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Full-Text Articles in Law

Show Me The Money: Determining A Celebrity’S Fair Market Value In A Right Of Publicity Action, Cody Reaves Mar 2017

Show Me The Money: Determining A Celebrity’S Fair Market Value In A Right Of Publicity Action, Cody Reaves

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

As the power of celebrity continues to grow in the age of social media, so too does the price of using a celebrity’s name and likeness to promote a product. With the newfound ease of using Twitter, Facebook, and even print media to use a celebrity’s identity in conjunction with a product or company, right of publicity concerns arise. When a company uses a celebrity’s name and likeness without the celebrity’s authorization to market or sell a product, companies open themselves up to right of publicity suits. Many of these cases settle out of court. But ...


Trespassory Art, Randall Bezanson, Andrew Finkelman Dec 2010

Trespassory Art, Randall Bezanson, Andrew Finkelman

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

The history of art is replete with examples of artists who have broken from existing conventions and genres, redefining the meaning of art and its function in society. Our interest is in emerging forms of art that trespass-occupy space, place, and time as part of their aesthetic identity. These new forms of art, which we call trespassory art, are creatures of a movement that seeks to appropriate cultural norms and cultural signals, reinterpreting them to create new meaning. Marcel DuChamp produced such a result when, in the early twentieth century, he took a urinal, signed it, titled it Fountain, and ...


Rethinking Gender Opportunities: Nontraditional Sports Seasons And Local Preferences, Kristen Boike May 2006

Rethinking Gender Opportunities: Nontraditional Sports Seasons And Local Preferences, Kristen Boike

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

In Communities for Equity v. Michigan High School Athletic Association, the Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit affirmed a district court decision, holding that the scheduling of high school girls' sports in "nontraditional" seasons in Michigan violated the Equal Protection Clause. The Supreme Court of the United States, granting certiorari, vacated and remanded this case back to the Sixth Circuit. This Note suggests reasons why the Sixth Circuit and/or the United States Supreme Court should protect the Michigan High School Athletic Association's (MHSAA) current scheduling of sports seasons. Specifically, using the model provided by Romer v. Evans ...


Take Us Back To The Ball Game: The Laws And Policy Of Professional Sports Ticket Prices, Nathan R. Scott Oct 2005

Take Us Back To The Ball Game: The Laws And Policy Of Professional Sports Ticket Prices, Nathan R. Scott

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

The prices of professional sports tickets have skyrocketed in recent years, depriving many fans of the time-honored tradition of taking their families out to a ball game. This Article argues that legal reform and political action are appropriate responses to these soaring prices.

First, the Article rebuts the threshold objection that economics alone justify current ticket prices. Professional sports teams reap a windfall from the public through corporate welfare, special-interest legislation, and favorable antitrust and tax laws. This preferential legal treatment undercuts the argument that teams are simply charging, or should charge, what the market will bear. In addition, teams ...


Reflections On Augusta: Judicial, Legislative And Economic Approaches To Private Race And Gender Consciousness, Scott R. Rosner Oct 2003

Reflections On Augusta: Judicial, Legislative And Economic Approaches To Private Race And Gender Consciousness, Scott R. Rosner

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

In light of the recent controversy surrounding Augusta National Golf Club's exclusionary membership policy, this Article highlights the myriad incentives and disincentives that Augusta and similar clubs have for reforming such policies. The author acknowledges the economic importance of club membership in many business communities and addresses the extent to which club members' claims of rights of privacy and free association are valid. The Article also considers the potential of judicial action in promoting the adoption of more inclusive membership policy; the state action doctrine and the First Amendment right to freedom of association are discussed as frameworks under ...


Emotional Segregation: Huckleberry Finn In The Modern Classroom, Sharon E. Rush Jan 2003

Emotional Segregation: Huckleberry Finn In The Modern Classroom, Sharon E. Rush

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

In this article, I explore emotional segregation and how it functions in the context of Huckleberry Finn for both personal and academic reasons. Recently, I read Huckleberry Finn because it had been assigned to my daughter's middle school class. I was concerned for her welfare because she is Black and worried how the book would affect her. To understand her reactions, I had to understand the controversy surrounding the book, particularly as a White mother I have reflected quite deeply on the question whether the book is racist. I define "racism" as a belief in the myth of White ...


Reevaluating Amateurism Standards In Men's College Basketball, Marc Edelman Jun 2002

Reevaluating Amateurism Standards In Men's College Basketball, Marc Edelman

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Note argues that courts should interpret NCAA conduct under the Principle of Amateurism as a violation of§ 1 of the Sherman Antitrust Act and that courts should order NCAA deregulation of student-athletes' indirect financial activities. Part I of this Note discusses the history of NCAA regulation, specifically its Principle of Amateurism. Part II discusses the current impact of antitrust laws on the NCAA. Part III argues that the NCAA violates antitrust laws because the Principle of Amateurism's overall effect is anticompetitive. Part IV argues the NCAA could institute an amateurism standard with a net pro-competitive effect by allowing ...


The Struggle For Sex Equality In Sport And The Theory Behind Title Ix, Deborah Brake Dec 2000

The Struggle For Sex Equality In Sport And The Theory Behind Title Ix, Deborah Brake

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Title IX's three-part test for measuring discrimination in the provision of athletic opportunities to male and female students has generated heated controversy in recent years. In this Article, Professor Brake discusses the theoretical underpinnings behind the three-part test and offers a comprehensive justification of this theory as applied to the context of sport. She begins with an analysis of the test's relationship to other areas of sex discrimination law, concluding that, unlike most contexts, Title IX rejects formal equality as its guiding theory, adopting instead an approach that focuses on the institutional structures that subordinate girls and women ...


An "Olympics" Approach: A More Equitable Approach To Athletics Than Title Ix Offers, Marcia Federbush Dec 2000

An "Olympics" Approach: A More Equitable Approach To Athletics Than Title Ix Offers, Marcia Federbush

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

A speech from Marcia Federbush, the writer of the first comprehensive Title IX complaint against a major university - the University of Michigan.


Gender And Intercollegiate Athletics: Data And Myths, Julia Lamber Dec 2000

Gender And Intercollegiate Athletics: Data And Myths, Julia Lamber

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Article explores what nondiscrimination means in the context of intercollegiate athletics. After reviewing the Department of Education's controversial Title IX Policy Interpretation, it critically examines the analytical framework used in Title IX athletic cases and concludes that commonly made analogies to litigation under Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act are inapt. A major part of the Article is an empirical study, looking first at gender equity plans written by institutions of higher education for the National Collegiate Athletic Association and then at data collected from more than 325 institutions pursuant to the Equity in Athletics Disclosure ...


Pay Equity For Coaches And Athletic Administrators: An Element Of Title Ix?, Barbara Osborne, Marilyn V. Yarbrough Dec 2000

Pay Equity For Coaches And Athletic Administrators: An Element Of Title Ix?, Barbara Osborne, Marilyn V. Yarbrough

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

In this Article, Professors Osborne and Yarbrough address the issue of gender discrimination in the compensation of coaches and athletic administrators. They discuss the application of the Equal Pay Act of 1963 and Title VII to pay inequity claims and conclude that both have proven to be inadequate as a means of addressing the problem. Professors Osborne and Yarbrough then present Title IX as a way of countering the problem of gender discrimination in the compensation of coaches. They also discuss the prospects for gender equality in compensation by considering several cases addressing the issue. Finally, they offer recommendations both ...


Equally Bad Is Not Good: Allowing Title Ix "Compliance" By The Elimination Of Men's Collegiate Sports, Donald E. Shelton Dec 2000

Equally Bad Is Not Good: Allowing Title Ix "Compliance" By The Elimination Of Men's Collegiate Sports, Donald E. Shelton

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Athletic participation is an important part of the educational process, instilling important lessons about discipline and teamwork. Title IX was intended to address the historic lack of opportunities for women and girls to participate in school athletics. Unfortunately, the current administrative interpretation of Title IX permits the elimination of male athletic opportunities as a means of complying with the statute's equality standard. This result undermines the purpose of Title IX and the role of athletics in the educational process for all students.


The Writing On Our Walls: Finding Solutions Through Distinguishing Graffiti Art From Graffiti Vandalism, Marisa A. Gómez May 1993

The Writing On Our Walls: Finding Solutions Through Distinguishing Graffiti Art From Graffiti Vandalism, Marisa A. Gómez

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Note argues that outlawing graffiti completely is not an effective solution. The only effective means of controlling graffiti is to develop laws and policies which accommodate graffiti art while discouraging graffiti vandalism and which attack the root causes of graffiti. Part I briefly outlines the origins of graffiti. Part II describes the different types of graffiti and the motivations of their respective creators. Part III analyzes the arguments for and against the legalization of certain types of graffiti and concludes that, because of the multitude of different types of graffiti, both graffiti proponents and opponents have meritorious arguments that ...


Repatriation And Cultural Preservation: Potent Objects, Potent Pasts, Peter H. Welsh Jun 1992

Repatriation And Cultural Preservation: Potent Objects, Potent Pasts, Peter H. Welsh

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Parts I and II discuss the preservation idea itself and the history of museums' participation in cultural preservation efforts. Parts III and IV then look specifically at the repatriation issue, providing some background on initiatives that have influenced peoples' thoughts and actions. Finally, Part V outlines and discusses some of the issues that have made resolution of the repatriation issue particularly complex.


Reforming The Ncaa Drug-Testing Program To Withstand State Constitutional Scrutiny: An Analysis And Proposal, Thomas P. Simon Oct 1990

Reforming The Ncaa Drug-Testing Program To Withstand State Constitutional Scrutiny: An Analysis And Proposal, Thomas P. Simon

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Shortly after year-round testing went into effect, the California Court of Appeal held that the NCAA's original drug testing program violated a student-athlete's right of privacy as protected by the California Constitution. This Note examines the impact of that decision and attempts to design a program that will withstand state constitutional scrutiny. Part I describes the current NCAA drug-testing program. Part II looks at the fourth amendment argument against drug testing of student-athletes. Part III assesses the viability of a federal constitutional attack on NCAA testing, while Part IV discusses a state constitutional challenge. Finally, Part V proposes ...


Pornography And Obscenity Sold In "Adult Bookstores": A Survey Of 5132 Books, Magazines, And Films In Four American Cities, Park Elliott Dietz, Alan E. Sears Jan 1988

Pornography And Obscenity Sold In "Adult Bookstores": A Survey Of 5132 Books, Magazines, And Films In Four American Cities, Park Elliott Dietz, Alan E. Sears

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

During the eighteen months that the Attorney General's Commission on Pornography (the Commission) conducted public hearings, public discussion, and staff research, one of the most common types of inquiry directed to the staff consisted of questions as to the content of pornography currently available in the United States. Critics of the Commission's work asserted that the pornography used as exhibits by witnesses at the public hearings was extreme, not commonly available, or unrepresentative of that sold in pornography retail outlets; The only pertinent, quantitative data available to the Commission appeared in a single report in the American Journal ...


Pornography Is A Civil Rights Issue For Women, Andrea Dworkin Jan 1988

Pornography Is A Civil Rights Issue For Women, Andrea Dworkin

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

My name is Andrea Dworkin. I am a citizen of the United States, and in this country where I live, every year millions and millions of pictures are being made of women with our legs spread. We are called beaver, we are called pussy, our genitals are tied up, they are pasted, makeup is put on them to make them pop out of a page at a male viewer. Millions and millions of pictures are made of us in postures of submission and sexual access so that our vaginas are exposed for penetration, our anuses are exposed for penetration, our ...


Methodological Issues In The Content Analysis Of Pornography, Daniel Linz, Edward Donnerstein Jan 1988

Methodological Issues In The Content Analysis Of Pornography, Daniel Linz, Edward Donnerstein

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

No scientifically sound analysis of the content of pornography in the United States as a whole currently exists. Dietz and Sears's article takes us a small step closer to quantifying the contents of pornography. Some of the methods employed in the present study, however, prohibit us from making solid generalizations from the findings reported here to the nationwide pornographic marketplace. Our critique of the article will concentrate first on the methods employed in the study and then on the findings obtained through these methods and the authors' interpretation of these findings.


Drug Songs And The Federal Communications Commission, Sammuel Bufford Jan 1972

Drug Songs And The Federal Communications Commission, Sammuel Bufford

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

A "public notice" concerning the broadcasting of drug-related popular songs by radio stations issued from the Federal Communications Commission on March 5, 1971. While this notice could be generally taken to prohibit the playing of such songs, its actual message, upon further analysis, is more complex and less direct. This article will examine the notice to ascertain its likely meaning, determine its legal status, and examine three constitutional issues it raises: whether the songs are protected as speech under the first amendment; whether the statement of the prohibition (if that be the import of the notice) is sufficiently precise to ...