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Modernizing Discrimination Law: The Adoption Of An Intersectional Lens, Marisa K. Sanchez Jun 2021

Modernizing Discrimination Law: The Adoption Of An Intersectional Lens, Marisa K. Sanchez

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

Abstract forthcoming.


The Lost Promise Of Disability Rights, Claire Raj Mar 2021

The Lost Promise Of Disability Rights, Claire Raj

Michigan Law Review

Children with disabilities are among the most vulnerable students in public schools. They are the most likely to be bullied, harassed, restrained, or segregated. For these and other reasons, they also have the poorest academic outcomes. Overcoming these challenges requires full use of the laws enacted to protect these students’ affirmative right to equal access and an environment free from discrimination. Yet, courts routinely deny their access to two such laws—the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (section 504).

Courts too often overlook the affirmative obligations contained in these two disability ...


The First Sale Doctrine And Foreign Sales: The Economic Implications In The United States Textbook Market, Garry A. Gabison Oct 2020

The First Sale Doctrine And Foreign Sales: The Economic Implications In The United States Textbook Market, Garry A. Gabison

University of Massachusetts Law Review

This Article investigates the impact of the Kirtsaeng decision. After discussing the first sale doctrine, this Article presents the issues around implementing a worldwide first sale doctrine. International treaties attempt to ensure that authors can benefit from their work by affording them similar protections in different jurisdictions. But a worldwide first sale exhaustion limits the ability of copyright holders to profit from their work because it allows the author to compete with its own work that had been priced differently in different jurisdictions. Finally, this Article tests whether, in the United States, the price of textbooks has been affected by ...


Valuing All Identities Beyond The Schoolhouse Gate: The Case For Inclusivity As A Civic Virtue In K-12, Sacha M. Coupet Jun 2020

Valuing All Identities Beyond The Schoolhouse Gate: The Case For Inclusivity As A Civic Virtue In K-12, Sacha M. Coupet

Michigan Journal of Gender & Law

Increasing social and political polarization in our society continues to exact a heavy toll marked by, among other social ills, a rise in uncivility, an increase in reported hate crimes, and a more pronounced overall climate of intolerance—for viewpoints, causes, and identities alike. Intolerance, either a cause or a consequence of our fraying networks of social engagement, is rampant, hindering our ability to live up to our de facto national motto, “E Pluribus Unum,” or “Out of Many, One” and prompting calls for how best to build a cohesive civil society. Within the public school—an institution conceived primarily ...


Latino Education In Texas: A History Of Systematic Recycling Discrimination, Albert H. Kauffman Oct 2019

Latino Education In Texas: A History Of Systematic Recycling Discrimination, Albert H. Kauffman

St. Mary's Law Journal

Abstract forthcoming


Equal Protection Supreme Court Appellate Division Third Department Jul 2019

Equal Protection Supreme Court Appellate Division Third Department

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Title Ix And Title Vii: Parallel Remedies In Combatting Sex Discrimination In Educational Employment, Lynn Ridgeway Zehrt Mar 2019

Title Ix And Title Vii: Parallel Remedies In Combatting Sex Discrimination In Educational Employment, Lynn Ridgeway Zehrt

Marquette Law Review

The federal circuit courts of appeals are divided over the proper relationship between Title IX of the Higher Education Amendments Act of 1972 and Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Specifically, the federal courts disagree over whether an employee of an educational institution may sue her employer for employment discrimination under either Title IX or Title VII. Some courts have concluded that these employees may not bring employment discrimination claims under Title IX, holding that Title VII provides the sole avenue for obtaining monetary relief for employment discrimination against educational institutions. Other courts have reached the opposite ...


The Implied Promise Of A Guaranteed Education In The United States And How The Failure To Deliver It Equitably Perpetuates Generational Poverty, Anjaleck Flowers Jan 2019

The Implied Promise Of A Guaranteed Education In The United States And How The Failure To Deliver It Equitably Perpetuates Generational Poverty, Anjaleck Flowers

Mitchell Hamline Law Review

No abstract provided.


Symposium Current Issues In Disability Rights Law, Samuel J. Levine Jan 2019

Symposium Current Issues In Disability Rights Law, Samuel J. Levine

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


I’Ll See You In Court, But Not Pursuant To Dasa, Adam I. Kleinberg, Alex Eleftherakis Jan 2019

I’Ll See You In Court, But Not Pursuant To Dasa, Adam I. Kleinberg, Alex Eleftherakis

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Adequate Education: The Disregarded Fundamental Right And The Resurgence Of Segregation Of Public Schools, Neubia L. Harris Jan 2019

Adequate Education: The Disregarded Fundamental Right And The Resurgence Of Segregation Of Public Schools, Neubia L. Harris

Mitchell Hamline Law Review

No abstract provided.


Removing Camouflaged Barriers To Equality: Overcoming Systemic Sexual Assault And Harassment At The Military Academies, Rebecca Weiant May 2018

Removing Camouflaged Barriers To Equality: Overcoming Systemic Sexual Assault And Harassment At The Military Academies, Rebecca Weiant

Michigan Journal of Gender & Law

The Education Amendments of 1972 introduced requirements to protect female students from discriminatory policies at post-secondary institutions. A portion of those amendments, commonly known as Title IX, require that no students be subjected to discrimination based on their sex by any educational institution or activity receiving federal financial assistance. An exemption under § 1681(a)(4), however, explicitly prohibits application of Title IX to any educational institution whose primary purpose is to train individuals for military service or the merchant marine. Although those students are still subject to stringent conduct standards, the service academies themselves are tethered to sex discrimination policies ...


With Liberty And Justice For Some: Denial Of Meaningful Due Process In School Disciplinary Actions In Ohio, Genevieve Vince May 2017

With Liberty And Justice For Some: Denial Of Meaningful Due Process In School Disciplinary Actions In Ohio, Genevieve Vince

Cleveland State Law Review

Students face many different obstacles in school and arbitrary exclusion should not be one of them. Despite the Supreme Court stating that students do not shed their rights at the schoolhouse gate, they in fact do shed their rights. This Note examines how school disciplinary actions deny students meaningful due process. It discusses the foundation of modern due process, including what other rights have been incorporated into the contemporary understanding of due process as well as its historic roots. Additionally, this Note explores the case that established the procedures required of school administrators to comport with a student’s right ...


Uniform Rules: Addressing The Disparate Rules That Deny Student-Athletes The Opportunity To Participate In Sports According To Gender Identity, Chelsea Shrader Jan 2017

Uniform Rules: Addressing The Disparate Rules That Deny Student-Athletes The Opportunity To Participate In Sports According To Gender Identity, Chelsea Shrader

University of Richmond Law Review

No abstract provided.


Affirmative Confusion: A Proposed Paradigm Shift In Higher Education Disciplinary Proceedings, Kendal Poirier Nov 2016

Affirmative Confusion: A Proposed Paradigm Shift In Higher Education Disciplinary Proceedings, Kendal Poirier

University of Massachusetts Law Review

This Note examines the codification of affirmative consent statutes in New York and California as well as the language of Title IX of Education Amendments of 1972, with the ultimate goal of demonstrating that the two statutory constructions cannot co-exist without jeopardizing accused students’ due process rights. During the course of a college or university disciplinary proceeding in an affirmative consent jurisdiction, the potential exists for a burden shift onto the accused student to affirmatively prove consent was obtained. Such a shift directly conflicts with Title IX mandates for prompt and equitable treatment. This Note proposes that in order to ...


The More Things Change, The More They Stay The Same: Why Fisher V. University Of Texas At Austin Will Not Fundamentally Alter The Affirmative Action Landscape, Adam Lamparello Jun 2016

The More Things Change, The More They Stay The Same: Why Fisher V. University Of Texas At Austin Will Not Fundamentally Alter The Affirmative Action Landscape, Adam Lamparello

University of Miami Business Law Review

No abstract provided.


Diversity Is Dead. Long Live Diversity: The Racial Isolation Prong Of Kennedy’S Pics Concurrence In Fisher And Beyond., Francisco M. Negrón Jr. Jun 2016

Diversity Is Dead. Long Live Diversity: The Racial Isolation Prong Of Kennedy’S Pics Concurrence In Fisher And Beyond., Francisco M. Negrón Jr.

University of Miami Business Law Review

No abstract provided.


Getting Real About Race And Class: An Evaluation Of The Constitutionality Of Class-Based, Socioeconomic Affirmative Action Without Grutter, Junis L. Baldon Jun 2016

Getting Real About Race And Class: An Evaluation Of The Constitutionality Of Class-Based, Socioeconomic Affirmative Action Without Grutter, Junis L. Baldon

University of Miami Business Law Review

No abstract provided.


It’S Not About Race: The True Purpose Of The University Of Texas’ Holistic Admissions System Is To Give Preferences To Well-Connected White Applicants, Not To Disadvantaged Minorities, Jonathan R. Zell Jun 2016

It’S Not About Race: The True Purpose Of The University Of Texas’ Holistic Admissions System Is To Give Preferences To Well-Connected White Applicants, Not To Disadvantaged Minorities, Jonathan R. Zell

University of Miami Business Law Review

No abstract provided.


Fisher V. University Of Texas At Austin: The Incoherence And Unseemliness Of State Racial Classification, Jay Alan Sekulow, Walter M. Weber Jun 2016

Fisher V. University Of Texas At Austin: The Incoherence And Unseemliness Of State Racial Classification, Jay Alan Sekulow, Walter M. Weber

University of Miami Business Law Review

No abstract provided.


More Than Just The Numbers: Fisher V. Texas And The Practical Impact Of Texas’S Top Ten Percent Law, Shakira D. Pleasant Jun 2016

More Than Just The Numbers: Fisher V. Texas And The Practical Impact Of Texas’S Top Ten Percent Law, Shakira D. Pleasant

University of Miami Business Law Review

No abstract provided.


Sexualization, Sex Discrimination, And Public School Dress Codes, Meredith Johnson Harbach Mar 2016

Sexualization, Sex Discrimination, And Public School Dress Codes, Meredith Johnson Harbach

University of Richmond Law Review

This essay joins the conversation about sexualization, sex discrimination, and public school dress codes to situate current debates within in the broader cultural and legal landscapes in which they exist. My aim is not to answer definitively the questions I pose above. Rather, I ground the controversy in these broader contexts in order to better understand the stakes and to glean insights into how schools, students, and communities might better navigate dress code debates.


A Current Perspective: The Erosion Of Affirmative Action In University Admissions, Corinne E. Anderson Jul 2015

A Current Perspective: The Erosion Of Affirmative Action In University Admissions, Corinne E. Anderson

Akron Law Review

This comment examines the recent trend towards anti-affirmative action in the context of university admissions policies. First, the comment will trace some of the formative history of affirmative action, including the Bakke decision. It will then review and analyze specific judicial and legislative events which suggest a trend towards anti-affirmative action. Finally, the comment will explore the different rationales for affirmative action and suggest some alternatives to racial preferences in admissions policies.


Title Ix And Social Media: Going Beyond The Law, Emily Suran Oct 2014

Title Ix And Social Media: Going Beyond The Law, Emily Suran

Michigan Journal of Gender & Law

The U.S. Department of Education is currently investigating over eighty colleges and universities for civil rights violations under Title IX. From a punitive standpoint, these investigations likely will have minimal impact. Indeed, since the Alexander v. Yale plaintiffs first conceived of Title IX in a sexual harassment context, the nondiscriminatory principles of Title IX have proven disappointingly difficult to enforce. However, in today’s world of grassroots social activism, Title IX has taken on a new, extralegal import. Title IX has become a rallying cry for college activists and survivors. Despite (or perhaps because of) its limitations as a ...


Intra-Group Diversity In Education: What If Abigail Fisher Were An Immigrant . . ., Dagmar Rita Myslinska Sep 2014

Intra-Group Diversity In Education: What If Abigail Fisher Were An Immigrant . . ., Dagmar Rita Myslinska

Pace Law Review

In Part I, this Article briefly describes some aspects of white immigrants’ educational experience (including extracurricular involvement and parental roles), exposing how it reflects immigrants’ lack of access to the cultural capital of native-born whites. The Article exposes some unique challenges faced by Caucasian immigrants in high school, during the college application process, and in taking advantage of college opportunities that amplify social benefits. These experiences are contrasted with those of American-born students who benefit from their families’ access to social capital that enables them to take advantage of its replication in college.

Part II addresses how some of the ...


The Role Of The Judiciary In The European Union's (De)Segregation Of Roma Students, Lindsey M. Green Sep 2014

The Role Of The Judiciary In The European Union's (De)Segregation Of Roma Students, Lindsey M. Green

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


The Quixtoic Search For Race-Neutral Alternatives, Michael E. Rosman Jul 2014

The Quixtoic Search For Race-Neutral Alternatives, Michael E. Rosman

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

The Supreme Court has stated that the narrow-tailoring inquiry of the Equal Protection Clause’s strict scrutiny analysis of racially disparate treatment by state actors requires courts to consider whether the defendant seriously considered race-neutral alternatives before adopting the race-conscious program at issue. This article briefly examines what that means in the context of race-conscious admissions programs at colleges and universities. Part I sets forth the basic concepts that the Supreme Court uses to analyze race-conscious decision-making by governmental actors and describes the role of “race-neutral alternatives” in that scheme. Part II examines the nature of “race-neutral alternatives” and identifies ...


Fisher V. Texas: The Limits Of Exhaustion And The Future Of Race-Conscious University Admissions, John A. Powell, Stephen Menendian Jul 2014

Fisher V. Texas: The Limits Of Exhaustion And The Future Of Race-Conscious University Admissions, John A. Powell, Stephen Menendian

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Article investigates the potential ramifications of Fisher v. Texas and the future of race-conscious university admissions. Although one cannot predict the ultimate significance of the Fisher decision, its brief and pregnant statements of law portends an increasingly perilous course for traditional affirmative action programs. Part I explores the opinions filed in Fisher, with a particular emphasis on Justice Kennedy’s opinion on behalf of the Court. We focus on the ways in which the Fisher decision departs from precedent, proscribes new limits on the use of race in university admissions, and tightens requirements for narrow tailoring. Part II investigates ...


All For One, And One For All-Comers! University Nondiscrimination Policies In Light Of Hosanna-Tabor And The Ministerial Exception, Zach Tafoya Jan 2014

All For One, And One For All-Comers! University Nondiscrimination Policies In Light Of Hosanna-Tabor And The Ministerial Exception, Zach Tafoya

Pepperdine Law Review

In light of the more recent Hosanna-Tabor decision, this Comment seeks to answer these questions by extending the reasoning behind the ministerial exception to the university context in order to build a foundation upon which a future exception can be built to ensure that religious student groups are sufficiently free to choose their own leaders. Part II sets forth a brief history of the ministerial exception and its application in the circuit courts. Part III addresses two recent Supreme Court cases, Martinez and Hosanna-Tabor, and their practical effect on religious liberty, as well as the public’s perception of both ...


Thinking Hard About 'Race-Neutral' Admissions, Richard H. Sander, Aaron Danielson Jan 2014

Thinking Hard About 'Race-Neutral' Admissions, Richard H. Sander, Aaron Danielson

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Our exploration is organized as follows. In Part I, we sympathetically consider the very difficult dilemmas facing higher education leaders. Understanding the often irreconcilable pressures that constrain university administrators is essential if we are to envision the plausible policies they might undertake. In Part II, we draw on a range of data to illustrate some of the “properties” of admissions systems and, in particular, the ways in which race, SES, and academic preparation interact dynamically both within individual schools and across the educational spectrum. Partly because the questions we examine here have been so little studied, ideal data does not ...