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First Amendment

1999

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Zoning Ordinances And "Free Speech", Alan C. Weinstein Dec 1999

Zoning Ordinances And "Free Speech", Alan C. Weinstein

Law Faculty Articles and Essays

Over the past two decades there has been a marked expansion in legal challenges to local land use regulations claiming violations of the free speech clause of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. First Amendment claims can arise whenever government enacts or enforces zoning or other regulations that deal with uses such as billboards or adult entertainment businesses. This article discusses why this litigation is taking place, provides an overview of First Amendment law, and offers local officials some guidelines to help avoid potential legal challenges.


Cable Internet Unbundling: Local Leadership In The Deployment High Speed Access, Marcus Maher Dec 1999

Cable Internet Unbundling: Local Leadership In The Deployment High Speed Access, Marcus Maher

Federal Communications Law Journal

With the pending merger of TCI and AT&T and their promise of "one-stop" television, Internet, and telephone service, the cable Internet issues move to the forefront. The desire of traditional Internet Service Providers to gain access to new high-speed technologies for Internet access led to requests for unbundling or open access to cable systems. Despite the heated debate on the need for unbundling that has occurred at the federal level, local authorities have taken the lead in requiring open access to cable for competing ISPs. General anticompetitive concerns with cable Internet dominated by the cable company could be alleviated in …


The Constitutionality Of The Driver’S Privacy Protection Act: A Fork In The Information Access Road, Angela R. Karras Dec 1999

The Constitutionality Of The Driver’S Privacy Protection Act: A Fork In The Information Access Road, Angela R. Karras

Federal Communications Law Journal

The Driver's Privacy Protection Act, instituted in 1997, regulates the disclosure of personal information in motor vehicle records. New controversy surrounds it today as the U.S. Supreme Court evaluates the arguments presented in November 1999 regarding its constitutionality. A split among circuit courts, coupled with the tremendous growth in technology and subsequent new in-roads for information access, draw increased attention toward the Act. The concern for information access in light of the Act, however, reaches beyond the courts' elucidated concerns about dual sovereignty and the public's right to privacy. This Note argues that there is a forgotten argument: the Act's …


Commercial Slogans: The First Amendment Should Shield Their Use In Campaign Speech, Raena L. Smith Dec 1999

Commercial Slogans: The First Amendment Should Shield Their Use In Campaign Speech, Raena L. Smith

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

Commercial slogans and trademarks are increasingly finding their way into every aspect of the American vernacular, including speech by political officials and candidates. A previous published Note in the Journal of Law and Politics has argued that such speech should be restricted as it infringes upon the copyright or trademark holder's rights established both under federal and state law. This Note takes the opposing view, arguing that, even if campaign speech falls under the purview of federal or state statutes, the First Amendment prevents the application of laws to restrict campaign speech.


The Unusual Suspects: Journalists As Thieves, William E. Lee Dec 1999

The Unusual Suspects: Journalists As Thieves, William E. Lee

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

The publication of confidential information by the press stands in stark contrast to the press' dedication to protecting the confidentiality of sources. While the Supreme Court has taken the position that the press may publish confidential information acquired through "routine" newsgathering methods, the contours of the phrase "routine " newsgathering methods are poorly defined In this Article, Professor Lee describes the link between the manner in which information is obtained and the First Amendment's protection of the publication of the information. He concludes that the proper analysis would separate the interests affected by publication from the interests affected by illegal …


The Graduation Prayer Cases: Coercion By Any Other Name, Colin Delaney Nov 1999

The Graduation Prayer Cases: Coercion By Any Other Name, Colin Delaney

Vanderbilt Law Review

The Supreme Court's decision in Lee v. Weisman held clergy- delivered invocations at public-school graduation ceremonies unconstitutional. In the wake of this landmark case, school boards across the country instituted a variety of policies to avoid the establishmentarian attributes fatal to the prayers in Lee. Several Courts of Appeals soon heard cases involving authorities seeking to divorce themselves from speakers and speaker selection, in the apparent belief that school involvement placed the imprimatur of the state on graduation prayer. Yet two facts mark all of the situations challenged to date. First, an agent of the state, the school board, exercised …


Zoning Speech On The Internet: A Legal And Technical Model, Lawrence Lessig, Paul Resnick Nov 1999

Zoning Speech On The Internet: A Legal And Technical Model, Lawrence Lessig, Paul Resnick

Michigan Law Review

Speech, it is said, divides into three sorts - (1) speech that everyone has a right to (political speech, speech about public affairs); (2) speech that no one has a right to (obscene speech, child porn); and (3) speech that some have a right to but others do not (in the United States, Ginsberg speech, or speech that is "harmful to minors," to which adults have a right but kids do not). Speech-protective regimes, on this view, are those where category (1) speech predominates; speech-repressive regimes are those where categories (2) and (3) prevail. This divide has meaning for speech …


Wanted Posters, Bulletproof Vests, And The First Amendment: Distinguishing True Threats From Coercive Political Advocacy, Leigh Noffsinger Oct 1999

Wanted Posters, Bulletproof Vests, And The First Amendment: Distinguishing True Threats From Coercive Political Advocacy, Leigh Noffsinger

Washington Law Review

In February 1999, an Oregon jury returned a $107 million verdict for doctors who successfully argued that antiabortion activists' propaganda, in the form of posters and a web site, constituted true threats in violation of federal law. The judge rejected the activists' argument that the First Amendment protected their speech and instructed that if a reasonable person would have foreseen that the communication would be interpreted as threatening, the jury must find in favor of the plaintiffs. This Comment argues that the dichotomy of analysis under two leading U.S. Supreme Court cases has led to conflicting standards that provide insufficient …


Qualified Intimacy, Celebrity, And The Case For A Newsgathering Privilege, Rodney A. Smolla Oct 1999

Qualified Intimacy, Celebrity, And The Case For A Newsgathering Privilege, Rodney A. Smolla

Scholarly Articles

Not available.


The Constitutionality Of Mandatory Public School Service Programs, Rodney A. Smolla Oct 1999

The Constitutionality Of Mandatory Public School Service Programs, Rodney A. Smolla

Scholarly Articles

Part of a special issue on amateurs in public service and their involvement in volunteering, service-learning, and community service. An analysis of the constitutionality of mandatory public school community service programs is presented. The legality of such programs is examined with reference to conditions, coercion, and the right-privilege distinction; community service as involuntary servitude; the substantive due process doctrine; conscientious objection based on religion or ideology; and organizational inclusion and exclusion. It is acknowledged that community service programs are not value-neutral, in that they obviously reflect the community's philosophical and cultural judgments regarding the mission and function of public schools. …


Constitutional Law—First Amendment Rights Of Direct Democracy Participants Versus The State's Interest In Regulating The Election Process. Buckley V. American Constitutional Law Foundation, Inc., 119 S. Ct. 636 (1999)., Jennifer Modersohn Oct 1999

Constitutional Law—First Amendment Rights Of Direct Democracy Participants Versus The State's Interest In Regulating The Election Process. Buckley V. American Constitutional Law Foundation, Inc., 119 S. Ct. 636 (1999)., Jennifer Modersohn

University of Arkansas at Little Rock Law Review

No abstract provided.


Protecting Privacy On The Front Page: Why Restrictions On Commercial Use Of Law Enforcement Records Violate The First Amendment, Jason L. Cagle Oct 1999

Protecting Privacy On The Front Page: Why Restrictions On Commercial Use Of Law Enforcement Records Violate The First Amendment, Jason L. Cagle

Vanderbilt Law Review

An individual is involved in an automobile accident and is arrested for driving under the influence. A few days after being re- leased, he receives several letters in the mail. One is from a chiropractor offering services to treat his injuries. Another is from an alcohol abuse treatment center. Yet another is from an attorney who defends traffic offenses. Each of the solicitors obtained the individual's name and address from publicly available records concerning the incident. The letters are truthful and not misleading, but utilize publicly available information for purely commercial purposes at the expense of the individual's privacy.

Several …


Section 1: Mitchell V. Helms, Institute Of Bill Of Rights Law, William & Mary Law School Sep 1999

Section 1: Mitchell V. Helms, Institute Of Bill Of Rights Law, William & Mary Law School

Supreme Court Preview

No abstract provided.


Section 5: First Amendment, Institute Of Bill Of Rights Law, William & Mary Law School Sep 1999

Section 5: First Amendment, Institute Of Bill Of Rights Law, William & Mary Law School

Supreme Court Preview

No abstract provided.


Using The Religion Clauses To Secure Religious Liberty (Review Of Securing Religious Liberty, By Jesse Choper), Jared Goff Sep 1999

Using The Religion Clauses To Secure Religious Liberty (Review Of Securing Religious Liberty, By Jesse Choper), Jared Goff

BYU Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Developmental Progress Of Free Exercise (Review Of The Lustre Of Our Country, By John T. Noonan, Jr.), Charlene Davis Luke Sep 1999

The Developmental Progress Of Free Exercise (Review Of The Lustre Of Our Country, By John T. Noonan, Jr.), Charlene Davis Luke

BYU Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Believer's First Amendment (Review Of Separating Church And State, By Timothy L. Hall), Marcus Mumford Sep 1999

The Believer's First Amendment (Review Of Separating Church And State, By Timothy L. Hall), Marcus Mumford

BYU Law Review

No abstract provided.


Deconstructing Deconstruction (Review Of The Rhetoric Of Church And State, By Frederick Mark Gedicks), D. Heath Bailey Sep 1999

Deconstructing Deconstruction (Review Of The Rhetoric Of Church And State, By Frederick Mark Gedicks), D. Heath Bailey

BYU Law Review

No abstract provided.


The First Amendment: Saving Us From Ourselves (Review Of No Liberty For License, By David Lowenthal), Cory A. Talbot Sep 1999

The First Amendment: Saving Us From Ourselves (Review Of No Liberty For License, By David Lowenthal), Cory A. Talbot

BYU Law Review

No abstract provided.


Religion And Democracy, Steven H. Shiffrin Jun 1999

Religion And Democracy, Steven H. Shiffrin

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

Should citizens armed with religious reasons for public policy outcomes present those reasons in the public forum or otherwise rely on them in making decisions? Those questions have produced a flurry of scholarship, both within and outside of the law. Moreover, as Kent Greenawalt's work richly demonstrates, these related questions raise many more questions still. Do the answers to those questions differ, for example, if the citizen is a judge, a legislator, a columnist, a religious leader, or a "mere" voter? Are some religious reasons acceptable for presentation in a public forum, but not others?

If one holds a constricted …


Is There An Obligation To Listen?, Leslie Gielow Jacobs May 1999

Is There An Obligation To Listen?, Leslie Gielow Jacobs

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Article thoroughly considers the question whether the constitutional guarantee of "freedom of speech" includes an obligation to listen. It first reviews the scopes of the right to speak, the right to listen, and the right to be left alone from things other than unwanted speech, and the relevance to each of physical location. It concludes that, consistent with constitutional doctrine and the Court's articulations, the government's ability to protect individuals from unwanted speech should not vary according to the listener's location. After noting that the actual protection of unwilling listeners may differ because of the different physical realities of …


Equality In The Information Age, William E. Kennard May 1999

Equality In The Information Age, William E. Kennard

Federal Communications Law Journal

Forum: New Approaches to Minority Media Ownership, Columbia Institute for Tele-Information, Columbia University.


The Copyright Dilemma Involving Online Service Providers: Problem Solved . . . For Now, Christian C.M. Beams May 1999

The Copyright Dilemma Involving Online Service Providers: Problem Solved . . . For Now, Christian C.M. Beams

Federal Communications Law Journal

The Internet environment has presented copyright law with a development unlike any other this century. The illegal trading of copyrighted works has become easier than ever. Until recently, it was possible to hold online service providers strictly liable for the infringing actions of their users, regardless of whether the provider had knowledge of any infringing activity. While promoting the policy of copyright law, upholding such a standard had the potential to limit Internet speech and retard its growth. Seeing this, Congress began to debate on legislation that would protect innocent service providers from this liability. This Note argues that with …


Punishing Hateful Motives: Old Wine In A New Bottle Revives Calls For Prohibition, Carol S. Steiker May 1999

Punishing Hateful Motives: Old Wine In A New Bottle Revives Calls For Prohibition, Carol S. Steiker

Michigan Law Review

Hate crimes are nothing new: crimes in which the victim is selected because of the victim's membership in some distinctive group (be it racial, ethnic, religious, or other) have been with us as long as such groups have coexisted within legal systems. What is relatively new is their recognition and designation as a discrete phenomenon. But as appellations like "sexual harassment" and "community policing" have begun to teach us, words are only the beginning of the life cycle of a new socio-legal concept. What follows are debates about whether the new category is really a coherent one, what activities should …


Television In The Courtroom: Mightier Than The Pen?, Richard P. Matsch May 1999

Television In The Courtroom: Mightier Than The Pen?, Richard P. Matsch

Michigan Law Review

In his Introduction, author Ronald L. Goldfarb explains that his purpose is to address all the arguments advanced against televised trials, cover the points made by proponents of televised trials, and find a sensible solution to what he believes is the fundamental issue: "How can we best blend new media technologies with our traditional and revered commitment to democracy and justice?" (p. xxiv). He ends the book with this prospective paragraph: "I expect that all the courtrooms of the future - state and federal, trial and appellate - will be equipped with cameras. I suggest that all trials should be …


The Convergence Of The First Amendment And Vatican Ii On Religious Freedom, Robert F. Drinan S.J. May 1999

The Convergence Of The First Amendment And Vatican Ii On Religious Freedom, Robert F. Drinan S.J.

Michigan Law Review

Did the United States radiate the views of James Madison on the free exercise of religion to the world? That, in essence, is the main thrust of this provocative study by John T. Noonan, Jr., Professor Emeritus at the University of California Law School, Berkeley, and a Senior Judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. Noonan is, of course, the author of magisterial books on abortion, birth control, legal ethics, and related issues. He writes as a committed Catholic who takes pride in the religion that he learned as a child in his native Brookline, Massachusetts. …


Monuments To The Past In A Leveling Wind, Benjamin Means May 1999

Monuments To The Past In A Leveling Wind, Benjamin Means

Michigan Law Review

Early in the twentieth century, the Emperor Franz Joseph sponsored a monument to Hungary's history - a Millennium Monument containing statues of the country's heroes, as well as statues of the proud sponsor and his family (p. 5). When the communists took over in 1919, the statues of Franz Joseph and the rest of the Hapsburgs were dragged out of the Millennium Monument and replaced with more politically correct statuary (p. 8). Counterrevolutionaries, though, retook the country and reinstated the Hapsburg Statues in the Millennium Monument - until a later regime once again reshuffled the millennial display (pp. 9-10). Professor …


The Qualities Of Completeness: More? Or Less?, Mark R. Killenbeck May 1999

The Qualities Of Completeness: More? Or Less?, Mark R. Killenbeck

Michigan Law Review

On January 14, 1983, Chief Judge W. Brevard Hand announced what he knew would be widely regarded as a rather startling proposition. Believing that "[t]he first amendment in large part was a guarantee to the states which insured that the states would be able to continue whatever church-state relationship existed in 1791," Judge Hand held that the people of Alabama were perfectly free to "establish[] a religion," in this instance by allowing public school teachers to begin the school day with prayer. The ruling reversed an earlier decision in the same case, which characterized the statutory provision at issue as …


National Endowment For The Arts V. Finley: First Amendment Free Speech No Longer Guaranteed For The Arts, Andrea Mccoy May 1999

National Endowment For The Arts V. Finley: First Amendment Free Speech No Longer Guaranteed For The Arts, Andrea Mccoy

Mercer Law Review

In National Endowment for the Arts v. Finley, the United States Supreme Court confronted the decency and respect criteria of the 1990 Amendment ("Amendment") to the National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities Act of 1965. At issue was whether the Amendment violated the First and Fifth Amendments of the United States Constitution by impermissibly discriminating based on viewpoint and being void for vagueness. The Supreme Court upheld the Amendment as facially valid.


Roger Williams's Gift: Religious Freedom In America, Edward J. Eberle Apr 1999

Roger Williams's Gift: Religious Freedom In America, Edward J. Eberle

Law Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.