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Fourth Amendment

2002

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Can The "Public Interest" Justify Non-Consensual Searches Of Homes In Bankruptcy Cases?, A. Mechele Dickerson Dec 2002

Can The "Public Interest" Justify Non-Consensual Searches Of Homes In Bankruptcy Cases?, A. Mechele Dickerson

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

No abstract provided.


Road Work: Racial Profiling And Drug Interdiction On The Highway, Samuel R. Gross, Katherine Y. Barnes Dec 2002

Road Work: Racial Profiling And Drug Interdiction On The Highway, Samuel R. Gross, Katherine Y. Barnes

Michigan Law Review

Hypocrisy about race is hardly new in America, but the content changes. Recently the spotlight has been on racial profiling. The story of Colonel Carl Williams of the New Jersey State Police is a wellknown example. On Sunday, February 28, 1999, the Newark Star Ledger published a lengthy interview with Williams in which he talked about race and drugs: "Today . . . the drug problem is cocaine or marijuana. It is most likely a minority group that's involved with that. " Williams condemned racial profiling - "As far as racial profiling is concerned, that is absolutely not right. It …


Criminal Law And Procedure, Julie E. Mcconnell, Gregory Franklin, Craig Winston Stallard Nov 2002

Criminal Law And Procedure, Julie E. Mcconnell, Gregory Franklin, Craig Winston Stallard

University of Richmond Law Review

No abstract provided.


Warrantless Home Arrests And Police Liability Under Utah Law, Matthew Bell Nov 2002

Warrantless Home Arrests And Police Liability Under Utah Law, Matthew Bell

BYU Law Review

No abstract provided.


Press One For Warrant: Reinventing The Fourth Amendment's Search Warrant Requirement Through Electronic Procedures, Justin H. Smith Oct 2002

Press One For Warrant: Reinventing The Fourth Amendment's Search Warrant Requirement Through Electronic Procedures, Justin H. Smith

Vanderbilt Law Review

Numerous rulings by the Supreme Court have confirmed the long-held assertion that the Fourth Amendment's warrant requirement is a "centerpiece for the law of search and seizure, and that prescreening by neutral and detached magistrates is [at] the heart of citizens' protection against police overreaching." On September 21, 1994, however, these assertions proved inaccurate and painfully hollow for Betty Ingram, a fifty-three-year-old diabetic who awoke to the sound of armed police officers charging through her front door. The officers, who were searching for a suspect involved in a buy- and-bust operation, had neither obtained a search warrant nor knocked and …


A Fourth Amendment "Search" In The Age Of Technology: Postmodern Perspectives, Kathryn R. Urbonya Oct 2002

A Fourth Amendment "Search" In The Age Of Technology: Postmodern Perspectives, Kathryn R. Urbonya

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


What Is A Search? Two Conceptual Flaws In Fourth Amendment Doctine And Some Hints Of A Remedy, Sherry F. Colb Oct 2002

What Is A Search? Two Conceptual Flaws In Fourth Amendment Doctine And Some Hints Of A Remedy, Sherry F. Colb

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


The Fourth Amendment In The Hallway: Do Tenants Have A Constitutionally Protected Privacy Interest In The Locked Common Areas Of Their Apartment Buildings?, Sean M. Lewis Oct 2002

The Fourth Amendment In The Hallway: Do Tenants Have A Constitutionally Protected Privacy Interest In The Locked Common Areas Of Their Apartment Buildings?, Sean M. Lewis

Michigan Law Review

One afternoon, a police officer spots a man driving a Cadillac through a run·down neighborhood. His interest piqued, the officer decides to follow the vehicle. The Cadillac soon comes to rest in front of an apartment building, and the driver, Jimmy Barrios-Moriera, removes a shopping bag from the trunk and enters the building. The moment Barrios-Moriera disappears within the doorway, the officer sprints after him because he knows that the door to the apartment building will automatically lock when it closes. He manages to catch the door just in time and rushes in. Barrios-Moriera is already halfway up a flight …


Indianapolis V. Edmond: Roadblock To Fourth Amendment Erosion Of Individual Security, Samuel Bateman Sep 2002

Indianapolis V. Edmond: Roadblock To Fourth Amendment Erosion Of Individual Security, Samuel Bateman

Nevada Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Street Legal: The Court Affords Police Constitutional Carte Blanche To Arrest, Wayne A. Logan Jul 2002

Street Legal: The Court Affords Police Constitutional Carte Blanche To Arrest, Wayne A. Logan

Scholarly Publications

This article discusses the Supreme Court's landmark 2001 decision Atwater v. City of Lago Vista, upholding the authority of police to execute warrantless arrests for menial offenses (there, failure to wear a seatbelt) so long as police have probable cause to support such arrests.


Marking Carnivore's Territory: Rethinking Pen Registers On The Internet, Anthony E. Orr Jun 2002

Marking Carnivore's Territory: Rethinking Pen Registers On The Internet, Anthony E. Orr

Michigan Telecommunications & Technology Law Review

"Carnivore" entered the online world's collective consciousness in June 2000 when the Federal Bureau of Investigation unveiled the Internet surveillance software program to telecommunications industry specialists. The FBI claims the program allows agents to scan the traffic of an Internet Service Provider (ISP) for messages or commands to or from a criminal suspect and then intercept only those messages, capturing copies of e-mails, web site downloads and other file transfers[...] A central issue in the controversy surrounding Carnivore is whether current law permits the FBI to employ the program in the Internet context. Bureau officials claim statutory authority for deployments …


Computer Searches And Seizures: Some Unresolved Issues, Susan W. Brenner, Barbara A. Frederiksen Jun 2002

Computer Searches And Seizures: Some Unresolved Issues, Susan W. Brenner, Barbara A. Frederiksen

Michigan Telecommunications & Technology Law Review

The goal of this article is to illustrate the issues that arise in the context of computer search and seizures by examining several areas in which the application of Fourth Amendment concepts to computer searches and/or seizures can be problematic. In order to illustrate this point, the article will build on a hypothetical. The hypothetical situation assumes law enforcement officers have lawfully obtained a warrant to search for and seize evidence concerning the commission of one or more crimes. It will also be assumed that computer technology played some role in the commission of these crimes, so computer equipment and …


Carnivore, The Fbi’S E-Mail Surveillance System: Devouring Criminals, Not Privacy, Griffin S. Dunham May 2002

Carnivore, The Fbi’S E-Mail Surveillance System: Devouring Criminals, Not Privacy, Griffin S. Dunham

Federal Communications Law Journal

On July 11, 2000, the FBI intorduced Carnivore, an Internet monitoring system. It was designed, and is used exclusively, to carry out court-ordered surveillance of electronic communications. It is a tangible, portable device, tantamount to a phone tap, that allows the FBI to intercept and collect criminal suspects' e-mail without their knowledge or consent. This Note addresses competing and parallel interests between the government and society to determine the legitimacy and necessity of Carnivore. The purpose of this Note is twofold: first, to demonstrate the need for Carnivore to enable law enforcement to keep up with criminals who utilize cyberspace …


Bits And Bytes: The Carnivore Initiative And The Search And Seizure Of Electronic Mail, Sandy D. Hellums Apr 2002

Bits And Bytes: The Carnivore Initiative And The Search And Seizure Of Electronic Mail, Sandy D. Hellums

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

This Note examines the application of Fourth Amendment search and seizure doctrines to the interception of electronic mail within the context of the FBI Carnivore initiative. The author argues that the traditional law of electronic surveillance's understanding of communication is outdated and never contemplated new technologies like Carnivore and their far reaching implications. Consequently, the author argues, that to protect our long-understood expectations of privacy, the search and seizure of electronic documents should be analyzed under the traditional papers analysis. To do so, the Supreme Court would afford the interception electronic documents the highest form of constitutional protect available under …


Change And Continuity: A Historical Perspective Of Campus Search And Seizure Issues, Dana E. Christman Mar 2002

Change And Continuity: A Historical Perspective Of Campus Search And Seizure Issues, Dana E. Christman

Brigham Young University Education and Law Journal

No abstract provided.


(E)Racing The Fourth Amendment, Devon W. Carbado Mar 2002

(E)Racing The Fourth Amendment, Devon W. Carbado

Michigan Law Review

It's been almost two years since I pledged allegiance to the United States of America - that is to say, became an American citizen. Before that, I was a permanent resident of America and a citizen of the United Kingdom. Yet, I became a black American long before I acquired American citizenship. Unlike citizenship, black racial naturalization was always available to me, even as I tried to make myself unavailable for that particular Americanization process. Given the negative images of black Americans on 1970s British television and the intra-racial tensions between blacks in the U.K. and blacks in America, I …


Individualized School Searches And The Fourth Amendment: What's A School District To Do?, Jason E. Yearout Feb 2002

Individualized School Searches And The Fourth Amendment: What's A School District To Do?, Jason E. Yearout

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

As high-profile incidents of school violence appear to become more frequent and severe, public perception has deteriorated to the point where many citizens believe that schools are unsafe and administrators lack the power to control student activity. In their efforts to promote a safe learning environment, many school administrators have attempted to create strict guidelines concerning the power of school personnel to prevent illegal and unsafe activity from taking place at school. However, as administrators devise the rules by which to implement these standards, they are given little guidance by the Supreme Court regarding the application of the Fourth Amendment …


We Can Do This The Easy Way Or The Hard Way: The Use Of Deceit To Induce Consent Searches, Rebecca Strauss Feb 2002

We Can Do This The Easy Way Or The Hard Way: The Use Of Deceit To Induce Consent Searches, Rebecca Strauss

Michigan Law Review

In October of 1995, Aaron Salvo was studying and living at Ashland College. College officials informed local FBI agents that they suspected Salvo of possible child molestation and related conduct based on incriminating electronic mail. FBI agents approached Salvo at his dormitory, asked to speak with him in private about the suspicious mail, and suggested they speak in Salvo's dorm room. Salvo agreed to speak with the officers, but declined to do so in his room because his roommate was there, and he did not want to get anyone else involved in the embarrassing nature of the upcoming conversation. Salvo …


Fbi Internet Surveillance: The Need For A Natural Rights Application Of The Fourth Amendment To Insure Internet Privacy, Catherine M. Barrett Jan 2002

Fbi Internet Surveillance: The Need For A Natural Rights Application Of The Fourth Amendment To Insure Internet Privacy, Catherine M. Barrett

Richmond Journal of Law & Technology

Last year, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (“FBI”) acknowledged that it used an Internet electronic surveillance system called Carnivore to investigate and prosecute criminal suspects in more than two dozen cases. Carnivore is a software program developed by the FBI that can be installed on the network of an Internet Service Provider (“ISP”), such as America Online, to monitor, intercept and collect e-mail messages and other Internet activity made and received by individuals suspected of criminal activity. To date, the full capability of Carnivore remains a secret—the FBI refuses to disclose the source code (computer language) that would reveal how …


Security Vs. Privacy: Reframing The Debate, Shaun B. Spencer Jan 2002

Security Vs. Privacy: Reframing The Debate, Shaun B. Spencer

Faculty Publications

This essay explores several dimensions of the debate between security and privacy that accompanies many anti-terrorism and law enforcement proposals.


Reasonable Expectations And The Erosion Of Privacy, Shaun Spencer Jan 2002

Reasonable Expectations And The Erosion Of Privacy, Shaun Spencer

Faculty Publications

This Article examines how the prevailing legal conception of privacy facilitates the erosion of privacy. The law generally measures privacy by reference to society’s reasonable expectation of privacy. If we think of the universe of legally private matters as a sphere, the sphere will contract (or least in theory) expand in accordance with changing social expectations. This expectations-driven conception of privacy in effect establishes a privacy marketplace, analogous in both a literal and metaphorical sense to a marketplace of ideas. In this marketplace, societal expectations of privacy fluctuate in response to changing social practices. For this reason, privacy is susceptible …


Peeping Techno-Toms And The Fourth Amendment: Seeing Through Kyllo's Rules Governing Technological Surveillance, Christopher Slobogin Jan 2002

Peeping Techno-Toms And The Fourth Amendment: Seeing Through Kyllo's Rules Governing Technological Surveillance, Christopher Slobogin

Vanderbilt Law School Faculty Publications

This article suggests that the Supreme Court's decision in Kyllo v. United States may not be as protective of the home as it first appears. Kyllo held that use of a thermal imager to detect heat sources inside the home is a fourth amendment search, requiring a warrant and probable cause. But it also held that use of technology that is in "general public use" or that only discovers what a naked eye observer could see from a public vantage point is not a search, even when the location viewed is the interior of the home. This article shows that …


Criminal Procedure: United States V. Holt: The Exception To The Exception That Swallows The Rule, J. Michael Hughes Jan 2002

Criminal Procedure: United States V. Holt: The Exception To The Exception That Swallows The Rule, J. Michael Hughes

Oklahoma Law Review

No abstract provided.


Confessions, Search And Seizure, And The Rehnquist Court, Yale Kamisar Jan 2002

Confessions, Search And Seizure, And The Rehnquist Court, Yale Kamisar

Book Chapters

About the time William Rehnquist ascended to the Chief Justiceship of the United States, two events occurred that increased the likelihood that Miranda would enjoy a long life.

In Moran v. Burbine, a six to three majority held that a confession preceded by an otherwise valid waiver of a suspect's Miranda rights should not be excluded either (1) because the police misled an inquiring attorney when they told her they were not going to question the suspect she called about or (2) because the police failed to inform the suspect of the attorney's efforts to reach him.

Although Burbine has …


To Breathe, Or Not To Breathe: Passive Alcohol Sensors And The Fourth Amendment Jan 2002

To Breathe, Or Not To Breathe: Passive Alcohol Sensors And The Fourth Amendment

San Diego Law Review

No abstract provided.


A Deadly Cure: The Supreme Court's Dangerous Medicine In Ferguson V. City Of Charleston, George M. Dery Iii Jan 2002

A Deadly Cure: The Supreme Court's Dangerous Medicine In Ferguson V. City Of Charleston, George M. Dery Iii

Oklahoma Law Review

No abstract provided.


Criminal Procedure: Atwater V. City Of Lago Vista: The Due Process Dilemma Of Fourth Amendment Seizures For Traffic Violations, Amy J. Nelson Jan 2002

Criminal Procedure: Atwater V. City Of Lago Vista: The Due Process Dilemma Of Fourth Amendment Seizures For Traffic Violations, Amy J. Nelson

Oklahoma Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Magic Lantern Revealed: A Report Of The Fbi's New Key Logging Trojan And Analysis Of Its Possible Treatment In A Dynamic Legal Landscape, Woodrow Hartzog Jan 2002

The Magic Lantern Revealed: A Report Of The Fbi's New Key Logging Trojan And Analysis Of Its Possible Treatment In A Dynamic Legal Landscape, Woodrow Hartzog

Faculty Scholarship

Magic Lantern presents several difficult legal questions that are left unanswered due to new or non-existent statutes and case law directly pertaining to the unique situation that Magic Lantern creates. 25 The first concern is statutory. It is unclear what laws, if any, will apply when Magic Lantern is put into use.26 The recent terrorist attacks in the United States have brought the need for information as a matter of national security to the forefront. Congress recently passed legislation (i.e. USA PATRIOT Act) 27 that dramatically modifies current surveillance law, thus further complicating the untested waters of a …


The Un-Balanced Fourth Amendment: A Cultural Study Of The Drug War, Racial Profiling And Arvizu, Frank Rudy Cooper Jan 2002

The Un-Balanced Fourth Amendment: A Cultural Study Of The Drug War, Racial Profiling And Arvizu, Frank Rudy Cooper

Scholarly Works

In this Article, Professor Frank Rudy Cooper provides a cultural studies approach to the encoding and decoding of the drug war that will allow us to draw important conclusions about the effects of the drug war on the Court. In Part I of this Article, he describes how the field of cultural studies reads popular culture through the analytical tools of "encoding" and "decoding." In Part II, he analyzes why and how law enforcement has encoded the drug war as requiring increased prosecution of drug users and drug dealers. In Part III, he considers how the Court's decoding of law …


Katz, Kyllo, And Technology: Virtual Fourth Amendment Protection In The Twenty-First Century, Tracey Maclin Jan 2002

Katz, Kyllo, And Technology: Virtual Fourth Amendment Protection In The Twenty-First Century, Tracey Maclin

UF Law Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.