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Full-Text Articles in Law

In Defense Of Moses, Tamar Meshel Mar 2023

In Defense Of Moses, Tamar Meshel

St. John's Law Review

(Excerpt)

In 1925, Congress enacted a short statute to make arbitration agreements in maritime transactions and interstate commerce “valid, irrevocable, and enforceable.” Yet the Federal Arbitration Act’s (FAA) simple objective of facilitating the resolution of disputes outside of the courtroom has proven much easier to declare than to implement in practice. In the century since its enactment, the FAA has become a frequently litigated statute and the subject of 59 opinions of the Supreme Court, the majority of which have reversed lower courts’ interpretations of the Act. The Supreme Court’s FAA jurisprudence has not only been abundant but also controversial. …


High Anxiety: Racism, The Law, And Legal Education, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2023

High Anxiety: Racism, The Law, And Legal Education, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

Conspicuously absent from the United States’ ongoing discourse about its racist history is a more honest discussion about the individual and personal stressors that are evoked in people when they talk about racism. What if they got it wrong? The fear of being cancelled - the public shaming for remarks that are deemed racist - has had a chilling effect on having meaningful conversations about racism. What lost opportunities!

This paper moves this discussion into the law school context. How might law schools rethink their law school curricula to more accurately represent the role systemic racism has played in shaping …


Humanizing Virtual Dispute Resolution, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2023

Humanizing Virtual Dispute Resolution, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

How might neutrals and advocates foster interpersonal dynamics when conducting arbitrations and mediations virtually, consistent with the ethical obligations of each profession and the ethical underpinnings of each process?

Virtual dispute resolution for commercial dispute resolution has become the new normal. Yet, the dispute resolution listserves are still peppered with posts from mediators and arbitrators who, although publicly extolling their own commitments to their impartiality and neutrality, are also simultaneously voicing their strong preferences for conducting their dispute resolution processes in person. According to these neutrals, they are unable to attain the same results when the process is conducted …


Hats For Sale: Efficiency, Economics, And Process Integrity, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2023

Hats For Sale: Efficiency, Economics, And Process Integrity, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

What are the ethical considerations for a mediator when a neutral is asked to be both the mediator and arbitrator on the same case? Some parties and their lawyers opt to select one neutral to serve as both the mediator and arbitrator on the same case, believing it will be a more efficient and cost-effective way to resolve their dispute. After all, the mediator already knows the facts of the case. Why waste time and money getting another neutral up to speed? This design choice, however, may collide with the mediator ethical mandates of party self-determination, neutral impartiality, confidentiality, …


The Dischargeability Of Money Judgements Versus Property Interests In Arbitration Awards For Domestic Contributions In The Context Of Unmarried Couples, Gabriella Hansen Jan 2023

The Dischargeability Of Money Judgements Versus Property Interests In Arbitration Awards For Domestic Contributions In The Context Of Unmarried Couples, Gabriella Hansen

Bankruptcy Research Library

(Excerpt)

A debt which arises prior to the filing of the petition for discharge in bankruptcy is dischargeable unless it can be categorized as one of the statutory exceptions to discharge listed in section 523(a) of title 11 of the United States Code (the “Bankruptcy Code”). Section 523(a)(5) of the Bankruptcy Code prohibits the discharge of awards of domestic support due to a debtor’s spouse, former spouse, or child. Accordingly, maintenance, alimony, and child support, often awarded in divorce proceedings, fall under the federal bankruptcy law statutory exceptions to discharge for domestic support obligations.

When an unmarried couple separates and …


Theorizing Responsibility In The Investor State Dispute Resolution System, Kristen Boon Jul 2022

Theorizing Responsibility In The Investor State Dispute Resolution System, Kristen Boon

St. John's Law Review

(Excerpt)

The Investor-State Dispute System (“ISDS”) permits investors to sue states when their investments are injured. The system was designed to protect investors and impose responsibilities on states; it is uncontroversial to say that the ISDS system is one-sided. But a chorus of voices is now asking: should investors have responsibilities too? The narrative is one of injustice, driven by the perception that states have signed on to a system that has left them with large financial exposure to investors. This viewpoint has been reinforced, in the eyes of some, by the influence of big business, and by state losses …


Confidential Settlements For Professional Malpractice, Sande L. Buhai Apr 2022

Confidential Settlements For Professional Malpractice, Sande L. Buhai

St. John's Law Review

(Excerpt)

A lawyer representing a plaintiff in a professional malpractice case advises her client not to file a complaint with the state regulatory body—the state bar, the medical board, or some other pertinent body—until later. The lawyer explains that she can offer to settle the case more favorably, more quickly, and at lower cost if they promise that, as part of the settlement, defendant’s malfeasance will never be reported to the state regulatory body responsible for ensuring professional competence in the area. This tactic may allow the client to negotiate a larger settlement because the defendant should be willing to …


Zooming In On Neutrals’ Implicit ‘Isms, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2022

Zooming In On Neutrals’ Implicit ‘Isms, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

Video conferencing, extolled for its economic and efficiency benefits, has now become an accepted option in the “new normal” of dispute resolution practice. Consequently, our professional discussions about video conferencing have advanced from sharing the mechanics of “how to” conduct an arbitration or mediation on Zoom to more nuanced explorations about the appropriate use of video conferencing. This column contributes to this exploration by questioning how dispute resolution processes conducted via video conferencing might trigger the implicit biases of arbitrators and mediators and compromise a neutral’s ethical obligation to be impartial. When a neutral conducts their dispute resolution processes …


Blinding Justice And Video Conferencing?, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2022

Blinding Justice And Video Conferencing?, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

How might dispute resolution processes for civil matters conducted on video conferencing be designed to reduce racial justice inequities and increase Black participants’ sense of procedural justice? In March 2020, responding to Covid-19 pandemic health concerns, all in-person, court-connected, and private dispute resolution processes shifted to video conferencing. Proponents of video conferencing have long touted how video conferencing would increase access to justice by providing an efficient, cost-effective, and time-saving alternative to in-person appearances. An unexplored question in March 2020 was how video conferencing would affect racial justice inequities. Black individuals and other marginalized groups were already disproportionately suffering …


The Unintended Consequence Of Settlement Fever And The Rule Of Law, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2022

The Unintended Consequence Of Settlement Fever And The Rule Of Law, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

Welcome to the final column of a three-part series about how settlement fever has influenced our justice system as it evolves into settlement-centric culture. This column will focus on how the rule of law, once touted as the primary benchmark of justice, has now taken a secondary role to private ordering when shaping some negotiated and mediated settlements.


Arbitrating Security Class Actions: The Limits Of Forum Selection Bylaws, Paul Schochet Oct 2021

Arbitrating Security Class Actions: The Limits Of Forum Selection Bylaws, Paul Schochet

St. John's Law Review

No abstract provided.


Settlement Fever: Lawyers, Have You Updated Your Philosophical Map?, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2021

Settlement Fever: Lawyers, Have You Updated Your Philosophical Map?, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

This column is the second in my three-part series about settlement fever. The focus of this column is on how settlement fever is incentivizing you, an ethical lawyer, to expand your legal mindset when you engage with your clients to help resolve their disputes. Have you updated your philosophical map lately?


Ethical Compass: Three Different Judicial Treatments For Settlement Fever, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2021

Ethical Compass: Three Different Judicial Treatments For Settlement Fever, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

This is the first of a three-part series that examines different aspects of the settlement fever that has stricken our justice system. What can we learn from judicial decisions about how individual judges assess the settlement means that lawyers, in consultation with their clients, have chosen to resolve their case?


Express Preclusion Of The Federal Arbitration Act For All Bankruptcy-Related Matters, John R. Hardison Mar 2020

Express Preclusion Of The Federal Arbitration Act For All Bankruptcy-Related Matters, John R. Hardison

St. John's Law Review

(Excerpt)

This Article sets forth a more solid justification for bankruptcy courts to refuse to order arbitration of any matter related to and affecting a bankruptcy case through express preclusion. First, this Article describes the historical development of the Supreme Court’s holdings on preclusion of the FAA in general and on the courts of appeals’ current formulation of a bankruptcy exception to the FAA. Next, this Article discusses the statutory, historical, and policy-based support for reading the bankruptcy jurisdictional provisions as creating an express exception to the FAA, or alternatively as supporting an implied exception to the FAA. As discussed, …


Ethical Compass: Celebration, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2020

Ethical Compass: Celebration, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

Let’s raise our glasses to toast our esteemed Chief Judge, the Honorable Janet DiFiore, for making Presumptive ADR a central part of the New York Office of Court Administration’s civil case management. In her February 26, 2019 State of the Judiciary Address, Chief Judge Janet DiFiore announced that the New York Office of Court Administration is formally adopting Presumptive ADR. Although all ADR processes such as settlement conferences, negotiations, arbitration and early neutral evaluation may be used to help settle cases, a focus will be on mediation. Presumptive ADR will apply to almost all civil cases filed in New …


What Dinosaurs Can Teach Lawyers About How To Avoid Extinction In The Odr Evolution, Elayne E. Greenberg, Noam Ebner Jan 2019

What Dinosaurs Can Teach Lawyers About How To Avoid Extinction In The Odr Evolution, Elayne E. Greenberg, Noam Ebner

Faculty Publications

This paper is a wake-up call for the legal profession: Heed the justice changes that are upon us or risk extinction. Online dispute resolution (hereinafter ODR) is currently being incorporated into U.S and international court systems, re-shaping and re-defining justice as we know it today. Courts and clients, two stakeholders in our justice system, are increasingly receptive to ODR as a viable option to help provide and access justice efficiently and affordably. The legal profession, the third stakeholder in our justice system, however, has been slower to react. As ODR plays an increasingly prominent role in the court system, it …


Hey, Big Spender: Ethical Guidelines For Dispute Resolution Professionals When Parties Are Backed By Third-Party Funders, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2019

Hey, Big Spender: Ethical Guidelines For Dispute Resolution Professionals When Parties Are Backed By Third-Party Funders, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

This first-of-its-kind paper introduces ethical guidelines and suggested practices for dispute resolution providers and neutrals when third-party funders provide financial backing for parties in U.S. domestic arbitrations and mediations. Sophisticated third-party funders have realized that litigation and dispute resolution are fast-growing, unregulated investment opportunities. Seizing these opportunities, third-party funders are now making billions of dollars in profits through their strategic investments in domestic and global litigation and dispute resolution with few ethical rules or regulations to curtail their investment behavior.3 Preferring to be secretive about the terms of their funding contracts and invisible in their work, third- party funders are …


Up Close And Personal: Whether Or Not You Decide To Report A Confidentiality Exception, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2019

Up Close And Personal: Whether Or Not You Decide To Report A Confidentiality Exception, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

In your role as lawyer or neutral, have you ever reported an otherwise confidential communication because it was one of these permissible confidentiality exceptions? Why? This column will discuss how our ethical and personal considerations shape our decisions as advocates and dispute resolution professionals about whether to report ethically permissible exceptions to confidentiality. Readers, you are invited to rethink your ethical reporting obligations and develop more self-awareness about your personal rationales for your reporting choices.


The Changed Batna, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2019

The Changed Batna, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

This column invites readers to consider whether the adjudicated outcome should be relied on as a realistic benchmark for advocates and mediators. In everyday dispute resolution practice, advocates and mediators regularly consider an adjudicated decision to be a realistic point of comparison to a negotiated or mediated outcome. For example, when assessing the merits of settlement, lawyers preparing for a legal negotiation and mediation frequently consider the likely adjudicated outcome as their best alternative to a negotiated agreement (hereinafter BATNA). In mediation, mediators often focus parties and their lawyers on the cost, time and likelihood of a favorable adjudicated …


Dangerous Or Benign Legal Fictions, Cognitive Biases, And Consent In Contract Law, Chunlin Leonhard Jan 2018

Dangerous Or Benign Legal Fictions, Cognitive Biases, And Consent In Contract Law, Chunlin Leonhard

St. John's Law Review

(Excerpt)

Building on existing scholarship on legal fictions and empirical psychological research about human decision making processes, this Article offers a systematic approach to distinguishing a dangerous legal fiction from a benign one.

This Article begins by summarizing scholarly discussions about legal fictions in general, courts’ typical uses of legal fiction, and more general concerns with legal fictions. Part II of the Article summarizes scientific findings about how humans think and what our common cognitive biases are. It then explains how findings regarding the human decision-making process may shed light on why certain legal fictions can be dangerous. This Section …


... Because "Yes" Actually Means "No": A Personalized Prescriptive To Reactualize Informed Consent In Dispute Resolution, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2018

... Because "Yes" Actually Means "No": A Personalized Prescriptive To Reactualize Informed Consent In Dispute Resolution, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

This paper proposes a radical departure from the status quo approach to securing a client’s informed consent about settlement options and refocuses informed consent practice back to what informed consent is about, the client. As it exists today, the status quo approach to securing a client’s informed consent about whether or not to use an alternative dispute resolution procedure to resolve the client’s case is inadequate. It thwarts a client’s right to exercise party self- determination and stymies a client’s ability to make informed justice choices. Lawyers, courts, ADR providers and neutrals routinely provide litigants with generic information about the …


Acts Like A Lawyer, Talks Like A Lawyer…Non-Lawyer Advocates Representing Parties In Dispute Resolution, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2018

Acts Like A Lawyer, Talks Like A Lawyer…Non-Lawyer Advocates Representing Parties In Dispute Resolution, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

What are the ethical implications for lawyer mediators, arbitrators and dispute resolution providers when the lines between the roles of lawyers and the non-lawyers who are representing clients in dispute resolution become blurry? Traditionally, non-lawyer advocates (hereinafter NARs) have represented clients in the negotiations, mediation and arbitration of legal matters without cause for concern. Yes, labor union representatives, sports agents, and special education advocates are three familiar examples of non-lawyers who represent clients in negotiations, mediations and arbitrations, informing clients of their legal rights. Routinely, the lawyers and neutrals presiding over the dispute resolution procedure have warmly welcomed these …


Ethics Meets The “O” In Dr, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2018

Ethics Meets The “O” In Dr, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

Lawyers, the menu of justice options available to resolve your clients’ legal disputes has now expanded to include online dispute resolution processes. Online dispute resolution (ODR) is an umbrella term that may be used to describe the use of technology to help expedite legal case management, replicate existing dispute resolution processes online, such as by utilizing video conferencing for arbitration and mediation (“replication ODR”); or to help streamline or even resolve legal claims through the use of algorithms (“algorithm ODR” or “algorithm- based ODR”). Even though ODR is fast becoming a regular part of legal practice, generally, and dispute …


Alternative Dispute Resolution, Patrick Crowley Oct 2017

Alternative Dispute Resolution, Patrick Crowley

The Catholic Lawyer

No abstract provided.


Alternative Dispute Resolution, Jessie Clayton Dye Oct 2017

Alternative Dispute Resolution, Jessie Clayton Dye

The Catholic Lawyer

No abstract provided.


Alternative Dispute Resolution, Sister Donna Mikula Oct 2017

Alternative Dispute Resolution, Sister Donna Mikula

The Catholic Lawyer

No abstract provided.


Alternative Dispute Resolution, Santiago Feliciano, Jr. Oct 2017

Alternative Dispute Resolution, Santiago Feliciano, Jr.

The Catholic Lawyer

No abstract provided.


Clergy Arbitrator Liability: A Potential Pitfall Of Alternative Dispute Resolution In The Church, Lee Tarte Oct 2017

Clergy Arbitrator Liability: A Potential Pitfall Of Alternative Dispute Resolution In The Church, Lee Tarte

The Catholic Lawyer

No abstract provided.


When The Empty Adr Chair Is Occupied By A Litigation Funder, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2017

When The Empty Adr Chair Is Occupied By A Litigation Funder, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

The discussion about the $140 million jury verdict against Gawker media for posting a sex video of Terry Bollea, professionally known as Hulk Hogan, having sex with his best friend’s wife, quickly shifted to a conversation about the ethics of litigation funding when it was finally disclosed that Peter Thiel had funded Bollea’s litigation. The backstory reveals that Gawker outed Thiel, revealing his homosexuality ten years earlier in a more conservative time when such a revelation might have impacted Thiel’s earning capacity. Thiel, an icon in Silicone Valley and a co-founder of PayPal, promised revenge. Thiel got his revenge, …


When Worldviews Collide—Strategic Advocacy V. A Mediator’S Ethical Obligations, Elayne E. Greenberg Jan 2017

When Worldviews Collide—Strategic Advocacy V. A Mediator’S Ethical Obligations, Elayne E. Greenberg

Faculty Publications

(Excerpt)

The provocative headline “Judge Orders Preservation of Mediation Notes In Gender Bias Suit Against Proskauer” sparks the topic of this Ethical Compass discussion. What should be done when a lawyer’s litigation strategy collides with a mediator’s ethical standards of practice? There is growing concern by dispute professionals, including this author, that this collision is diluting the benefits of mediation and re-shaping mediation into quasi-adjudicative dispute resolution procedure. Others hear this as a clarion call from litigators to the mediation community to realize that mediation ideals are just that, and will not deflate litigation advocacy strategies. These polarized perspectives present …