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Dispute Resolution and Arbitration

Labor arbitration

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Full-Text Articles in Law

What The Awards Tell Us About Labor Arbitration Of Employment Discrimination Claims, Ariana R. Levinson Jun 2019

What The Awards Tell Us About Labor Arbitration Of Employment Discrimination Claims, Ariana R. Levinson

Ariana R. Levinson

This Article contributes to the debate over mandatory arbitration of employment-discrimination claims in the unionized sector. In light of the proposed prohibition on union waivers in the Arbitration Fairness Act, this debate has significant practical implications. Fundamentally, the Article is about access to justice. It examines 160 labor arbitration opinions and awards in employment-discrimination cases. The author concludes that labor arbitration is a forum in which employment-discrimination claims can be-and, in some cases, are-successfully resolved. Based upon close examination of the opinions and awards, the Article recommends legislative improvements in certain cases targeting statutes of limitations, compulsory process, remedies, class ...


Clear Statement Rules And The Integrity Of Labor Arbitration, Stephen Ross, Roy Eisenhardt Apr 2018

Clear Statement Rules And The Integrity Of Labor Arbitration, Stephen Ross, Roy Eisenhardt

Arbitration Law Review

Under the common law, employment contracts are submitted to civil courts to resolve disputes over interpretation, breach, and remedies. As an alternative, parties in collective bargaining agreements, can agree to dispute resolution by an independent arbitrator, whose decision is reviewed deferentially by judges. Where employees or members of an association are governed by its internal rules, in contrast, they often agree contractually to submit internal disputes to an association officer or committee. In this circumstance, the common law governing private associations affords judicial review that is more limited than a civil dispute, but more searching than is the case for ...


The Eternal Debate On External Law In Labor Arbitration: Where We Stand Five Decades After Meltzer V. Howlett, Philip Baldwin Sep 2017

The Eternal Debate On External Law In Labor Arbitration: Where We Stand Five Decades After Meltzer V. Howlett, Philip Baldwin

Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal

This article details the oft-debated issue of how labor arbitrators should reconcile collective bargaining agreements (CBAs) with public sources of law, i.e., “external law,” particularly when the plain meaning of a CBA would lead to an arbitration award in contravention of public law. This article traces the origin of the debate back to 1967, when renowned labor arbitrators Robert Howlett and Bernard Meltzer took opposing views on the matter in front of the National Academy of Arbitrators. Although Meltzer’s traditional view, that arbitrators should respect the CBA and ignore the law when the two diverge, may have been ...


The Future Of Class Action Waivers In Employment Agreements: Lewis Creates A Framework For The United States Supreme Court, Meghan Gonyea Aug 2017

The Future Of Class Action Waivers In Employment Agreements: Lewis Creates A Framework For The United States Supreme Court, Meghan Gonyea

Arbitration Law Review

No abstract provided.


Sexual Harassment And Labor Arbitration, Susan A. Fitzgibbon Nov 2014

Sexual Harassment And Labor Arbitration, Susan A. Fitzgibbon

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


What The Awards Tell Us About Labor Arbitration Of Employment Discrimination Claims, Ariana R. Levinson Apr 2013

What The Awards Tell Us About Labor Arbitration Of Employment Discrimination Claims, Ariana R. Levinson

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

This Article contributes to the debate over mandatory arbitration of employment-discrimination claims in the unionized sector. In light of the proposed prohibition on union waivers in the Arbitration Fairness Act, this debate has significant practical implications. Fundamentally, the Article is about access to justice. It examines 160 labor arbitration opinions and awards in employment-discrimination cases. The author concludes that labor arbitration is a forum in which employment-discrimination claims can be-and, in some cases, are-successfully resolved. Based upon close examination of the opinions and awards, the Article recommends legislative improvements in certain cases targeting statutes of limitations, compulsory process, remedies, class ...


Contracting Employment Disputes Out Of The Jury System: An Analysis Of The Implementation Of Binding Arbitration In The Non-Union Workplace And Proposals To Reduce The Harsh Effects Of A Non-Appealable Award, Michele M. Buse Nov 2012

Contracting Employment Disputes Out Of The Jury System: An Analysis Of The Implementation Of Binding Arbitration In The Non-Union Workplace And Proposals To Reduce The Harsh Effects Of A Non-Appealable Award, Michele M. Buse

Pepperdine Law Review

No abstract provided.


Compulsory Employment Arbitration And The Eeoc, Richard A. Bales Oct 2012

Compulsory Employment Arbitration And The Eeoc, Richard A. Bales

Pepperdine Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Private Enforcement Of Public Laws In Armendariz V. Foundation Health Psychcare Services, Jennifer Lafond May 2012

The Private Enforcement Of Public Laws In Armendariz V. Foundation Health Psychcare Services, Jennifer Lafond

Pepperdine Law Review

No abstract provided.


Class-Less? An Analysis Of The California Supreme Court's Denial Of Employers' Right To Use Class Arbitration Waivers In Employment Agreements In Gentry V. Superior Court, Michael B. Cooper Jan 2012

Class-Less? An Analysis Of The California Supreme Court's Denial Of Employers' Right To Use Class Arbitration Waivers In Employment Agreements In Gentry V. Superior Court, Michael B. Cooper

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

No abstract provided.


The Arbitration Fairness Act: It Need Not And Should Not Be An All Or Nothing Proposition, Martin H. Malin Jan 2012

The Arbitration Fairness Act: It Need Not And Should Not Be An All Or Nothing Proposition, Martin H. Malin

Indiana Law Journal

Labor and Employment Law Under the Obama Administration: A Time for Hope and Change? Symposium held November 12-13, 2010, Indiana University Maurer School of Law, Bloomington, Indiana.


Employment Arbitration 2011: A Realist View, Laura J. Cooper Jan 2012

Employment Arbitration 2011: A Realist View, Laura J. Cooper

Indiana Law Journal

Labor and Employment Law Under the Obama Administration: A Time for Hope and Change? Symposium held November 12-13, 2010, Indiana University Maurer School of Law, Bloomington, Indiana.


Reading Ricci And Pyett To Provide Racial Justice Through Union Arbitration, Michael Z. Green Jan 2012

Reading Ricci And Pyett To Provide Racial Justice Through Union Arbitration, Michael Z. Green

Indiana Law Journal

Labor and Employment Law Under the Obama Administration: A Time for Hope and Change? Symposium held November 12-13, 2010, Indiana University Maurer School of Law, Bloomington, Indiana


Holistic Strategy For Coming To Grips With The Creeping Legalism Of Labor Arbitration, A, Stephen L. Hayford Jan 2010

Holistic Strategy For Coming To Grips With The Creeping Legalism Of Labor Arbitration, A, Stephen L. Hayford

Journal of Dispute Resolution

The commentary that follows is a call to advocates to take back responsibility for settling the disputes that arise during the life of the collective bargaining agreement by becoming more adept negotiators, able and willing to find and engage the truth and unafraid to lead and make difficult decisions. Only then will the legal machinations and contortions that increasingly plague labor arbitration be rendered unnecessary in most circumstances. I assert that the "creeping legalism" of labor arbitration is a symptom of the too-frequent failure of the contractual grievance procedure to resolve difficult disputes. The conundrum that phenomenon presents can be ...


Fallout From 14 Penn Plaza V. Pyett: Fractured Arbitration Systems In The Unionized Workplace, Ann C. Hodges Jan 2010

Fallout From 14 Penn Plaza V. Pyett: Fractured Arbitration Systems In The Unionized Workplace, Ann C. Hodges

Law Faculty Publications

First, the article will review the history of arbitration of statutory employment claims, including the Pyett decision. Second, the article will look at the history and causes of legalism in arbitration. Then the article will consider the probable responses of employers and unions to Pyett. While predictions are necessarily speculative, it is likely that some unionized employers will seek to require employees to arbitrate statutory claims, perhaps in higher percentages than in the nonunion workplace. While unions may, and perhaps should, resist, many future collective bargaining agreements (CBAs) may contain such provisions. The article then discusses the alternative dispute resolution ...


Mandatory Arbitration: Why It's Better Than It Looks, Theodore J. St. Antoine Jan 2008

Mandatory Arbitration: Why It's Better Than It Looks, Theodore J. St. Antoine

Articles

"Mandatory arbitration" as used here means that employees must agree as a condition of employment to arbitrate all legal disputes with their employer, including statutory claims, rather than take them to court. The Supreme Court has upheld the validity of such agreements on the grounds that they merely provide for a change of forum and not a loss of substantive rights. Opponents contend this wrongfully deprives employees of the right to a jury trial and other statutory procedural benefits. Various empirical studies indicate, however, that employees similarly situated do about as well in arbitration as in court actions, or even ...


Vacatur Of Labor Arbitration Awards: Watering Down The Supreme Court's Drawn From The Essence Precedent May Sound The Death Knell For Labor Arbitration , Jonathan R. Waldron Jul 2005

Vacatur Of Labor Arbitration Awards: Watering Down The Supreme Court's Drawn From The Essence Precedent May Sound The Death Knell For Labor Arbitration , Jonathan R. Waldron

Journal of Dispute Resolution

In CITGO Asphalt Ref. Co. v. Paper, Allied-Indus., Chem., & Energy Workers Int'l Union Local No. 2-991, the Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit, while merely giving lip service to Supreme Court precedent, further contributes to the situation where many circuit courts insidiously refuse to follow the Supreme Court's prohibition against reaching the merits of a labor arbitrator's award. It would appear that only through renewed Supreme Court vigilance and clarity can this trend be impeded.


Can Compulsory Arbitration Be Reconciled With Section 7 Rights?, Ann C. Hodges Jan 2003

Can Compulsory Arbitration Be Reconciled With Section 7 Rights?, Ann C. Hodges

Law Faculty Publications

Employers are increasingly imposing arbitration agreements on their employees as a condition of employment. These agreements force the employees to arbitrate, rather than litigate, any legal claims arising out of their employment. For employees covered by the National Labor Relations Act, such agreements may impair their rights to engage in concerted activity, since litigation of employment claims is protected by Section 7. Employee rights to file class actions, consolidate claims, and seek broad injunctive relief are concerted actions that are particularly threatened by the move to compelled arbitration. The Article analyzes the impact of arbitration agreements on various forms of ...


Out Of The Frying Pan, Into The Fire: The Feasibility Of Post-Dispute Employment Arbitration Agreements, Lewis L. Maltby Jan 2003

Out Of The Frying Pan, Into The Fire: The Feasibility Of Post-Dispute Employment Arbitration Agreements, Lewis L. Maltby

William Mitchell Law Review

Changing the law to enforce only post-dispute agreements to arbitrate will not solve the problems of arbitration as a condition of employment. This change would leave the majority of employees who need arbitration in order to obtain justice empty handed, which is a situation far worse than the one employees face today. Rather than change from one unacceptable option to another, models for voluntary pre-dispute arbitration agreements need to be further developed.


Self-Determination In Dispute System Design And Employment Arbitration, Lisa B. Bingham Jul 2002

Self-Determination In Dispute System Design And Employment Arbitration, Lisa B. Bingham

University of Miami Law Review

No abstract provided.


In Light Of Circuit City Stores, Inc. V. Adams, What Is The Fate Of Employment Law? Does An Analysis Of Consumer Law Shed Light On The Future Of Employer/Employee Relations?, Jaime Ellen Sopher Jul 2002

In Light Of Circuit City Stores, Inc. V. Adams, What Is The Fate Of Employment Law? Does An Analysis Of Consumer Law Shed Light On The Future Of Employer/Employee Relations?, Jaime Ellen Sopher

University of Miami Law Review

No abstract provided.


Retaining Bargained-For Finality And Judicial Review In Labor Arbitration Decisions: Dual Interests Preserved In Major League Baseball Players Association V. Garvey - Major League Baseball Players Assn. V. Garvey, Emily J. Huitsing Jul 2002

Retaining Bargained-For Finality And Judicial Review In Labor Arbitration Decisions: Dual Interests Preserved In Major League Baseball Players Association V. Garvey - Major League Baseball Players Assn. V. Garvey, Emily J. Huitsing

Journal of Dispute Resolution

Arbitration has for years been the principal means of labor dispute resolution. As a part of labor contracts, workers agree to arbitrate disputes with their employers, bargaining for this forum as their choice method of dispute resolution. Occasionally, however, the decision of an arbitrator strays far from what a court believes the outcome of the dispute between employer and employee should be. In these cases, a conflict arises between the finality and stability of the bargained-for arbitrator's decision and the need for judicial upset of clearly errant arbitral decisions


The Changing Role Of Labor Arbitration (Symposium: New Rules For A New Game: Regulating Employment Relationships In The 21st Century), Theodore J. St. Antoine Jan 2001

The Changing Role Of Labor Arbitration (Symposium: New Rules For A New Game: Regulating Employment Relationships In The 21st Century), Theodore J. St. Antoine

Articles

A quarter century ago, in a provocative and prophetic article, David E. Feller lamented the imminent close of what he described as labor arbitration's "golden age." I have expressed reservations about that characterization, insofar as it suggested an impending shrinkage in the stature of arbitration. But Professor Feller was right on target in one important respect. Labor arbitration was going to change dramatically from the autonomous institution in the relatively self-contained world of union-management relations which it had been from the end of World War II into the 1970s. When the subject matter was largely confined to union-employer agreements ...


Gilmer In The Collective Bargaining Context, Theodore J. St. Antoine Jan 2001

Gilmer In The Collective Bargaining Context, Theodore J. St. Antoine

Articles

Can a privately negotiated arbitration agreement deprive employees of the statutory right to sue in court on claims of discrimination in employment because of race, sex, religion, age, disability, and similar grounds prohibited by federal law? Two leading U.S. Supreme Court decisions, decided almost two decades apart, reached substantially different answers to this questionand arguably stood logic on its head in the process. In the earlier case of Alexander v. Gardner-Denver Co., involving arbitration under a collective bargaining agreement, the Court held an adverse award did not preclude a subsequent federal court action by the black grievant alleging racial ...


Arbitration And Judicial Review, Theodore J. St. Antoine Jan 2000

Arbitration And Judicial Review, Theodore J. St. Antoine

Other Publications

A quarter century ago, in a presentation at the Academy's annual meeting, I used the phrase "contract reader" to characterize the role an arbitrator plays in construing a collective bargaining agreement. That two-word phrase may be the only thing I ever said before this body that has been remembered. Unfortunately, it is almost invariably misunderstood. Time and again members have reproached me: "What's the big deal about contract reading, anyway? Isn't it just the same as contract interpretation?" Or, more substantively scathing: "Do you really think, Ted, that all you have to do to interpret a labor ...


Contract Reading' In Labor Arbitration, Theodore J. St. Antoine Jan 2000

Contract Reading' In Labor Arbitration, Theodore J. St. Antoine

Articles

A quarter century ago, I used the phrase "contract reader" to characterize the role an arbitrator plays in construing a collective bargaining agreement. This phrase has almost invariable been misunderstood to refer to reading or interpreting the contract. When I spoke of the "contract reader," it was in the context of judicial review of an award. My point was this: When a court has before it an arbitrator's award applying a collective bargaining agreement, it is as if the employer and the union had signed a stipulation stating: "What the arbitrator says this contract means is exactly what we ...


Mandatory Arbitration Of Statutory Claims In The Union Workplace After Wright V. Universal Maritime Service Corp., Daniel Roy Oct 1999

Mandatory Arbitration Of Statutory Claims In The Union Workplace After Wright V. Universal Maritime Service Corp., Daniel Roy

Indiana Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Functus Officio: Does The Doctrine Apply In Labor Arbitration - Teamsters Local 312 V. Matlack, Inc., Amy Markel Jan 1998

Functus Officio: Does The Doctrine Apply In Labor Arbitration - Teamsters Local 312 V. Matlack, Inc., Amy Markel

Journal of Dispute Resolution

The doctrine of functus officio was developed at common law in response to concerns about the "solemnity of judgments" and the effect of outside influences on arbitrators' decisions.2 Although not strictly applied in arbitration that is conducted pursuant to the Labor Management Relations Act,3 the doctrine of functus officio prevents an arbitrator from vacating, modifying, supplementing, or correcting his award . Most courts recognize three narrow exceptions to the doctrine which allow an arbitrator to revisit his award under limited circumstances. This Note examines the application of the "clarification exception" to the doctrine in a labor dispute setting and ...


Application Of The Public Policy Exception For The Enforcement Of Arbitral Awards: There Is No Place Like The Home In Saint Mary Home, Inc. V. Service Employees International Union, District 1199, Scott Barbakoff Jan 1998

Application Of The Public Policy Exception For The Enforcement Of Arbitral Awards: There Is No Place Like The Home In Saint Mary Home, Inc. V. Service Employees International Union, District 1199, Scott Barbakoff

Villanova Law Review

No abstract provided.


Mandatory Arbitration Of Employee Discrimination Claims: Unmitigated Evil Or Blessing In Disguise?, Theodore J. St. Antoine Jan 1998

Mandatory Arbitration Of Employee Discrimination Claims: Unmitigated Evil Or Blessing In Disguise?, Theodore J. St. Antoine

Articles

One of the hottest current issues in employment law is the use of mandatory arbitration to resolve workplace disputes. Typically, an employer will make it a condition of employment that employees must agree to arbitrate any claims arising out of the job, including claims based on statutory rights against discrimination, instead of going to court. On the face of it, this is a brazen affront to public policy. Citizens are being deprived of the forum provided them by law. And indeed numerous scholars and public and private bodies have condemned the use of mandatory arbitration. Yet the insight of that ...