has grappled directly with the reasons that Medicaid does not satisfy federalism goals, and thus a key reason for modernizing Medicaid’s structure has been ignored. Despite being an area of “traditional state concern,” healthcare should no longer be left to the economic and political whims of the states, as Medicaid is not an effective Brandeisian “laboratory of the states.” Admittedly, some would oppose centralization on the ideological grounds that more federal government power is bad, and more …


The Case Against Preemption: Vaccines & Uncertainty, Mary J. Davis Jan 2011

The Case Against Preemption: Vaccines & Uncertainty, Mary J. Davis

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

This article begins with a brief recap of the state of current preemption doctrine and how it governs the interaction of federal regulation of product manufacturers and state tort actions related to the actions of those manufacturers. Second, the article provides observations on how that doctrine might apply to vaccine injury litigation. Bruesewitz v. Wyeth, Inc. involves the preemptive scope of the Vaccine Act and the unique compensation system Congress created to respond to vaccine injuries. Bruesewitz was decided on February 22, 2011, and held that design defect claims are expressly preempted by the Vaccine Act. This article endeavors …


The Future Of Employment-Based Health Insurance After The Patient Protection And Affordable Case Act, Kathryn L. Moore Jan 2011

The Future Of Employment-Based Health Insurance After The Patient Protection And Affordable Case Act, Kathryn L. Moore

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

In the United States, unlike in all other advanced industrial states, health care is financed principally through employment-based health insurance. In 2009, more than 156 million individuals under the age of sixty-five, or 59% of that population, were covered by employment- based health insurance.

On March 21, 2010, President Obama signed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA). Described as seminal as the enactment of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA), PPACA fundamentally reforms the American health care system. PPACA, however, does not eliminate the system’s reliance on employment- based health insurance. Instead, it builds on, and arguably …


Conditional Spending And Compulsory Maternity, Nicole Huberfeld Jan 2010

Conditional Spending And Compulsory Maternity, Nicole Huberfeld

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

More than forty-six million Americans are uninsured, and many more are seeking government assistance, which makes congressional spending for federal programs a significant issue. Federal funding often comes with prerequisites in the form of statutory conditions. This Article examines the impact that conditions placed on federal healthcare spending have on the individuals who rely on that spending by exploring the ongoing disconnect between Spending Clause jurisprudence and women's reproductive rights. The first Part reviews the foundational Supreme Court precedents and places them in context from both a statutory and theoretical perspective. The second Part studies what the author denominates "pure …


Bizarre Love Triangle: The Spending Clause, Section 1983, And Medicaid Entitlements, Nicole Huberfeld Dec 2008

Bizarre Love Triangle: The Spending Clause, Section 1983, And Medicaid Entitlements, Nicole Huberfeld

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

The first two terms of the Roberts Court signal a willingness to revisit precedent, even decisions that have been considered long-settled, and the United States Supreme Court may be ready to reinterpret another area of jurisprudence: the private enforcement of conditions on federal spending against states through actions under 42 U.S.C. § 1983. The most recent pre-Roberts Court precedent is Gonzaga University v. Doe, a 2002 decision that made it more difficult for individuals harmed by violations of federal laws to enforce rights through § 1983 actions. Federal courts have inconsistently and confusingly applied the Gonzaga framework, but the …


Clear Notice For Conditions On Spending, Unclear Implications For States In Federal Healthcare Programs, Nicole Huberfeld Jan 2008

Clear Notice For Conditions On Spending, Unclear Implications For States In Federal Healthcare Programs, Nicole Huberfeld

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

This Article explores Arlington Central School District Board of Education v. Murphy, a decision rendered by the first Roberts Court that may become a benchmark for Spending Clause jurisprudence. The majority in Arlington, led by Justice Alito, adopted the standard for constitutional conditions on spending that had been the dissenting view for years during the Rehnquist Court. More specifically, under the Pennhurst and Dole regime, the Court required Congress to provide "adequate" notice of conditions on spending, which seemed to be sufficient for the clear statement rule the Court (through Justice O'Connor) was seeking to institute. Arlington refashioned …


The New Retiree Health Vebas, Kathryn L. Moore Jan 2008

The New Retiree Health Vebas, Kathryn L. Moore

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Granted tax exempt status since 1928, Voluntary Employees' Beneficiary Associations (VEBAs) have received considerable attention since the fall of 2007 when General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler reached separate landmark agreements with the United Auto Workers union pursuant to which the companies agreed to contribute billions of dollars to VEBAs in exchange for transferring their retiree health care liabilities to the VEBAs. Specifically, General Motors agreed to contribute $31.9 billion while Ford agreed to contribute $13.6 billion, and Chrysler agreed to contribute $11 billion. Sometimes referred to as "defeasance" VEBAs, these "new," "stand-alone" retiree health VEBAs, differ significantly from traditional VEBAs …


Pharma On The Hot Seat, Nicole Huberfeld Jan 2007

Pharma On The Hot Seat, Nicole Huberfeld

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

The pharmaceutical industry has been receiving greater scrutiny lately due in large part to the many public and private legal enforcement actions taken against pharmaceutical manufacturers. These enforcement actions, along with legal developments such as the OIG Compliance Guidance for Pharmaceutical Manufacturers, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act’s statutory guidelines for public corporations, the HIPAA privacy regulations, and the Medicare Modernization Act, have the potential to encourage the pharmaceutical industry to self-regulate beyond the bounds currently required by the law. After a brief overview of enforcement actions and compliance programs directed toward the pharmaceutical industry, this Article reviews a similar situation the hospital …


Tackling The “Evils” Of Interlocking Directorates In Healthcare Nonprofits, Nicole Huberfeld Jan 2007

Tackling The “Evils” Of Interlocking Directorates In Healthcare Nonprofits, Nicole Huberfeld

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

The nonprofit sector and matters of nonprofit governance have been in the national spotlight much of late. One area of heightened interest is directors of healthcare entities regularly serving on the board of more than one healthcare organization. Even when board membership of related entities is relatively independent, one corporation's business plan frequently is affected (or even controlled) by the business needs of a separately incorporated parent, affiliate, or other related organization. Very little case law addresses "interlocking" directorates for nonprofit board members, and the case law that does exist tends to address narrow, fact-based state law interpretive issues rather …


Be Not Afraid Of Change: Time To Eliminate The Corporate Practice Of Medicine Doctrine, Nicole Huberfeld Jan 2004

Be Not Afraid Of Change: Time To Eliminate The Corporate Practice Of Medicine Doctrine, Nicole Huberfeld

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

This article focuses on three key reasons that the corporate practice of medicine doctrine should be laid to rest. First, the motives for creating the corporate practice of medicine doctrine are long gone; it has been some time since physicians have been able to operate as a guild of autonomous providers of health care. The delivery and financing of health care places physicians in an integrated system that is only frustrated by the corporate practice of medicine doctrine. Second, it is disingenuous to pretend that physicians are not influenced by financial gain. This is handily evidenced by the federal and …


Financing Public Health Through Nonprofit Conversion Foundations, Christopher W. Frost Jan 2002

Financing Public Health Through Nonprofit Conversion Foundations, Christopher W. Frost

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Protection and promotion of the public's health are typically thought of as governmental responsibilities. Certainly, the core functions of responding to contagious diseases through quarantine, vector control, mandatory reporting, mandatory immunizations, and other coercive measures require governmental power. Historically, public health has been defined by governmental response to immediate threats to the health of the population.

As our view of the public's health expands to take into account broader measures, however, so too can we expand our view of the kinds of institutions that serve to promote the public's health. Most commentators agree that public health is a wide ranging …


Quality Control, Enterprise Liability, And Distintermediation In Managed Care, Nicole Huberfeld, John V. Jacobi Jan 2001

Quality Control, Enterprise Liability, And Distintermediation In Managed Care, Nicole Huberfeld, John V. Jacobi

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

In this article, the authors examine the potential of enterprise liability in light of current health-care finance realities. The article begins by addressing background issues of medical malpractice theory and the development of proposals for a form of plan-based enterprise medical liability centered on managed care organizations (MCOs). The authors then describe recent trends in the evolution of more loosely structured MCOs, including the emergence of "disintermediated," or patient-directed, plans. The authors examine the extent to which these developments weaken the rationales for plan-based enterprise liability. The article concludes nevertheless that plan-based enterprise liability best serves the goal of reducing …


Surrogate Gestation And The Protection Of Choice, Louise E. Graham Jan 1982

Surrogate Gestation And The Protection Of Choice, Louise E. Graham

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

Proponents of surrogate gestation contracts base their case on both the constitutional privacy rights of persons involved in the contract and the notion that contractual agreements are capable of sufficiently protecting all interests involved. This article first speculates on how courts might handle surrogate gestation contracts under existing laws and offers arguments for and against such contracts. Although some commentary on the contractual aspect of the agreement exists, little attention has been given to the privacy arguments of the parties. The major focus of this article, therefore, is upon the nature of the privacy claims asserted by the prospective parents …