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Still Dissatisfied After All These Years: Intellectual Property, Post-Wto China, And The Avoidable Cycle Of Futility, Peter K. Yu Nov 2018

Still Dissatisfied After All These Years: Intellectual Property, Post-Wto China, And The Avoidable Cycle Of Futility, Peter K. Yu

Peter K. Yu

No abstract provided.


Crossfertilizing Isds With Trips, Peter K. Yu Nov 2018

Crossfertilizing Isds With Trips, Peter K. Yu

Peter K. Yu

In the past few years, investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) has garnered considerable scholarly, policy and media attention. Such attention can be partly attributed to the negotiation of the Trans-Pacific Partnership and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP). It can also be attributed the growing use of ISDS to address international disputes involving intellectual property investments. Recent examples include Philip Morris’s now-failed attempts to challenge the tobacco control measures in Australia and Uruguay and Eli Lilly's equally unsuccessful effort to invalidate the patentability requirements in Canada.

Written for a symposium on investor-state arbitration, this article focuses on the ...


The Blurring Of The Public/Private Distinction Or The Collapse Of A Category? The Story Of Investment Arbitration, Guillermo J. Garcia Sanchez Aug 2018

The Blurring Of The Public/Private Distinction Or The Collapse Of A Category? The Story Of Investment Arbitration, Guillermo J. Garcia Sanchez

Guillermo J. Garcia Sanchez

The paper is a response piece to Deborah Hensler and Damira Khatam’s new article, Re-inventing Arbitration: How Expanding the Scope of Arbitration Is Re-Shaping Its Form and Blurring the Line Between Private and Public Adjudication. Their main argument regarding the public-private distinction is that the arbitral procedure has changed as a consequence of the substantive issues resolved in this particular ADR system. According to them the arbitral system, which was originally conceived for commercial purposes, has become another way of litigating public law, but without the accountability mechanisms attached to public courts. In this paper, I agree in large ...


Using The Theories Of Exit, Voice, Loyalty, And Procedural Justice To Reconceptualize Brazil's Rejection Of Bilateral Investment Treaties, Nancy A. Welsh, Andrea Kupfer Schneider, Kathryn Rimpfel Jul 2018

Using The Theories Of Exit, Voice, Loyalty, And Procedural Justice To Reconceptualize Brazil's Rejection Of Bilateral Investment Treaties, Nancy A. Welsh, Andrea Kupfer Schneider, Kathryn Rimpfel

Nancy Welsh

In the past decade, investor-state arbitration has made tremendous gains in both credibility and use. There is now widespread accession to the Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of Other States (“ICSID Convention” or “Washington Convention”). States have executed more than 2,000 bilateral investment treaties (BITs) defining the terms and conditions under which one (“investor”) state’s nationals and companies will invest in the other (“host”) state. Such terms include provisions allowing foreign investors to initiate arbitration proceedings against the host state, and at this point, more than 500 disputes have been submitted to ...


What Is "(Im)Partial Enough" In A World Of Embedded Neutrals?, Nancy A. Welsh Jul 2018

What Is "(Im)Partial Enough" In A World Of Embedded Neutrals?, Nancy A. Welsh

Nancy Welsh

The Supreme Court’s decision in Caperton v. A. T. Massey Coal Co. highlighted the fragility of judicial independence and impartiality in the United States. A similar, less-noticed fragility of independence and impartiality exists among the arbitrators, mediators and administrative hearing officers who resolve an increasing number of disputes. Everywhere one looks, there is unremarked yet remarkable evidence of the rise of - embedded neutrals, particularly in uneven contexts between one-time and repeat players. This phenomenon becomes particularly worrisome when the embedded neutral’s role is due to their special relationship with the repeat player, and the one-time player is not ...


What's It All About? Finding The Appropriate Problem Definition In Mediation, Leonard L. Riskin, Nancy A. Welsh Jul 2018

What's It All About? Finding The Appropriate Problem Definition In Mediation, Leonard L. Riskin, Nancy A. Welsh

Nancy Welsh

In this article, we propose four mechanisms to enable mediation participants to explore problems broadly and then to decide what problem definition is most appropriate for the mediation of their case:

  • A three-step systematic method for determining the problem to be addressed;
  • Two variations of a rule that could be adopted by courts (and private providers) that would require lawyers or mediators to implement this systematic way of working with problem definition; and
  • A new rule under which a court (or private) mediation program would offer to customize any mediation in order to seek the most appropriate problem definition

We ...


You've Got Your Mother's Laugh: What Bankruptcy Mediation Can Learn From The Her/History Of Divorce And Child Custody Mediation, Nancy A. Welsh Jul 2018

You've Got Your Mother's Laugh: What Bankruptcy Mediation Can Learn From The Her/History Of Divorce And Child Custody Mediation, Nancy A. Welsh

Nancy Welsh

Due to our current deep economic woes, growing bankruptcy filings, and apparent legislative unwillingness to expand the number of judges, bankruptcy courts are exploring the use of mediation to help resolve adversary proceedings, negotiate elements of reorganizations, and deal with claims that cannot be heard directly in bankruptcy proceedings. In addition, mediation advocates have been consistent in urging greater use of the process to reduce debtors’ and claimants’ costs, bridge the jurisdictional and standing challenges that bankruptcies can pose, and offer claimants the opportunity to be heard and determine their own resolution of claims. At this point, the relatively few ...


The Times They Are A Changin' - Or Are They? An Update On Rule 114, Barbara Mcadoo, Nancy A. Welsh Jul 2018

The Times They Are A Changin' - Or Are They? An Update On Rule 114, Barbara Mcadoo, Nancy A. Welsh

Nancy Welsh

When Rule 114 of the General Rules of Civil Practice arrived on the Minnesota legal scene in July 1994, it took many attorneys by complete surprise. Even in Hennepin County, which has had a nonbinding arbitration program since 1984, some attorneys asked, "ADR? Is that short for Another Darn Requirement'?" Nearly two years later, now that most attorneys know that ADR is the acronym for "Alternative Dispute Resolution," it is time to take stock of Rule 114, to evaluate its influence on the practice of law and its impact on the courts.

This review is timely for another, very important ...


The Thinning Vision Of Self-Determination In Court-Connected Mediation: The Inevitable Price Of Institutionalization?, Nancy A. Welsh Jul 2018

The Thinning Vision Of Self-Determination In Court-Connected Mediation: The Inevitable Price Of Institutionalization?, Nancy A. Welsh

Nancy Welsh

Ethical codes for mediators describe party self-determination as “the fundamental principle of mediation,” regardless of the context within which the mediation is occurring. The definition of self-determination, however, is a matter of dispute. Based on a review of the debate surrounding the promulgation and revision of ethical codes for court-connected mediators in Florida and Minnesota, this Article demonstrates that a vision of self-determination anchored in party-centered empowerment is yielding to a vision that is more reflective of the norms and traditional practices of lawyers and judges, as well as the courts’ strong orientation to efficiency and closure of cases through ...


The Thoughtful Integration Of Mediation Into Bilateral Investment Treaty Arbitration, Nancy A. Welsh, Andrea Kupfer Schneider Jul 2018

The Thoughtful Integration Of Mediation Into Bilateral Investment Treaty Arbitration, Nancy A. Welsh, Andrea Kupfer Schneider

Nancy Welsh

While the current system of investment treaty arbitration has definitely improved upon the “gunboat diplomacy” used at times to address disputes between states and foreign investors, there are signs that reform is needed: states and investors increasingly express concerns regarding the costs associated with the arbitration process, some states refuse to comply with arbitral awards, other states hesitate to sign new bilateral investment treaties, and citizens have begun to engage in popular unrest at the prospect of investment treaty arbitration. As a result, both investors and states are advocating for the use of mediation to supplement investor-state arbitration. This Article ...


The Abcs Of Adr: Making Adr Work In Your Court System, Nancy A. Welsh, Barbara Mcadoo Jul 2018

The Abcs Of Adr: Making Adr Work In Your Court System, Nancy A. Welsh, Barbara Mcadoo

Nancy Welsh

So you are thinking about making Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) a part of your existing statewide judicial process-but you don't know how. You want to provide litigants with alternative ways to resolve their disputes, through processes such as mediation, arbitration, and summary jury trials. In fact, you have been experimenting with these processes on an ad hoc basis and have had quite a few successes. You think you could accomplish even more if you made ADR a routine part of the judicial process. But you are cautious about the role that your state court system should take in promoting ...


The Law Of Bargaining, Russell Korobkin, Michael Moffitt, Nancy A. Welsh Jul 2018

The Law Of Bargaining, Russell Korobkin, Michael Moffitt, Nancy A. Welsh

Nancy Welsh

This brief essay, written for a symposium on The Emerging Interdisciplinary Cannon of Negotiation, describes three categories of rules which comprise the law of bargaining. First, common law limitations govern virtually all negotiators: the doctrines of fraud and misrepresentation limit the extent to which negotiators may deceive, and the doctrine of duress limits the extent to which bargainers can use superior bargaining power to coerce agreement. Second, context-specific laws sometimes circumscribe negotiating behavior in specific settings when general rules are less restrictive. Third, the conduct of certain negotiators is constrained by professional or organizational regulations inapplicable to the general public ...


The Place Of Court-Connected Mediation In A Democratic Justice System, Nancy A. Welsh Jul 2018

The Place Of Court-Connected Mediation In A Democratic Justice System, Nancy A. Welsh

Nancy Welsh

A justice system, and the processes located within it, ought to deliver justice. That seems simple enough. But, of course, delivering justice is never so simple. Justice and the systems that serve it are the creatures of context.

This Article considers mediation as just one innovation within the much larger evolution of the judicial system of the United States. First, this Article outlines how the values of democratic governance undergird our traditional picture of the American justice system, presumably because the invocation of such values helps the system to deliver something that will be respected by the nation’s citizens ...


The Current Transitional State Of Court-Connected Adr, Nancy A. Welsh Jul 2018

The Current Transitional State Of Court-Connected Adr, Nancy A. Welsh

Nancy Welsh

Article Extract:

Obviously, there is much to commend in court-connected mediation and what it offers to people caught up in disputes. With the help of mediators, parties may find it more feasible to reflect on their legal and extra-legal needs, prioritize among these needs, engage in open and thoughtful conversation, develop integrative solutions, and even consider the mediators' dispassionate feedback regarding positions or expectations. Proponents of court-connected mediation can also point to a multitude of accomplishments. For example, and most strikingly, many cases settle in mediation.' For the vast majority of those cases, litigants express satisfaction with the process and ...


Stepping Back Through The Looking Glass: Real Conversations With Real Disputants About Institutionalized Mediation And Its Value, Nancy A. Welsh Jul 2018

Stepping Back Through The Looking Glass: Real Conversations With Real Disputants About Institutionalized Mediation And Its Value, Nancy A. Welsh

Nancy Welsh

This Article describes what a group of real disputants perceives as most valuable about agency-connected mediation before, soon after, and eighteen months after they participated in the process. The Article is based primarily upon qualitative data from in-depth interviews with parents and school officials who participated in special education mediation sessions. Though the specific context of these interviews is obviously important, these disputants and their disputes share many commonalities with disputants and disputes in other contexts and, as a result, these disputants' views have relevance for the broader field of mediation.

These interviews suggest that both before and after disputants ...


Remembering The Role Of Justice In Resolution: Insights From Procedural And Social Justice Theories, Nancy A. Welsh Jul 2018

Remembering The Role Of Justice In Resolution: Insights From Procedural And Social Justice Theories, Nancy A. Welsh

Nancy Welsh

It is surely a luxury, at this point in the field of dispute resolution, to be invited to identify those concepts that I view as absolutely essential to our canon. Borrowing a bit from Chris Guthrie's wine illustration, I think it is fair to suggest that today's presentations reveal a very impressive wine cellar, with many bottles of fine wine from which to choose. I will spotlight one part of this wine cellar, where concepts regarding procedural and social justice theories can be found. I will focus primarily on procedural justice but will also reference those theories of ...


Musings On Mediation, Kleenex, And (Smudged) White Hats, Nancy A. Welsh Jul 2018

Musings On Mediation, Kleenex, And (Smudged) White Hats, Nancy A. Welsh

Nancy Welsh

This Essay speculates on the global future of mediation. It anticipates that mediation’s popularity will continue to grow both in the U.S. and abroad particularly as courts continue to encourage and institutionalize the process. Meanwhile, the Essay acknowledges the existence and continuing development of a relatively small cadre of elite lawyers and retired judges who serve as private mediators in large, complex matters.

The Essay also raises concerns, though, regarding the current lack of clarity in the goals and procedural characteristics that define mediation. The Essay asserts that such lack of clarity invites abuse of the mediation privilege ...


Perceptions Of Fairness In Negotiation, Nancy A. Welsh Jul 2018

Perceptions Of Fairness In Negotiation, Nancy A. Welsh

Nancy Welsh

In all of negotiation, there is no bigger trap than "fairness." This chapter from the Negotiator's Fieldbook explains why among multiple models of fairness, people tend to believe that the one that applies here is the one that happens to favor them. This often creates a bitter element in negotiation, as each party proceeds from the unexamined assumption that its standpoint is the truly fair one. For a negotiation to end well, it is imperative for both parties to assess the fairness of their own proposals from multiple points of view, not just their instinctive one – and to consider ...


Negotiation As One Among Many Tools, Jennifer Gerarda Brown, Marcia Caton Campbell, Jayne Seminare Docherty, Nancy A. Welsh Jul 2018

Negotiation As One Among Many Tools, Jennifer Gerarda Brown, Marcia Caton Campbell, Jayne Seminare Docherty, Nancy A. Welsh

Nancy Welsh

Article Extract

Even as this symposium examines the "canon" of negotiation, we think it is also important to consider negotiation's context. In many cases, negotiation cannot be the first or the only activity that takes place. To make significant progress in the resolution or management of some conflicts, other activities will have to precede or supplement negotiation. This can be particularly true in large-scale, multi-party public disputes.

Consider the following situation, one that might be unfolding even as you read this in any number of places in the United States. The setting is the state of Grace, a relatively ...


Online Communication Technology And Relational Development, Anita D. Bhappu, Noam Ebner, Sanda Kaufman, Nancy A. Welsh Jul 2018

Online Communication Technology And Relational Development, Anita D. Bhappu, Noam Ebner, Sanda Kaufman, Nancy A. Welsh

Nancy Welsh

Key to success in negotiation is managing and enhancing relationships. This concept can be difficult to convey in short-term executive training courses where students have little time for relational development. Not to worry: the authors assert that by strategically using online communication before, during, and after such courses, students can effectively both train for, and depend on, good relations at a distance.


Mandatory Predispute Consumer Arbitration, Structural Bias, And Incentivizing Procedural Safeguards, Nancy A. Welsh Jul 2018

Mandatory Predispute Consumer Arbitration, Structural Bias, And Incentivizing Procedural Safeguards, Nancy A. Welsh

Nancy Welsh

Within the past several decades, there has been an explosion in the creation, institutionalization and use of “alternative” dispute resolution procedures. Mandatory predispute arbitration has generated the most controversy because it appears beset with structural bias. The recent cases of AT&T Mobility LLC v. Concepcion and Compucredit Corp. v. Greenwood have raised additional concerns as the Supreme Court has announced that corporations can force consumers to arbitrate their private and statutory claims and give up their rights to pursue class relief. This Article begins by arguing that the Supreme Court’s enthusiastic embrace of mandatory predispute arbitration should be ...


Mandatory Mediation And Its Variations, Nancy A. Welsh Jul 2018

Mandatory Mediation And Its Variations, Nancy A. Welsh

Nancy Welsh

The use of arbitration to resolve international investment disputes clearly represents an improvement over “gunboat diplomacy” and its implicit threat of violent confrontation. Nonetheless, investors, States and other stakeholders have begun to express dissatisfaction with some elements of arbitration in the international investment treaty context. First, arbitration proceedings can be quite lengthy, and their transaction costs seem to be increasing. Second, parties’ compliance is not guaranteed. Some States suggest they may refuse to abide by arbitral awards. Third, the process focuses parties on their legal rights when non-legal issues may be equally important and useful to achieve resolution. Fourth, arbitration ...


Making Reputation Salient: Using The Reputation Index With Law Students, Nancy A. Welsh Jul 2018

Making Reputation Salient: Using The Reputation Index With Law Students, Nancy A. Welsh

Nancy Welsh

Would negotiation students act the way they do in simulations, if they knew this might come back to haunt them? Analyzing the consequences of basing part of students’ final grades on objective results they achieve in negotiation simulations, Welsh found a need for something to counterbalance the expected incentives to engage in distributive tactics and “sharp practice.” She settled on an explicit focus on reputation. While the “reputation index” compiled for each student is only a small fraction of the student’s grade, it is based on recent thinking about the value of negotiators’ reputations even in the short term ...


Look Before You Leap And Keep On Looking: Lessons From The Institutionalization Of Court-Connected Mediation, Bobbi Mcadoo, Nancy A. Welsh Jul 2018

Look Before You Leap And Keep On Looking: Lessons From The Institutionalization Of Court-Connected Mediation, Bobbi Mcadoo, Nancy A. Welsh

Nancy Welsh

This article will use the institutionalization of general civil mediation into the courts as a case study, with both hopeful and cautionary lessons for policy makers. This article will (1) examine the goals created for court-connected ADR; (2) assess to what extent court-connected mediation has achieved these goals, from the perspective of judges, lawyers, and parties; and (3) and propose reforms of court-connected mediation to better ensure the achievement of justice.


Making Deals In Court-Connected Mediation: What's Justice Got To Do With It?, Nancy A. Welsh Jul 2018

Making Deals In Court-Connected Mediation: What's Justice Got To Do With It?, Nancy A. Welsh

Nancy Welsh

When mediation was first introduced to the courts, the process was hailed as “alternative.” Mediation gave disputants the opportunity to discuss and resolve their dispute themselves; the role of the third party was to facilitate the disputants’ negotiations, not to dictate the outcome; and because the disputants were able to focus on their underlying interests in mediation, the process could result in creative, customized solutions. The picture of mediation is changing, however, as the process settles into its role as a tool for the resolution of personal injury, contract, and other nonfamily cases on the courts’ civil dockets. Attorneys dominate ...


Introduction To Volume 5 Of The Yearbook On Arbitration And Mediation, Nancy A. Welsh Jul 2018

Introduction To Volume 5 Of The Yearbook On Arbitration And Mediation, Nancy A. Welsh

Nancy Welsh

Professor Welsh introduces Volume 5 of the Yearbook on Arbitration and Mediation.


Is That All There Is? "The Problem" In Court-Oriented Mediation, Leonard L. Riskin, Nancy A. Welsh Jul 2018

Is That All There Is? "The Problem" In Court-Oriented Mediation, Leonard L. Riskin, Nancy A. Welsh

Nancy Welsh

The alternative process of mediation is now well-institutionalized and widely (though not universally) perceived to save time and money and satisfy lawyers and parties. However, the process has failed to meet important aspirations of its early proponents and certain expectations and needs of one-shot players. In particular, court-oriented mediation now reflects the dominance and preferences of lawyers and insurance claims adjusters. These repeat players understand the problem to be addressed in personal injury, employment, contract, medical malpractice and other ordinary civil non-family disputes as a matter of merits assessment and litigation risk analysis. Mediation is structured so that litigation issues ...


Magistrate Judges, Settlement, And Procedural Justice, Nancy A. Welsh Jul 2018

Magistrate Judges, Settlement, And Procedural Justice, Nancy A. Welsh

Nancy Welsh

This Article begins, in Part I, with an overview of magistrate judges’ history and role generally, including a discussion of the mechanism of “blind consent” that must be undertaken before a magistrate judge may conduct a trial. Part I then turns to magistrate judges’ role in settlement and ADR, outlines the procedural and ethical rules governing judges’ role in settlement, and highlights research revealing lawyers’ concerns regarding judges’ role in settlement. In Part II, the Article provides a brief overview of mediation in the federal courts and considers the relationship between judge-hosted settlement sessions and mediation. With this background regarding ...


Integrating "Alternative" Dispute Resolution Into Bankruptcy: As Simple (And Pure) As Motherhood And Apple Pie?, Nancy A. Welsh Jul 2018

Integrating "Alternative" Dispute Resolution Into Bankruptcy: As Simple (And Pure) As Motherhood And Apple Pie?, Nancy A. Welsh

Nancy Welsh

Today, there can be little doubt that “alternative” dispute resolution is anything but alternative. Nonetheless, many judges, lawyers (and law students) do not truly understand the dispute resolution processes that are available and how they should be used. In the shadow of the current economic crisis, this lack of knowledge is likely to have negative consequences, particularly in those areas of practice such as bankruptcy and foreclosure in which clients, lawyers, regulators, and courts work under pressure, often with inadequate time and financial resources to permit careful analysis of procedural options. Potential negative effects can include: (1) impairment of a ...


I Could Have Been A Contender: Summary Jury Trial As A Means To Overcome Iqbal's Negative Effects Upon Pre-Litigation Communication, Negotiation And Early, Consensual Dispute Resolution, Nancy A. Welsh Jul 2018

I Could Have Been A Contender: Summary Jury Trial As A Means To Overcome Iqbal's Negative Effects Upon Pre-Litigation Communication, Negotiation And Early, Consensual Dispute Resolution, Nancy A. Welsh

Nancy Welsh

With its recent decisions in Ashcroft v. Iqbal and Bell Atlantic v. Twombly, the Supreme Court may be intentionally or unintentionally “throwing the fight,” at least in the legal contests between many civil rights claimants and institutional defendants. The most obvious feared effect is reduction of civil rights claimants’ access to the expressive and coercive power of the courts. Less obviously, the Supreme Court may be effectively undermining institutions’ motivation to negotiate, mediate - or even communicate with and listen to - such claimants before they initiate legal action. Thus, the Supreme Court’s recent decisions have the potential to deprive marginalized ...