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Full-Text Articles in Law

Mass Arbitration 2.0, Andrew B. Nissensohn Jul 2022

Mass Arbitration 2.0, Andrew B. Nissensohn

Washington and Lee Law Review

Over the past four decades, corporate interests, in concert with the Supreme Court, have surgically dismantled the American civil litigation system. Enacted nearly a century ago, the Federal Arbitration Act (FAA) was once a procedural law mandating that federal courts enforce arbitration agreements between sophisticated parties with equal bargaining power. Through death by a thousand cuts, corporate interests shielded themselves from nearly all methods of en masse dispute resolution. These interests weaponized the FAA into a “one size fits all” means to compel potential litigants with unequal bargaining power into arbitration. The so-called “Arbitration Revolution” is the subject of much …


Bargaining In The (Murky) Shadow Of Arbitration, Jill I. Gross Apr 2019

Bargaining In The (Murky) Shadow Of Arbitration, Jill I. Gross

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Disputing parties who are unable to settle their differences will end up before an adjudicator (typically a judge or jury) who will decide their dispute for them. Dispute resolution scholars have long theorized that disputants bargain in the shadow of this adjudicated outcome, predicting what would happen in court substantively and procedurally, and negotiating based on an assessment of the strength of “bargaining endowments” derived from applicable legal norms. The increasing use of arbitration to resolve commercial disputes in the U.S. means that more and more disputants are negotiating in the shadow of arbitration, not litigation. This Article explores how …


Does Rigorously Enforcing Arbitration Agreements Promote “Autonomy”?, Hiro N. Aragaki Jul 2016

Does Rigorously Enforcing Arbitration Agreements Promote “Autonomy”?, Hiro N. Aragaki

Indiana Law Journal

In recent years, the U.S. Supreme Court has helped transform arbitration law into a radical private-ordering regime in which freedom of contract has come to eclipse public regulation. Arbitration jurisprudence justifies this transformation in part on a profound and longstanding commitment to the ideal of individual autonomy, understood as the freedom—lacking in litigation—to select a disputing process best suited to one’s needs.

In this Article, I question the cogency of this justification. I argue, first, that autonomy has had different and sometimes conflicting meanings even within arbitration jurisprudence. Second, depending on the meaning one ascribes to autonomy, it is at …


When “Yes” May Actually Mean “No”: Rethinking Informed Consent To Adr Processes, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2015

When “Yes” May Actually Mean “No”: Rethinking Informed Consent To Adr Processes, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

It is time for us to rethink how to achieve meaningful party consent to ADR processes such as mediation and arbitration. I, along with my colleagues Professors Jeff Sovern, Paul F. Kirgis and Yuxiang Liu, recently contributed to the growing body of research finding that a party’s consent to use an ADR process rather than utilizing a court to resolve the dispute is too often neither informed nor consensual. In our empirical study “’Whimsy Little Contracts’ With Unexpected Consequences: An Empirical Analysis of Consumer Understanding of Arbitration Agreements,” we found a paucity of consumer awareness and understanding of arbitration …


Employment Arbitration Reform: Preserving The Right To Class Proceedings In Workplace Disputes, Javier J. Castro Sep 2014

Employment Arbitration Reform: Preserving The Right To Class Proceedings In Workplace Disputes, Javier J. Castro

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

The recent judicial enforcement of class waivers in arbitration agreements has generated ample debate over the exact reach of these decisions and their effects on the future of collective action for consumers and employees. In AT&T Mobility v. Concepcion, a 5-4 majority of the Supreme Court majority held that the Federal Arbitration Act (FAA) preempted state laws prohibiting companies from incorporating class action waivers into arbitration agreements. The Court upheld such waivers on the grounds that they are consistent with the language and underlying purpose of the FAA. Most courts across the country have since reinforced the strong federal policy …


The Unjustified Furor Over Securities Arbitration, Gilbert R. Serota Jan 2013

The Unjustified Furor Over Securities Arbitration, Gilbert R. Serota

Pepperdine Law Review

No abstract provided.


Determining Arbitrability Of The Dispute: The Clear And Unmistakable Standard For Choice Of Law In Arbitration Agreements , Kristen Sanocki Jan 2013

Determining Arbitrability Of The Dispute: The Clear And Unmistakable Standard For Choice Of Law In Arbitration Agreements , Kristen Sanocki

Journal of Dispute Resolution

This note will also address the "clear and unmistakable" standard adopted by the Ninth Circuit and used to determine whether or not parties have agreed to apply non-federal arbitrability law. Based on the Ninth Circuit's reasoning in Cape Flattery Ltd. v. Titan Mar., LLC, this Note concludes that the court properly extracted a standard normally used to determine whether a court decides arbitrability as applicable to determining whether parties have sufficiently contracted for non-federal arbitrability law. Lastly, this Note will address the interpretation of arbitration clauses under federal law.


First Options Of Chicago, Inc. V. Kaplan And The Kompetenz-Kompetenz Principle , Adrianna Dulic Apr 2012

First Options Of Chicago, Inc. V. Kaplan And The Kompetenz-Kompetenz Principle , Adrianna Dulic

Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal

In 1995, the United States Supreme Court in First Options of Chicago, Incorporated v. Kaplan considered whether arbitral tribunals or courts should have the primary power to decide if parties agreed to arbitrate the merits of the dispute and whether the court of appeals should accept the district court's findings of fact and law or apply a de novo standard of review. The Court unanimously held that, unless the parties clearly and unmistakably provide otherwise, the question of whether the parties agreed to arbitrate is to be decided by the court, not the arbitral tribunal. Furthermore, in such a case, …


Charge Me, Pay Me, But Don't Even Think Of Litigating Me: The Dominance Of Arbitration In Truth-In-Lending Claims , M. Susan Hale Apr 2012

Charge Me, Pay Me, But Don't Even Think Of Litigating Me: The Dominance Of Arbitration In Truth-In-Lending Claims , M. Susan Hale

Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal

This article analyzes the impact of the courts' ever increasing priority to enforce arbitration agreements in Truth In Lending Act (TILA) claims and reform. Part I entails a general discussion of TILA's logistics; the goals, the means, and the remedies. Part II briefly traces the rise of arbitration as well as evaluating its various advantages and disadvantages. Part III reports on the current emphasis of enforcing arbitration agreements in federal courts by explaining the basis of enforcing the agreement. Part IV explores the impact of arbitrating TILA claims on the claim and on individuals. Part V provides an analysis of …


The State Of Arbitral Fees After Green Tree Financial: Uncertainty And Contradiction Demands Further Guidance From The Supreme Court, Kevin C. Clark Apr 2012

The State Of Arbitral Fees After Green Tree Financial: Uncertainty And Contradiction Demands Further Guidance From The Supreme Court, Kevin C. Clark

Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal

There are millions of employees in America who work every day without regard to the technical and seemingly mundane matters that govern their employment. What they don't realize however, is that their employment may be governed by an arbitration agreement. The terms of the arbitration agreement may be unclear until a dispute arises. This is particularly applicable in the area of arbitral fees, where there is a split among United States Courts of Appeals when addressing the issue of who should pay the fees arising from the arbitration of employment disputes. This fissure in American jurisprudence is the subject of …


Will Eeoc V. Waffle House, Inc. Signal The Beginning Of The End For Mandatory Arbitration Agreements In The Employment Context? , Marc A. Altenbernt Apr 2012

Will Eeoc V. Waffle House, Inc. Signal The Beginning Of The End For Mandatory Arbitration Agreements In The Employment Context? , Marc A. Altenbernt

Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal

Since the inception of several employment and discrimination statutes, arbitration has grown exponentially as an alternative for the adjudication of employment disputes. The Supreme Court has traditionally held that statutory claims are indeed arbitrable pursuant to a valid arbitration agreement under the Federal Arbitration Act ("FAA"). In an effort to end employment discrimination based on "race, color, religion, sex, or national origin," Congress enacted the Civil Rights Act of 1964 ("Title VII"). In order to adequately effect this calling, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission ("EEOC") was created as the Act's primary enforcement mechanism. While arbitration agreements under the FAA and …


Reframing The Dilemma Of Contractually Expanded Judicial Review: Arbitral Appeal Vs. Vacatur , Eric Van Ginkel Apr 2012

Reframing The Dilemma Of Contractually Expanded Judicial Review: Arbitral Appeal Vs. Vacatur , Eric Van Ginkel

Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal

The Federal Arbitration Act ("FAA") of 1925 was created to ensure enforceability of agreements to arbitrate. The FAA is the centerpiece of the federal arbitration policy as construed by the Supreme Court. Section 10(a) FAA enumerates grounds on which an arbitral award can be set aside. The central issue discussed herein is whether parties can agree by contract to allow one of the parties to initiate review of the arbitral award by a court that would otherwise have jurisdiction over those parties, or whether the court's powers are somehow limited to the grounds for vacatur enumerated in Section 10(a) FAA. …


Sailing Around Erie: The Emergence Of A Federal General Common Law Of Arbitration , Kenneth F. Dunham Mar 2012

Sailing Around Erie: The Emergence Of A Federal General Common Law Of Arbitration , Kenneth F. Dunham

Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal

This paper traces the history of American arbitration from the common law to the FAA. It discusses the FAA as a procedural act prior to Southland v. Keating and as a substantive law act following Southland. It discusses the Erie doctrine as applicable to federal courts and state law preemption. The article concludes that Southland by-passed Erie using the Commerce Clause and the Supremacy Clause to create a federal common law of arbitration.


A Fighting Chance: The Proposed Servicemembers Access To Justice Act & Its Potential Effects On Binding Arbitration Agreements, Sean M. Hardy Feb 2012

A Fighting Chance: The Proposed Servicemembers Access To Justice Act & Its Potential Effects On Binding Arbitration Agreements, Sean M. Hardy

Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal

In August 2008 a bill was introduced in the United States Senate that clearly states Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights of 1994 (USERRA) claims supersede any preexisting arbitration clauses in employment agreements. This bill, known as the Servicemembers Access to Justice Act (SAJA), would restore full access to the federal court system for USERRA plaintiffs. This paper examines the SAJA and its potential effects on the USERRA. It begins with a survey of the history behind the passage of the USERRA, as well as the FAA. Next, it describes the two federal circuit court decisions that have led to …


Employment Arbitration: Panel Discussion, Theodore J. St. Antoine Jan 2012

Employment Arbitration: Panel Discussion, Theodore J. St. Antoine

Other Publications

The rapid growth of arbitration in nonunion employment settings has provoked endless debate about its advantages and disadvantages for employers, employees, and unions. Often absent from the debate is systematic, reliable information on the extent of employment arbitration and arbitration outcomes. Professor Alexander Colvin of Cornell University has undertaken pioneering work that explores how employment arbitration is working in practice and its impact on the major players. After Professor Colvin presented his latest findings, a panel of leading arbitrators and advocates discussed the implications of his results for the continuing development of employment arbitration.


Unconscionable Construction: How The Ninth Circuit Evades The Faa By Severing Arbitration Agreements As Unconscionable Note, Daniel B. Mitchell Jan 2012

Unconscionable Construction: How The Ninth Circuit Evades The Faa By Severing Arbitration Agreements As Unconscionable Note, Daniel B. Mitchell

Journal of Dispute Resolution

Bridge Fund Capital Corp. v. FastBucks Franchise Corp. illustrates a recent manifestation of an ongoing judicial hostility to arbitration. As the Supreme Court has developed its FAA jurisprudence to limit the severance of arbitration agreements, many lower courts have continued to develop legal justifications to circumvent these restrictions. The FAA's savings clause does afford some latitude for severance of arbitration agreements, but the Supreme Court has not yet defined the limits of the savings clause, nor whether the general contract defense and their justifications are sufficient to supersede FAA policy. Bridge Fund shows how the doctrine of unconscionability it being …


New Use Of The Doctrine Of Unconscionability To Invalidate Arbitration Agreements In Consumer Contracts, The Note, Valerie Dixon Jan 2012

New Use Of The Doctrine Of Unconscionability To Invalidate Arbitration Agreements In Consumer Contracts, The Note, Valerie Dixon

Journal of Dispute Resolution

Manfredi v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield suggests that this old judicial hostility is alive and well in Missouri jurisprudence. In an effort to level the playing field between parties of unequal bargaining power, Missouri courts have applied the unconscionability doctrine as a way to sidestep the United States Supreme Court's asserted policy favoring arbitration over litigation.7 This note considers the new approach of Missouri courts in invalidating arbitration agreements through the doctrine of unconscionability in the consumer context.


Sweet Vindication: The Second Circuit Strikes A Blow To Companies That Use Class-Action Waivers In Arbitration Agreements To Avoid The Law, Samuel E. Buffaloe Jan 2010

Sweet Vindication: The Second Circuit Strikes A Blow To Companies That Use Class-Action Waivers In Arbitration Agreements To Avoid The Law, Samuel E. Buffaloe

Journal of Dispute Resolution

Other scholars and courts have concluded that when a class action waiver prevents a plaintiff from vindicating his statutory rights, that waiver should be unenforceable. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit took this approach in In re American Express Merchants' Litigation. The court, however, was careful to point out that these class-action waivers should not be considered unenforceable per se, but that courts must examine each waiver on a case-by-case basis. This note will examine the court's reasoning and will discuss what courts and Congress should do to protect consumers when companies use class-action waivers to avoid …


No Exceptions: How The Legitimate Business Justification For Unconscionability Only Further Demonstrates California Courts' Disdain For Arbitration Agreements, Thomas H. Riske Jul 2008

No Exceptions: How The Legitimate Business Justification For Unconscionability Only Further Demonstrates California Courts' Disdain For Arbitration Agreements, Thomas H. Riske

Journal of Dispute Resolution

In Davis v. O'Melveny & Myers, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals considered whether an arbitration agreement adopted by a law firm and distributed to its employees was enforceable. When interpreting an arbitration agreement, how the contract doctrine of unconscionability should be applied by state courts, is an essential element of this case. While the Federal Arbitration Act ("FAA") has been interpreted to preempt any state law in conflict with it, state laws governing the necessary foundation to revoke a contract remain unaffected. In considering these principles, state courts have applied the doctrine of unconscionability to arbitration agreements in the …


Non-Signatories And The New York Convention, William W. Park May 2008

Non-Signatories And The New York Convention, William W. Park

Faculty Scholarship

In the context of arbitrations subject to the New York Convention, the term ,non-signatory' might evoke several lines of inquiry. Must commitments to arbitrate be signed? What legal framework guides decision-making about who agreed to arbitrate? How should courts monitor an arbitrator's assertion of jurisdiction over someone who never signed an arbitration agreement?

The second of these matters - rules about who agreed to arbitrate - will retain our attention in this paper. While few commentators deny that arbitration rests on consent,1 less unanimity exists about what exactly constitutes such consent when one side contests that it ever waived …


Suing For Small Potatoes: Consumer Class Action Waivers In Arbitration Agreements Distinguished By The Ninth Circuit, Jaimee Conley Jan 2008

Suing For Small Potatoes: Consumer Class Action Waivers In Arbitration Agreements Distinguished By The Ninth Circuit, Jaimee Conley

Journal of Dispute Resolution

In Shroyer, the Ninth Circuit laid a foundation for looking at consumer class action arbitration waivers with greater scrutiny, using a much narrower test. In doing so, it communicates a clear message to large corporations that arbitration agreements that include class action waivers for the purpose of cheating consumers out of small amounts of money will not be tolerated. This case note will address the significance of the Ninth Circuit's decision and the policy arguments supporting such an approach.


New Judicial Hostility To Arbitration: Federal Preemption, Contract Unconscionability, And Agreements To Arbitrate, The, Steven J. Burton Jul 2006

New Judicial Hostility To Arbitration: Federal Preemption, Contract Unconscionability, And Agreements To Arbitrate, The, Steven J. Burton

Journal of Dispute Resolution

Part I of this Article sketches the basics of arbitration law and practice, and traces the development of the federal policy favoring arbitration, to establish a basis for evaluating contemporary judicial decisions. Part II examines the justification for the policy favoring arbitration and the reasons contracting parties may prefer arbitration. Part III evaluates the reasons courts give for finding arbitration agreements in employment and consumer contexts unconscionable, and therefore, unenforceable. The conclusion is that many courts make many clearly erroneous decisions, including decisions that are unconstitutional because they are preempted.


Interlocutory Appeals Under The Federal Arbitration Act And The Effect On The District Court’S Proceedings, Michael P. Winkler Jan 2006

Interlocutory Appeals Under The Federal Arbitration Act And The Effect On The District Court’S Proceedings, Michael P. Winkler

Oklahoma Law Review

No abstract provided.


Parties To International Commercial Arbitration Agreements Beware: Bankruptcy Trumps Supreme Court Precedent Favoring Arbitration Of International Disputes, Lindsay Biesterfeld Jan 2006

Parties To International Commercial Arbitration Agreements Beware: Bankruptcy Trumps Supreme Court Precedent Favoring Arbitration Of International Disputes, Lindsay Biesterfeld

Journal of Dispute Resolution

Phillips v. Congelton (In re White Mountain Mining Co.), presents a heightened version of the conflict between the general policy favoring enforcement of arbitration agreements and the policy favoring resolution of bankruptcy-related claims in the bankruptcy court proceedings as the case involves a dispute over the enforcement of an international agreement to arbitrate a claim that is a "core" bankruptcy proceeding. In Phillips, the Fourth Circuit analyzed the underlying purposes of both the bankruptcy code and the federal arbitration statutes, and resolved the conflicting purposes of the two by giving greater deference to the policy favoring resolution of bankruptcy-related claims …


Pro-Arbitration Policy: Is This What The Parties Really Intended - The Courts' Treatment Of Forum Selection Clauses In Arbitration Agreements, The, Lance Roskens Jul 2005

Pro-Arbitration Policy: Is This What The Parties Really Intended - The Courts' Treatment Of Forum Selection Clauses In Arbitration Agreements, The, Lance Roskens

Journal of Dispute Resolution

In today's global economy, it is not uncommon for parties from different locations to contract together both in commerce and in employment. Especially in the context of employers, one party will often want any and all disputes it has with its employees to be resolved via arbitration in a certain forum. To accomplish this, employers often include a forum selection clause in the arbitration agreement with the future employee. Thus, if and how courts address forum selection clauses is of paramount importance to employers. In Sterling Financial Investment Group, Inc. v. Hammer, the 11 th Circuit Court of Appeals were …


On Hostile Ground: Ohio's Notice To Insolvent Insurance Companies With Arbitration Agreements - Bejamin V. Pipoly, Frank C. Koranda Jr. Jul 2004

On Hostile Ground: Ohio's Notice To Insolvent Insurance Companies With Arbitration Agreements - Bejamin V. Pipoly, Frank C. Koranda Jr.

Journal of Dispute Resolution

In Benjamin v. Popoly, the Court of Appeals of Ohio reviewed whether the liquidator of an insolvent insurance company have the power to avoid the enforcement of arbitration agreements. The court held that the broad statutory power conferred to a liquidator permitted them to affirm or disavow any contracts made by the insolvent insurance companies, including any contractual provisions for the arbitration of disputes. The court also expressly overruled prior Ohio case law regarding the status of arbitration agreements in insurance insolvency.


Going Dutch: Should Employees Have To Split The Costs Of Arbitration In Disputes Arising From Mandatory Employment Arbitration Agreements - Morrison V. Circuit City Stores, Inc., John F. Crawford Jan 2004

Going Dutch: Should Employees Have To Split The Costs Of Arbitration In Disputes Arising From Mandatory Employment Arbitration Agreements - Morrison V. Circuit City Stores, Inc., John F. Crawford

Journal of Dispute Resolution

Employers often require their employees to sign arbitration agreements as a condition of employment, obligating employees to submit their disputes with employers to binding arbitration. These agreements may include terms, such as cost splitting provisions, that may be advantageous to the employer, but extremely limiting to an employee seeking to enforce her statutory rights. The United States Supreme Court has yet to set out a clear position about whether an employee, by signed agreement, can be required to pay all or part of the arbitration fees and costs when the employee submits a statutory claim to arbitration. Federal district courts …


Arbitration, Unconscionability, And Equilibrium: The Return Of Unconscionability Analysis As A Counterweight To Arbitration Formalism, Jeffrey W. Stempel Jan 2004

Arbitration, Unconscionability, And Equilibrium: The Return Of Unconscionability Analysis As A Counterweight To Arbitration Formalism, Jeffrey W. Stempel

Scholarly Works

However incomplete, unaggressive, or sub-optimal, unconscionability analysis of arbitration agreements has made something of a comeback in the late twentieth century and early twenty-first century. Just as nature abhors a vacuum, water seeks to be level, and ecosystems work to retain environmental stability, the legal system has witnessed an incremental effort by lower courts to soften the rough edges of the Supreme Court's pro-arbitration jurisprudence through rediscovery of what might be called the “unconscionability norm”--a collective judicial view as to what aspects of an arbitration arrangement are too unfair to merit judicial enforcement. In rediscovering and reinvigorating the unconscionability norm …


To Sever Or To Destroy: The Eighth Circuit Allows Invalid Provisions To Be Served From Otherwise Enforceable Arbitration Agreements, Michael K. Daming Jul 2002

To Sever Or To Destroy: The Eighth Circuit Allows Invalid Provisions To Be Served From Otherwise Enforceable Arbitration Agreements, Michael K. Daming

Journal of Dispute Resolution

The Federal Arbitration Act ("FAA") allows for arbitration to be a medium by which parties may settle disputes more expeditiously than litigation. The FAA declares specifically that written agreements to resolve disputes through arbitration are "valid, irrevocable, and enforceable, save upon such grounds as exist at law or in equity for the revocation of any contract.,' 2


Arbitration Agreements In Labor And Employment Contracts: Well Within The Reach Of The Faa - Circuit City Stores, Inc. V. Adams, Lisa M. Eaton Jan 2002

Arbitration Agreements In Labor And Employment Contracts: Well Within The Reach Of The Faa - Circuit City Stores, Inc. V. Adams, Lisa M. Eaton

Journal of Dispute Resolution

Despite a series of decisions where the Supreme Court has upheld the use of arbitration in the employment context, the Court has never clearly stated that arbitration agreements contained in employment contracts fall under the Federal Arbitration Act (FAA). This omission has led to a split in the Circuits as to the scope of the FAA coverage ad exemption provisions. The controversy centers on whether the FAA covers all employment contracts except those of employees who transport people or goods in interstate commerce or whether the FAA exempts all employment contracts.