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Arbitration Archetypes For Enhancing Access To Justice, Jill I. Gross May 2020

Arbitration Archetypes For Enhancing Access To Justice, Jill I. Gross

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

In the second half of the twentieth century, the use of arbitration proliferated in the United States as part of a greater alternative dispute resolution (ADR) movement, with the promise that using ADR processes would, among other things, enhance disputants' access to justice. Arbitration offers disputing parties a process to resolve their dispute, which, at least in theory, is known for decreased cost, increased speed, party control, privacy, and finality. These characteristics generally enhance parties' access to justice because, as compared to litigation, barriers to entry are lower, outcomes are delivered more quickly, substantive outcomes are more equitable, and parties …


The Final Frontier: Are Class Action Waivers In Broker-Dealer Employment Agreements Enforceable?, Jill I. Gross Jan 2020

The Final Frontier: Are Class Action Waivers In Broker-Dealer Employment Agreements Enforceable?, Jill I. Gross

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

How would a court resolve a broker-dealer's action to enforce its class action waiver, which would require the court to disregard FINRA Rule 13204? The Supreme Court has identified one exception to the FAA's mandate: if a “contrary congressional command” displaces the FAA. Thus far, the Court has not had occasion to examine whether a class action waiver in a broker-dealer's employment agreement with an employee is enforceable under this exception. While the Court seems very supportive of these waivers, the securities industry is different. Securities arbitration is heavily regulated, and pronouncements by the SEC--when exercising power expressly delegated to …


Dispute Resolution Themes Abound In “Hamilton: An American Musical”, Jill I. Gross Jul 2019

Dispute Resolution Themes Abound In “Hamilton: An American Musical”, Jill I. Gross

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Robust dispute resolution themes run through Hamilton: An American Musical, Lin Manuel-Miranda's award-winning Broadway play about the United States' first treasury secretary. Many songs in Hamilton revolve around dispute resolution mechanisms that weave throughout Hamilton's life.


Bargaining In The (Murky) Shadow Of Arbitration, Jill I. Gross Apr 2019

Bargaining In The (Murky) Shadow Of Arbitration, Jill I. Gross

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Disputing parties who are unable to settle their differences will end up before an adjudicator (typically a judge or jury) who will decide their dispute for them. Dispute resolution scholars have long theorized that disputants bargain in the shadow of this adjudicated outcome, predicting what would happen in court substantively and procedurally, and negotiating based on an assessment of the strength of “bargaining endowments” derived from applicable legal norms. The increasing use of arbitration to resolve commercial disputes in the U.S. means that more and more disputants are negotiating in the shadow of arbitration, not litigation. This Article explores how …


Commercial Arbitration: Germany And The United States, Jill I. Gross, Christian Duve Oct 2017

Commercial Arbitration: Germany And The United States, Jill I. Gross, Christian Duve

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Arbitration has deep roots in the legal cultures of the United States and Germany--and is still an important option for resolving disputes in both countries today. As far back as Colonial times, US merchants used arbitration to settle industry disputes, and in the early 19th century, American stockbrokers resolved intra-industry disputes through arbitration at the New York Stock Exchange. In Germany, a country with a civil law rather than a common law tradition, commercial arbitration has been practiced for centuries: the first draft of the German Code of Civil Procedure from 1877 included a section establishing the legal foundations of …


The Uberization Of Arbitration Clauses, Jill I. Gross Jan 2017

The Uberization Of Arbitration Clauses, Jill I. Gross

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

In the early part of this decade, the Supreme Court’s decisions interpreting the Federal Arbitration Act (FAA) strictly enforced predispute arbitration clauses (PDAAs) with class action waivers and so-called “delegation” provisions in consumer contracts. Just after the Court’s 2013 ruling that clauses with class action waivers did not prevent claimants from vindicating their statutory rights, Uber— a company at the heart of the “gig economy”—started inserting PDAAs in agreements with its drivers and passengers. Uber’s move has generated dozens of challenges to its clause in lawsuits across the country, and thus dozens of federal court opinions contributing to modern FAA …


Arbitration Case Law Update 2016, Jill I. Gross Jul 2016

Arbitration Case Law Update 2016, Jill I. Gross

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This chapter identifies decisions by the U.S. Supreme Court and selected federal and high state courts in the past year that interpret and apply the Federal Arbitration Act (FAA). This chapter also analyzes the impact some of these cases might have on securities arbitration practice.


Finra Dispute Resolution Task Force Releases Its Final Report, With Support For Mediation And Live Hearings, Jill I. Gross Feb 2016

Finra Dispute Resolution Task Force Releases Its Final Report, With Support For Mediation And Live Hearings, Jill I. Gross

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This article briefly describes the task force’s formation; highlights its key recommendations (such as requiring mediation before arbitration of all claims—subject to party opt-out, and introducing a more affordable, live hearing option for small claims); analyzes in more detail a few more controversial suggestions (such as expressly banning class action waivers in customer agreements and increasing the use of explained awards), and critiques the task force’s inability to reach consensus on other hot-button issues, such as mandatory arbitration.


Finra Dispute Resolution Task Force Releases Its Final Report, With Support For Mediation And Live Hearings, Jill I. Gross Jan 2016

Finra Dispute Resolution Task Force Releases Its Final Report, With Support For Mediation And Live Hearings, Jill I. Gross

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Late in 2015, the FINRA Dispute Resolution Task Force, a group formed solely for the purpose of systematically assessing and critiquing securities arbitration, released its Final Report and Recommendations. The report contains 51 individual recommendations designed to improve FINRA's heavily-regulated dispute resolution program. Some recommendations offer specific details on implementation; others urge conceptual reform of a particular aspect of the arbitration process but leave FINRA to take care of fleshing out the details.

This article briefly describes the task force's formation; highlights its key recommendations (such as requiring mediation before arbitration of all claims-- subject to party opt-out, and introducing …


The Customer's Nonwaivable Right To Choose Arbitration In The Securities Industry, Jill I. Gross Jan 2016

The Customer's Nonwaivable Right To Choose Arbitration In The Securities Industry, Jill I. Gross

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Arbitration has been the predominant form of dispute resolution in the securities industry since the 1980s. Virtually all brokerage firms include predispute arbitration agreements (PDAAs) in their retail customer contracts, and have successfully fought off challenges to their validity. Additionally, the industry has long mandated that firms submit to arbitration at the demand of a customer, even in the absence of a PDAA.

More recently, however, brokerage firms have been arguing that forum selection clauses in their agreements with sophisticated customers (such as institutional investors and issuers) supersede firms' duty to arbitrate under FINRA Rule 12200. Circuit courts currently are …


The Historical Basis Of Securities Arbitration As An Investor Protection Mechanism, Jill I. Gross Jan 2016

The Historical Basis Of Securities Arbitration As An Investor Protection Mechanism, Jill I. Gross

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Why do broker-dealers fear a legal system in which the firms' customers have a unilateral right to demand arbitration of disputes? That scenario would return the industry to the pre-McMahon years, when, because the enforceability of PDAAs with respect to federal securities laws was in doubt, most brokerage customers had such a unilateral right. In fact, the pre-McMahon history of securities arbitration, written about only sparsely, reveals that, today, the primary stakeholders in the process--investors and brokerage firms--have lost sight of the original reason why the securities industry heavily relied on arbitration to resolve industry disputes. While offering a speedy, …


Arbitration Case Law Update 2015, Jill I. Gross May 2015

Arbitration Case Law Update 2015, Jill I. Gross

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This chapter identifies decisions by the U.S. Supreme Court and selected federal circuit and high state courts in the past year that interpret and apply the Federal Arbitration Act (FAA) and could have an impact on securities arbitration practice.


Justice Scalia's Hat Trick And The Supreme Court's Flawed Understanding Of Twenty-First Century Arbitration, Jill I. Gross Jan 2015

Justice Scalia's Hat Trick And The Supreme Court's Flawed Understanding Of Twenty-First Century Arbitration, Jill I. Gross

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

In this article, I report on the results of my close examination of more than two dozen opinions the Court has handed down interpreting the FAA--arising primarily from commercial, consumer, employment, or securities disputes--since the beginning of the twenty-first century only fifteen years ago.19 I focus on cases in which the Court was asked to decide a question of arbitrability--whether a claim is arbitrable or whether an agreement to arbitrate is enforceable under FAA section 2. I have concluded that these decisions are built on a narrative of an arbitration process that no longer exists, although it may have existed …


Arbitration Case Law Update 2014, Jill I. Gross May 2014

Arbitration Case Law Update 2014, Jill I. Gross

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This chapter identifies decisions by the U.S. Supreme Court, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA) and selected lower federal and state courts in the past year that interpret and apply the Federal Arbitration Act (FAA) and could have an impact on securities arbitration practice.


The Improbable Birth And Conceivable Death Of The Securities Arbitration Clinic, Jill I. Gross Jan 2014

The Improbable Birth And Conceivable Death Of The Securities Arbitration Clinic, Jill I. Gross

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This Article explores the birth, life, and possible death of securities arbitration clinics (SACs) in the United States. Part II of this Article describes the history of the securities arbitration clinic in the United States. Part III describes how a SAC operates and how SAC students help investors. Part IV reviews the pedagogical advantages and disadvantages of a SAC, and addresses the reluctance of many law schools to embrace this type of clinic. Part V concludes by predicting whether these clinics have a future in light of the modern challenges to clinical legal education.


Arbitration Case Law Update 2013, Jill I. Gross May 2013

Arbitration Case Law Update 2013, Jill I. Gross

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

The U.S. Supreme Court and lower state and federal courts continue to decide cases under the Federal Arbitration Act (FAA) at an astounding rate. This chapter summarizes Supreme Court opinions over the past year that interpret the FAA, as well as selected lower court decisions that apply the FAA and could have an impact on securities arbitration practice.


At&T Mobility And The Future Of Small Claims Arbitration, Jill I. Gross Jan 2013

At&T Mobility And The Future Of Small Claims Arbitration, Jill I. Gross

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This article focuses on small claims arbitration and examines the impact of AT&T Mobility on the legitimacy of the process. Part II of the article describes the Supreme Court’s AT&T Mobility decision, which held that the FAA preempts a California rule that declared a class arbitration waiver in a consumer contract unconscionable. Part III describes the primary features of the two options remaining for the Concepcions—small claims court and small claims arbitration, as well as their perceived advantages and disadvantages. Part IV demonstrates that courts have endorsed simplified arbitration. Part V examines whether simplified arbitration is a fair method of …


Arbitration Case Law Update 2012, Jill I. Gross Apr 2012

Arbitration Case Law Update 2012, Jill I. Gross

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Parties to arbitration agreements sometimes invoke the judicial system to litigate collateral issues arising out of the arbitration process, such as arbitrability of some or all of the claims, arbitrator bias, and award enforcement or vacatur. When deciding these collateral issues arising out of securities arbitration, courts interpret and apply the Federal Arbitration Act (FAA). This chapter identifies recent decisions by the Supreme Court under the FAA, as well as selected lower court decisions that could have an impact on securities arbitration practice.


Disputing Arbitration Clauses In International Insurance Agreements: Problems With The Self-Execution Framework, Michael J. Ritter Jan 2012

Disputing Arbitration Clauses In International Insurance Agreements: Problems With The Self-Execution Framework, Michael J. Ritter

Pace International Law Review Online Companion

This Article argues that the self-execution framework that courts have adopted—and scholars have endorsed—in addressing whether McCarran-Ferguson enables states to reverse preempt the New York Convention is inadequate. First, the Article addresses the interpretive question: what is an “Act of Congress” under McCarran-Ferguson? By examining whether a treaty is self or non-self-executing, courts discard proper methods of statutory interpretation. Second, the Article argues that courts have failed to satisfactorily transpose the self-execution doctrine—which has been relevant only in determining whether a treaty confers a legally enforceable right in the U.S.—into the context of the conflict between McCarran-Ferguson and the New …


Investor Protection Meets The Federal Arbitration Act, Jill I. Gross Jan 2012

Investor Protection Meets The Federal Arbitration Act, Jill I. Gross

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

In the past three decades, most recently in AT&T Mobility LLC v. Concepcion, the United States Supreme Court has advanced an aggressive pro-arbitration campaign, transforming the Federal Arbitration Act (FAA) into a powerful source of anti-consumer substantive arbitration law. In the aftermath of AT&T Mobility, which upheld a prohibition on class actions in a consumer contract despite state law that refused to enforce such provisions on unconscionability grounds, efforts have been made to prohibit investors from bringing class actions or joining claims, including claims under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the Exchange Act). In the most egregious example to …


At&T Mobility And Faa Over-Preemption, Jill I. Gross Jan 2012

At&T Mobility And Faa Over-Preemption, Jill I. Gross

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

The Supreme Court's recent arbitration law decisions reflect the Court's strong support for arbitration agreements, but also severely limit the states’ powers to police the fairness of arbitration. In particular, the Court’s decision in AT&T Mobility v. Concepcion, LLC expands the FAA preemption doctrine beyond its prior boundaries, signaling how far the Court is willing to go to support arbitration clauses at the expense of states’ rights and the values of federalism. This article explores the impact of AT&T Mobility on the preemption of state arbitration law, and the concomitant impact on the balance between state and federal power in …


Arbitration Case Law Update 2011, Jill I. Gross Jun 2011

Arbitration Case Law Update 2011, Jill I. Gross

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Parties to arbitration agreements sometimes invoke the judicial system to litigate collateral issues arising out of the arbitration process, such as arbitrability of some or all of the claims, arbitrator bias, and award enforcement or vacatur. When deciding these collateral issues arising out of securities arbitration, courts interpret and apply the Federal Arbitration Act, 9 U.S.C. §§ 1 et seq. (2010) (FAA). In this chapter, we identify recent judicial decisions in the area of arbitration law, and analyze their impact on securities arbitration practice.


Changing Times--Changing Practice: New Roles For Lawyers In Resolving Complex Land Use And Environmental Disputes, John R. Nolon, Jessica A. Bacher Jan 2009

Changing Times--Changing Practice: New Roles For Lawyers In Resolving Complex Land Use And Environmental Disputes, John R. Nolon, Jessica A. Bacher

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Following this introduction is a discussion of the many excellent papers by academics, practitioners, and students contained in this themed Kheel edition of the Pace Environmental Law Review. The article continues with an analysis of the practice of law and how it is affected by the advent of environmental interest dispute resolution.


Bill Would Encourage Effective Dispute Resolution, John R. Nolon, Jessica A. Bacher Oct 2008

Bill Would Encourage Effective Dispute Resolution, John R. Nolon, Jessica A. Bacher

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Many of the processes involved in traditional local land use review procedures involve two or more adversarial parties arguing their position with little to no consideration for the other party’s interest, and no regard for mutually beneficial outcome. This article describes a proposed New York law that would promote the use of mediation to supplement the traditional process. The article discusses studies geared towards testing the effectiveness of mediation, gives a review of out of state mediation legislation, as discusses corresponding court decisions. Finally, the article concludes with a review of the traditional roles of lawyers in the process, and …


Perceptions Of Fairness In Securities Arbitration: An Empirical Study, Jill I. Gross Feb 2008

Perceptions Of Fairness In Securities Arbitration: An Empirical Study, Jill I. Gross

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This Report to the Securities Industry Conference on Arbitration (SICA) documents the results of the authors’ empirical study, through a one-time mailed survey, of survey participants’ perceptions of fairness of securities Self-Regulatory Organization (SRO) arbitrations involving customers. The survey was designed to assess participants’ perceptions of the: (1) fairness of the SRO arbitration process; (2) competence of arbitrators to resolve investors’ disputes with their broker-dealers; (3) fairness of SRO arbitration as compared to their perceptions of fairness in securities litigation in similar disputes; and (4) fairness of the outcome of arbitrations.


A Climate Of Extremes: Transboundary Conflict Resolution, Elizabeth Burleson Jan 2008

A Climate Of Extremes: Transboundary Conflict Resolution, Elizabeth Burleson

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


The Role Of Lawyers In Resolving Environmental Interest Disputes, John R. Nolon, Jessica A. Bacher Jan 2008

The Role Of Lawyers In Resolving Environmental Interest Disputes, John R. Nolon, Jessica A. Bacher

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

This article explores the role of lawyers and the tools they can use in the resolution of environmental interest disputes. We draw on the decades-long work of ADR professionals in this area as well as the professional experience of attorneys and the skills they have honed in the context of “rights based” and “rights to process” disputes. By “environmental interest disputes” we include both emerging conflicts and current disputes among multiple parties over the use and abuse of land, air, water, surface, and subsurface resources whose resolution is unlikely to occur in traditional adjudicatory tribunals such as courts and administrative …


Mcmahon Turns Twenty: The Regulation Of Fairness In Securities Arbitration, Jill I. Gross Jan 2007

Mcmahon Turns Twenty: The Regulation Of Fairness In Securities Arbitration, Jill I. Gross

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

I believe that current regulation of securities arbitration does ensure that it is fair to investors. Part II of this Commentary explores the various sources of law, including the FAA, which could require fairness in securities arbitration. It revisits the first critical assumption of the McMahon Court, that the FAA's provisions for post-award judicial review protect investors from an unfair arbitration process. This Part demonstrates that, while the FAA does require “fundamental fairness” in arbitration, courts loosely construe that requirement and find most arbitration proceedings meet it easily. Part IIII of this Commentary explores SEC oversight of securities arbitration, particularly …


Does International Arbitration Need A Mandatory Rules Method?, Alexander K.A. Greenawalt Jan 2007

Does International Arbitration Need A Mandatory Rules Method?, Alexander K.A. Greenawalt

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

The role of mandatory rules in international arbitration remains a persistent source of debate. The basic problem is a straightforward one: contractual arbitration arises as a matter of the parties’ consent, but the resolution of contractual disputes can implicate mandatory rules of law that are not waivable and are typically designed to protect broader public rights. The literature has often presented the issue in terms of conflict between the authority of the state and the party-derived authority of the arbitrator. Asserting an independent public duty to protect national mandatory laws as well as the enforceability of arbitral awards, some writers …


Securities Mediation: Dispute Resolution For The Individual Investor, Jill I. Gross Jan 2006

Securities Mediation: Dispute Resolution For The Individual Investor, Jill I. Gross

Elisabeth Haub School of Law Faculty Publications

Part I of this article will provide a brief history of ADR in the securities industry (primarily arbitration), and then will describe the emergence of mediation as an alternative to arbitration. Part II will explore the state and federal statutory regulations that arguably govern the securities mediation process, and their impact on procedural and substantive justice. In particular, this section will review the applicability to and impact on securities mediation of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (1934 Act), the Federal Arbitration Act (FAA), and state mediation statutes, including the Uniform Mediation Act. In this section, I will argue that …