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Education Law

2021

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Full-Text Articles in Law

Taxing The Ivory Tower: Evaluating The Excise Tax On University Endowments, Jennifer Bird-Pollan Sep 2021

Taxing The Ivory Tower: Evaluating The Excise Tax On University Endowments, Jennifer Bird-Pollan

Pepperdine Law Review

The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 introduced the first-ever excise tax imposed on the investment income of university endowments. While it is a relatively small tax, this new law is a first step towards the exploration of taxing non-profit entities on the vast sums of wealth they hold in their endowments. In this essay I take the new tax as a starting place for investigating the justification for tax exemption for universities and thinking through the consequences of changing our approach, both in the form of the new excise tax and possible alternatives. There remain reasons to be ...


Intent, Inequality, And The Berlin Walls Of The Mind, Bobby L. Dexter Sep 2021

Intent, Inequality, And The Berlin Walls Of The Mind, Bobby L. Dexter

Pepperdine Law Review

Although acknowledging that various provisions in the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017 appear responsive to normative arguments presented in tax literature, this article posits that, true to its core intent, the law aggressively advanced the persistent effort to shift the tax burden away from the nation’s wealthiest citizens to the great bulk of taxpayers of more modest financial means. Thus, those with political power successfully employed the tax law to protect, preserve, and enhance prevailing wealth and income inequality. With the election of President Joe Biden and the assumption of Democratic control in both chambers of Congress ...


It's Alright, Ma, It's Life And Life Only: Have Universities Been Meeting Their Legal Obligations To High-Risk Faculty During The Pandemic?, Gary J. Simson, Mark L. Jones, Cathren K. Page, Suzianne D. Painter-Thorne Aug 2021

It's Alright, Ma, It's Life And Life Only: Have Universities Been Meeting Their Legal Obligations To High-Risk Faculty During The Pandemic?, Gary J. Simson, Mark L. Jones, Cathren K. Page, Suzianne D. Painter-Thorne

Pepperdine Law Review

Even those universities most firmly committed to returning to in-person instruction in fall semester 2020 recognized that for health reasons some exceptions would need to be made. The CDC had identified two groups—people age sixty-five and over and people with certain medical conditions—as persons "at increased risk of severe illness from COVID-19," and it had spelled out various special precautions they should take to avoid contracting the virus. Given the CDC's unique stature, universities very reasonably could have been expected to grant exceptions to faculty falling into either group, but that's not what many universities did ...


Homeward Bound: The Current Rise Of Homeschooling And The Need For Regulation, Mary Fletcher Aug 2021

Homeward Bound: The Current Rise Of Homeschooling And The Need For Regulation, Mary Fletcher

SLU Law Journal Online

With the rise of the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of American homeschoolers has drastically increased. While all fifty states have passed legislation allowing for homeschooling, regulations of homeschooling vary from state-to-state, with some states having virtually no regulation at all. In this essay, Mary Fletcher examines homeschooling laws and discusses the need for consistent federal regulation to ensure that homeschooled students receive an adequate education.


How The Shift To Pass/Fail Grading In Law School Affects Student Learning, Delara Jamshidi Aug 2021

How The Shift To Pass/Fail Grading In Law School Affects Student Learning, Delara Jamshidi

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

In the Spring of 2020, law schools across North America rapidly shifted to pass/fail grading in response to the COVID-19 global pandemic. To help answer what the impact of this shift was on student learning, we analyzed a large dataset of approximately 2,000 survey responses from faculty and students. We tested two hypotheses, our findings were consistent with the hypothesis that learning outcomes improved under a pass/fail grading system. Many students talked about how the shift helped them learn in a deep and meaningful way.


“Meyoru-Т-Tadoyyun” As Religious And Moral Source, Naimov Ismat Aug 2021

“Meyoru-Т-Tadoyyun” As Religious And Moral Source, Naimov Ismat

The Light of Islam

In the second half of the 19th century, marked by intensive scientific researches, the educator and encyclopedist Ahmad Donish left behind a rich scientific legacy, particularly his work Me’yoru-t-tadoyun, which to this day remains poorly studied. Even though the name of this work is known to the scientific community, few people are still familiar with its content. The article analyzes the religious and moral factors that caused the creation of the work Me’yoru-t-tadoyun, the recommendations of Ahmad Donish regarding the coverage of the history of world religions, and the rights of representatives of different religions to consider their ...


'Divisive Concepts' Law And The Big Chill, John M. Greabe Aug 2021

'Divisive Concepts' Law And The Big Chill, John M. Greabe

Law Faculty Scholarship

[Excerpt] "Much Critical commentary concerning the so-called "divisive concepts" provisions in this year's budget legislation has focused on their restrictions on speech. These restrictions, among other things, forbid public K-12 teachers from instructing that some persons are "inherently superior or inferior to [others]", "inherently racist or sexist," "should be discriminated against," or "should not attempt to treat others equally" because of their "age, sex gender identity, sexual orientation, race, creed, color, marital status, mental or physical disability, religion, or national origin."


New Hampshire's 'Divisive Concepts' Law And The Big Chill, John M. Greabe Aug 2021

New Hampshire's 'Divisive Concepts' Law And The Big Chill, John M. Greabe

Law Faculty Scholarship

[Excerpt] "

Much critical commentary on the so-called “divisive concepts” provisions in this year’s budget legislation – the label comes from language in an earlier version of the bill – has focused on their content- and viewpoint-based restraints on speech. These speech restrictions prohibit state public employers, including public K-12 school teachers, from (among other things) instructing that persons are “inherently superior or inferior to [others]” “inherently racist or sexist,” “should be discriminated against,” or “should not attempt to treat others equally” because of their “age, sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, race, creed, color, marital status, familial status, mental or physical disability ...


School Police Reform: A Public Health Imperative, Thalia González, Emma Kaeser Aug 2021

School Police Reform: A Public Health Imperative, Thalia González, Emma Kaeser

SMU Law Review Forum

Out of the twin pandemics currently gripping the United States­—deaths of unarmed Black victims at the hands of police and racialized health inequities resulting from COVID-19—an antiracist health equity agenda has emerged that identifies racism as a public health crisis. Likewise, calls for reform of school policing by those advocating for civil rights, racial justice, and Black Lives Matter have simultaneously intensified. Yet each remains siloed, despite the natural connection and implicit overlap between these separate movements and debates. Indeed, there are documented negative health effects of school policing for Black, Indigenous, people of color (BIPOC) youth. But ...


A Case Against School Choice: Carson Ex Rel. O.C. V. Makin And The Future Of Maine's Nonsectarian Requirement, Blake E. Mccartney Jul 2021

A Case Against School Choice: Carson Ex Rel. O.C. V. Makin And The Future Of Maine's Nonsectarian Requirement, Blake E. Mccartney

Maine Law Review

School choice advocates, such as the nonprofit libertarian law firm, The Institute for Justice, have spent decades arguing that states violate the Free Exercise Clause when they exclude private religious schools from public programs that otherwise provide public dollars to non-religious private schools. Recently, in Espinoza v. Montana Department of Revenue, the Supreme Court effectively agreed with that sentiment. After this victory, the Institute for Justice returned to the state of Maine to represent three sets of parents in a renewed effort to defeat Maine’s nonsectarian requirement in federal court. Maine’s nonsectarian requirement provides that private religious schools ...


Children Of The Government: Affording A Higher Education A Review Of The State Of Pennsylvania’S Recently Implemented Law That Grants Children Who “Age Out” Of The Foster Care Tuition And Fee Waivers At Every University In The State, Erin K. Cooper Jul 2021

Children Of The Government: Affording A Higher Education A Review Of The State Of Pennsylvania’S Recently Implemented Law That Grants Children Who “Age Out” Of The Foster Care Tuition And Fee Waivers At Every University In The State, Erin K. Cooper

Helms School of Government Undergraduate Law Review

No abstract provided.


A Miser’S Rule Of Reason: Student Athlete Compensation And The Alston Antitrust Case, Herbert J. Hovenkamp Jul 2021

A Miser’S Rule Of Reason: Student Athlete Compensation And The Alston Antitrust Case, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The unanimous Supreme Court decision in NCAA v. Alston is its most important probe of antitrust’s rule of reason in decades. The decision implicates several issues, including the role of antitrust in labor markets, how antitrust applies to institutions that have an educational mission as well as involvement in a large commercial enterprise, and how much leeway district courts should have in creating decrees that contemplate ongoing administration.

The Court accepted what has come to be the accepted framework: the plaintiff must make out a prima facie case of competitive harm. Then the burden shifts to the defendant to ...


Brief For American Indian Law Scholars As Amicus Curiae, Stephen C., Et Al V. Bureau Of Indian Education, Et Al.,, Barbara L. Creel, Tierra N. Marks, Randolph H. Barnhouse Jul 2021

Brief For American Indian Law Scholars As Amicus Curiae, Stephen C., Et Al V. Bureau Of Indian Education, Et Al.,, Barbara L. Creel, Tierra N. Marks, Randolph H. Barnhouse

Faculty Scholarship

Indian Civil Rights/Education Lawsuit

View this and other court documents at Turtle Talk.

Congress’s declared federal policy is “to fulfill the Federal Government’s unique and continuing trust relationship with and responsibility to the Indian people for the education of Indian children.” 25 U.S.C. § 2000. This federal policy is the touchstone of the federal government’s trust obligation to Indian families and their children. When the BIA (through the BIE) fails to protect the rights of Indian children to “educational opportunities that equal or exceed those for all other students in the United States,” courts have ...


Eyes Wide Shut: Using Accreditation Regulation To Address The “Pass-The-Harasser” Problem In Higher Education, Susan Saab Fortney, Theresa Morris Jul 2021

Eyes Wide Shut: Using Accreditation Regulation To Address The “Pass-The-Harasser” Problem In Higher Education, Susan Saab Fortney, Theresa Morris

Faculty Scholarship

The #MeToo Movement cast a spotlight on sexual harassment in various sectors, including higher education. Studies reveal alarming percentages of students reporting that they have been sexually harassed by faculty and administrators. Despite annually devoting hundreds of millions of dollars to addressing sexual harassment and misconduct, nationwide university officials largely take an ostrich approach when hiring faculty and administrators with little or no scrutiny related to their past misconduct. Critics use the term “pass the harasser” or more pejoratively, “pass the trash” to capture the role that institutions play in allowing individuals to change institutions without the new employer learning ...


A Q&A With Homeschooling Reform Advocates Elizabeth Bartholet And James Dwyer, Elizabeth Bartholet, James Dwyer Jun 2021

A Q&A With Homeschooling Reform Advocates Elizabeth Bartholet And James Dwyer, Elizabeth Bartholet, James Dwyer

Popular Media

Elizabeth Bartholet, Morris Wasserstein Public Interest Professor and Faculty Director of the Child Advocacy Program (CAP), and James Dwyer, the Arthur B. Hanson Professor of Law at William & Mary Law School, were interviewed by Harvard Law Today about their virtual conference titled, Homeschool Summit: Problems, Politics, and Prospects for Reform. The June event was attended by leaders in education and child welfare policy, legislators and legislative staff, academics and policy advocates, medical professionals, homeschooling alumni, and others, to discuss children’s rights in connection with homeschooling in the United States.


The Elementary And Secondary Education Act (Esea) And Its Reauthorization As The Improving America’S Schools Act (Iasa) With Its Impact On Funding, Education Policy, And Supporting The Change For Improvement Of Student Achievement, Kaylee Latocha Jun 2021

The Elementary And Secondary Education Act (Esea) And Its Reauthorization As The Improving America’S Schools Act (Iasa) With Its Impact On Funding, Education Policy, And Supporting The Change For Improvement Of Student Achievement, Kaylee Latocha

University Honors Theses

A comparison of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965 and the Improving America’s Schools Act (IASA) of 1994 within the time period they were written in, and contextualizing them historically to discuss their failures and successes.. This thesis will examine how they were shaped on a national level by politicians and political activists to create a more equitable system so that funding was beneficial to all students. Education policy formed itself to funding and student achievement as achievement was what determined funding.


Higher Education For All Law Enforcement Officers, Johana A. Constantino Madrigal Jun 2021

Higher Education For All Law Enforcement Officers, Johana A. Constantino Madrigal

University Honors Theses

In this brief prospectus, the focus is on the many arguments for why it should be a requirement for all law enforcement officers to have a higher education background. Given light to recent events, the importance for more highly trained and educated officers has become more dire as people call for justice in an attempt to right the wrongs that have been done. The articles found all address the manner in which higher education can help with better judgement calls, analyze and respond to situations better, and the overall perception officers have, who have a form of higher education, on ...


Catalytic Courts And Enforcement Of Constitutional Education Funding Provisions, Hugh Spitzer, Andy Omara Jun 2021

Catalytic Courts And Enforcement Of Constitutional Education Funding Provisions, Hugh Spitzer, Andy Omara

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

It is well-recognized that it is easier for judges to enforce constitutional “negative rights” provisions than positive social and economic rights. This article focuses on the challenges of enforcing one specific positive right: the constitutional right of children to attend adequately funded schools. Our article tests on-the-ground judicial implementation of education funding provisions against the general theoretical framework of judicial interaction with the political branches developed by Katharine Young. We analyze how, in multi-year, multi-decision litigation, constitutional court judges in the three jurisdictions we studied actively experimented with the challenging task of forcing, or enticing, reluctant legislative and executive branches ...


Modernizing Discrimination Law: The Adoption Of An Intersectional Lens, Marisa K. Sanchez Jun 2021

Modernizing Discrimination Law: The Adoption Of An Intersectional Lens, Marisa K. Sanchez

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

Abstract forthcoming.


House Bill 3: An Iou Texas Public Schools And Communities Of Color Cannot Afford, Candace L. Castillo Jun 2021

House Bill 3: An Iou Texas Public Schools And Communities Of Color Cannot Afford, Candace L. Castillo

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

Abstract forthcoming.


Schoolbooks And Shackles: The Undue Hardship Standard And Treatment Of Student Debt At Bankruptcy, Matthew S. Farina May 2021

Schoolbooks And Shackles: The Undue Hardship Standard And Treatment Of Student Debt At Bankruptcy, Matthew S. Farina

Boston College Law Review

Individual debtors who file for Chapter 7 bankruptcy can discharge most of their pre-petition debts and emerge from bankruptcy with a financial “fresh start.” Student loan debt is one of the few exceptions to this general policy. Congress created the student loan discharge exception, 11 U.S.C. § 523(a)(8), to prevent student debtors from abusing the bankruptcy system. Specifically, Congress sought to prevent students who graduated from higher education programs from discharging their debts at bankruptcy, and then beginning lucrative careers. Congress, however, included an important carve-out to this exception for debtors whose loans impose an “undue hardship ...


Exploring Tactile Art-Making With Deafblind Students And Their Families: An Opportunity For Creative Play, Alice Rodgers May 2021

Exploring Tactile Art-Making With Deafblind Students And Their Families: An Opportunity For Creative Play, Alice Rodgers

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

The impact of a deafblind diagnosis on an individual’s mental health and the well-being of the family involved can be profound. However, current research and available literature for the mental health treatment and therapy practices of deafblind persons and their families is limited (Kyzar et al., 2016; “WFDB Global Report 2018,” n.d.). This thesis used the Leeds Family Psychology and Therapy Service principles (Leeds FPTS) and the Expressive Therapies Continuum with established deafblind teaching strategies to facilitate an original arts-based community project entitled: “Things We Like.” This project provided an opportunity for deafblind students (ages three to 22 ...


2-4-6-8 Who Do We Appreciate? The Third Circuit Scores A Touchdown For Student-Athlete Free Speech Rights, Nicolas Burnosky May 2021

2-4-6-8 Who Do We Appreciate? The Third Circuit Scores A Touchdown For Student-Athlete Free Speech Rights, Nicolas Burnosky

Jeffrey S. Moorad Sports Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Comparative Education Understanding Why The United States Underperforms In International Test Scores: Learning From China, Japan, Canada, And The United Kingdom, Mama Aye-Addo May 2021

Comparative Education Understanding Why The United States Underperforms In International Test Scores: Learning From China, Japan, Canada, And The United Kingdom, Mama Aye-Addo

Symposium of Student Scholars

The United States has slow but surely fallen in their standing in global education. Education affects everything from economic standing to innovation for the future and thus the decline in educational standing presents a problem for the U.S. This research uses the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development’s Programme for International Student Assessment as a baseline for where countries place relative to the United States. The study then uses Canada and England to represent nations with ideologies and economies most similar to the United States as well as China and Japan to represent countries that differ. Each nation ...


Technology As A Tool For Support: Classroom Teachers And Resource Specialists In Collaboration And Communication Practices, Mackenzie Jones May 2021

Technology As A Tool For Support: Classroom Teachers And Resource Specialists In Collaboration And Communication Practices, Mackenzie Jones

Master of Science in Education | Master's Theses

Classroom teachers and resource specialists face hectic schedules that include supporting students and meeting the core curriculum standards. In order to support students with disabilities in the classroom, collaboration between classroom teachers and resource specialists is essential. With busy schedules and increasing demands that teachers face, there is an urgent need to support teachers with effective systems of collaboration. This research focuses on the problem of unorganized and ineffective systems of support, which teachers face when trying to collaborate and communicate with their colleagues. While many prior studies address the significance of providing time for educators to collaborate in the ...


Deliberate Indifference: An Exploration Of The Student Survivor Activism Group Movement, Shyla Kallhoff May 2021

Deliberate Indifference: An Exploration Of The Student Survivor Activism Group Movement, Shyla Kallhoff

Educational Administration: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

#MeToo. It’s On Us. End Rape on Campus. #BeTheSwede. Dear UNL. These phrases have united people all over the world to use their voices and speak out about sexual violence. In higher education, these statements empower students to make their voices heard, and simultaneously invoke fear in campus administrators who do not want to be held accountable for the mishandling/lack of Title IX cases. Student survivor activism groups, the subject of this study, have formed at universities around the country and often use similar statements to advocate for changes they feel need to happen. Finding no previous research ...


Determining The Constitutionality Of Public Aid To Parochial Schools After Espinoza, Anna Bryner May 2021

Determining The Constitutionality Of Public Aid To Parochial Schools After Espinoza, Anna Bryner

Sigma: Journal of Political and International Studies

No abstract provided.


Sb 206: The Beginning Of The End For Athletic Exploitation, Rachel Rosenblum May 2021

Sb 206: The Beginning Of The End For Athletic Exploitation, Rachel Rosenblum

Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review

No abstract provided.


Campus Free Speech In The Mirror Of Rising Anti-Semitism, Harry G. Hutchison May 2021

Campus Free Speech In The Mirror Of Rising Anti-Semitism, Harry G. Hutchison

St. Mary's Law Journal

Abstract forthcoming.


Special Solicitude: Religious Freedom At America’S Public Universities, William E. Thro Apr 2021

Special Solicitude: Religious Freedom At America’S Public Universities, William E. Thro

Office of Legal Counsel Staff Publications

Rejecting the Obama Administration’s argument that the First Amendment requires identical treatment for religious organizations and secular organizations, the Supreme Court held such a “result is hard to square with the text of the First Amendment itself, which gives special solicitude to the rights of religious organizations.” (Hosanna-Tabor, 565 U.S. at 189). This “special solicitude” guarantees religious freedom from the government in all aspects of society, but particularly on public university campuses. At a minimum, religious expression and religious organizations must have equal rights with secular expression and secular organizations. In some instances, religious expression and religious expression ...