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Criminal Procedure

2004

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Summary Of Bergna V. State, 120 Nev. Adv. Rep. 92, Kristen T. Gallagher Dec 2004

Summary Of Bergna V. State, 120 Nev. Adv. Rep. 92, Kristen T. Gallagher

Nevada Supreme Court Summaries

No abstract provided.


New Procedures Will Aid Accurate Eyewitnes Identification, Lisa Bruiniers, Craig Ching, Mark Goossens, Dan Taylor Dec 2004

New Procedures Will Aid Accurate Eyewitnes Identification, Lisa Bruiniers, Craig Ching, Mark Goossens, Dan Taylor

Student Publications

No abstract provided.


Conceptualizing Blakely, Douglas A. Berman Dec 2004

Conceptualizing Blakely, Douglas A. Berman

The Ohio State University Moritz College of Law Working Paper Series

The Supreme Court’s decision in Blakely v. Washington has generated impassioned judicial and academic criticisms, perhaps because the “earthquake” ruling seems to announce a destructive rule in search of a sound principle. Read broadly, the jury trial rule articulated in Blakely might be thought to cast constitutional doubt on any and all judicial fact-finding at sentencing. Yet judicial fact-finding at sentencing has a long history, and such fact-finding has been an integral component of modern sentencing reforms and seems critical to the operation of guideline sentencing. The caustic reaction to Blakely reflects the fact that the decision has sowed ...


Legality Principle Of Crimes And Punishments In Iranian Legal System, Seyed Doraid Mousavi Mojab Dec 2004

Legality Principle Of Crimes And Punishments In Iranian Legal System, Seyed Doraid Mousavi Mojab

ExpressO

The Principle of legality of crimes and punishments (nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege) refers to the fact that an act is not considered a crime and deserves no punishment, unless the Legislator determines and announces the criminal title and its penalty before.

The legality principle protects individual security by ensuring basic individual libertties against the arbitrary and unwarranted intrusion of the state. Thus, the criminal judge can’t call the individuals’ acts crime and assign punishments for them or exert punishments that are not prescribed by the Legislator without any letter of law. If an act is morally rebutted ...


Summary Of Butler V. State, 120 Nev. Adv. Op. 93, Sally L. Galati Dec 2004

Summary Of Butler V. State, 120 Nev. Adv. Op. 93, Sally L. Galati

Nevada Supreme Court Summaries

Defendant appealed his conviction on two counts of first-degree murder with the use of a deadly weapon, for which he received a sentence of death.


The Mandatory Death Penalty In The Commonwealth Caribbean And The Inter-American Human Rights System: An Evolution In The Development And Implementation Of International Human Rights Protections, Brian D. Tittemore Dec 2004

The Mandatory Death Penalty In The Commonwealth Caribbean And The Inter-American Human Rights System: An Evolution In The Development And Implementation Of International Human Rights Protections, Brian D. Tittemore

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

No abstract provided.


Whistle Blowing, Ben Depoorter, Jef De Mot Nov 2004

Whistle Blowing, Ben Depoorter, Jef De Mot

George Mason University School of Law Working Papers Series

For law enforcement purposes corruption and fraud are hard battles. Because of the highly secretive and premeditated nature of these crimes, prime witnesses are themselves often implicated in the fraudulent transaction. Promises of immunity and whistle blowing rewards are often required to resolve these information asymmetries. These insights have set a trend, both in scholarship and law enforcement practice, towards reward-based approaches (carrots), as an alternative or complement to punishment based deterrence (sticks). Applying the U.S. False Claims Act (FCA) as an analytical framework, we provide a critical review of the efficiency limitations of whistle blowing. More specifically, the ...


The Law And Economics Of Cybersecurity: An Introduction, Mark F. Grady, Francesco Parisi Nov 2004

The Law And Economics Of Cybersecurity: An Introduction, Mark F. Grady, Francesco Parisi

George Mason University School of Law Working Papers Series

One of the most controversial theoretical issues of our time is the governance of cybersecurity. Computer security experts, national security experts, and policy analysts have all struggled to bring meaningful analysis to cybersecurity; however, the discipline of law & economics has yet to be fully applied to the issue. This introduction presents work by leading national scholars who examine this complex national security challenge from a law and economics perspective. The focus spans from a discussion of pure market solutions to public-private issue analysis, providing a valuable basis for policy considerations concerning the appropriate governmental role on the issue of cybersecurity.


Search For Truth Or Reality Show?, Peter Keane Nov 2004

Search For Truth Or Reality Show?, Peter Keane

Publications

No abstract provided.


Screening, Plea Bargains And The Innocent Problem, Oren Gazal Nov 2004

Screening, Plea Bargains And The Innocent Problem, Oren Gazal

Law & Economics Working Papers Archive: 2003-2009

Courts in common law countries reject plea-agreements only when the agreed upon sentence is seen as exceedingly lenient. This judicial intervention is designed to ensure that plea-bargaining does not undermine deterrence. Many legal scholars argue against this policy, claiming that courts should prohibit plea-bargaining all together. They argue that the plea-bargaining system increases the risk of wrongful convictions. Economists often criticize this judicial intervention as well, but for a different reason. Rather than advocating the abolition of plea-bargaining, many economists argue that the courts should accept all plea-agreements without review. They claim that plea-bargaining can help ensure an efficient use ...


Rights Of Enemy Combatants And Military Detainees At Guantanamo, Randall Coyne Nov 2004

Rights Of Enemy Combatants And Military Detainees At Guantanamo, Randall Coyne

Randall Coyne

No abstract provided.


Criminal Law And Procedure, Marla G. Decker, Stephen R. Mccullough Nov 2004

Criminal Law And Procedure, Marla G. Decker, Stephen R. Mccullough

University of Richmond Law Review

No abstract provided.


Barking Up The Wrong Tree: The Misplaced Furor Over The Feeney Amendment As A Threat To Judicial Independence, David P. Mason Nov 2004

Barking Up The Wrong Tree: The Misplaced Furor Over The Feeney Amendment As A Threat To Judicial Independence, David P. Mason

William & Mary Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Forgotten Constitutional Right To Present A Defense And Its Impact On The Acceptance Of Responsibility-Entrapment Debate, Katrice L. Bridges Nov 2004

The Forgotten Constitutional Right To Present A Defense And Its Impact On The Acceptance Of Responsibility-Entrapment Debate, Katrice L. Bridges

Michigan Law Review

This Note argues that Section 3El.1 of the Federal Sentencing Guidelines must be interpreted to allow defendants who claim entrapment at trial to remain eligible for the acceptance-of-responsibility adjustment. To interpret Section 3El.1 in any other way would run afoul of defendants' constitutional right to present a defense. Part I argues that the entrapment defense does not put factual guilt at issue; instead the entrapment defense challenges whether the statute should apply to the defendant's conduct. Part II contends that the legislative intent in creating the sentencing guidelines in general and the acceptance-of-responsibility adjustment in particular are ...


Summary Of Maiola V. State Of Nevada, 120 Nev. Adv. Op. 76, Clarke Walton Oct 2004

Summary Of Maiola V. State Of Nevada, 120 Nev. Adv. Op. 76, Clarke Walton

Nevada Supreme Court Summaries

Petition for rehearing in an appeal from a district court order denying a motion for return of property under NRS 179.085.


Section 5: Criminal Procedure, Institute Of Bill Of Rights Law At The William & Mary Law School Oct 2004

Section 5: Criminal Procedure, Institute Of Bill Of Rights Law At The William & Mary Law School

Supreme Court Preview

No abstract provided.


Function Over Formalism: A Provisional Theory Of The Constitutional Law Of Crime And Punishment, Frank O. Bowman Iii Oct 2004

Function Over Formalism: A Provisional Theory Of The Constitutional Law Of Crime And Punishment, Frank O. Bowman Iii

Faculty Publications

This Article is, in effect, the second half of the author's argument against the Supreme Court's interpretation of the Sixth Amendment in Blakely v. Washington. The first half appeared in "Train Wreck? Or Can the Federal Sentencing System Be Saved? A Plea for Rapid Reversal of Blakely v. Washington," 41 American Criminal Law Review 217 (2004), and made a pragmatic, consequentialist argument against the Blakely result. This Article takes the next step of providing an alternative constitutional model of criminal sentencing to that offered by Justice Scalia in Blakely. The model emphasizes that a good constitutional model should ...


Drifting Down The Dnieper With Prince Potemkin: Some Skeptical Reflections About The Place Of Compliance Programs In Federal Criminal Sentencing (Symposium), Frank O. Bowman Iii Oct 2004

Drifting Down The Dnieper With Prince Potemkin: Some Skeptical Reflections About The Place Of Compliance Programs In Federal Criminal Sentencing (Symposium), Frank O. Bowman Iii

Faculty Publications

This Article explains how the federal organizational sentencing guidelines work and how they have created incentives for businesses to set up compliance programs. It then considers the paucity of evidence that compliance programs actually prevent the occurrence of corporate crime. It also questions whether investments in compliance programs make sense even for companies caught in a federal criminal investigation. There is little evidence that compliance programs have any significant effect on the likelihood that federal prosecutors will file criminal charges in the first instance. Even more surprisingly, examination of U.S. Sentencing Commission statistics reveals that the compliance program movement ...


The Next Era Of Sentencing Reform, Steven L. Chanenson Oct 2004

The Next Era Of Sentencing Reform, Steven L. Chanenson

Working Paper Series

This article charts a path for criminal sentencing in the wake of the Supreme Court’s recent bombshell decision in Blakely v. Washington. Blakely has thrust sentencing systems across the country into turmoil. But Justice O’Connor was fundamentally wrong when, in her Blakely dissent, she exclaimed that “Over 20 years of sentencing reform are all but lost.” All is most assuredly not lost. Blakely, properly viewed, is an opportunity – albeit a disruptive one – to re-think and improve our sentencing systems.

The Blakely court interpreted the Sixth Amendment to require that any fact, other than the fact of prior conviction ...


Escaping A Rigid Analysis: The Shift To A Fact-Based Approach For Crime Of Violence Inquiries Involving Escape Offenses, Timothy W. Castor Oct 2004

Escaping A Rigid Analysis: The Shift To A Fact-Based Approach For Crime Of Violence Inquiries Involving Escape Offenses, Timothy W. Castor

William & Mary Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Criminal Defence Lawyer's Role, David Layton Oct 2004

The Criminal Defence Lawyer's Role, David Layton

Dalhousie Law Journal

Defence lawyers often fight to prevent the conviction of people who have committed serious crimes. How can this role be justified? In providing his answer the author generally accepts the traditional view of criminal lawyering according to which defence counsel "does good" by ensuring that the state does not obtain a conviction in the absence of proof beyond a reasonable doubt based on admissible and reliable evidence Ethical advocacy in the criminal context is thus heavily influenced by a conception of justice that includes not only the search for truth but also due process rights for accused persons. The author ...


Why Were Perry Mason's Clients Always Innocent? The Criminal Lawyer's Moral Dilemma - The Criminal Defendant Who Tells His Lawyer He Is Guilty, Randolph Braccialarghe Oct 2004

Why Were Perry Mason's Clients Always Innocent? The Criminal Lawyer's Moral Dilemma - The Criminal Defendant Who Tells His Lawyer He Is Guilty, Randolph Braccialarghe

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Mental Disorder And The Civil/Criminal Distinction, Grant H. Morris Sep 2004

Mental Disorder And The Civil/Criminal Distinction, Grant H. Morris

University of San Diego Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper Series

This essay, written as part of a symposium issue to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the University of San Diego Law School, discusses the evaporating distinction between sentence-serving convicts and mentally disordered nonconvicts who are involved in, or who were involved in, the criminal process–people we label as both bad and mad. By examining one Supreme Court case from each of the decades that follow the opening of the University of San Diego School of Law, the essay demonstrates how the promise that nonconvict mentally disordered persons would be treated equally with other civilly committed mental patients was made ...


An Empirical Study Of Public Defender Effectiveness: Self-Selection By The ‘Marginally Indigent’, Morris B. Hoffman, Paul H. Rubin, Joanna M. Shepherd Sep 2004

An Empirical Study Of Public Defender Effectiveness: Self-Selection By The ‘Marginally Indigent’, Morris B. Hoffman, Paul H. Rubin, Joanna M. Shepherd

ExpressO

Abstract: An econometric study of all felony cases filed in Denver, Colorado, in 2002, shows that public defenders achieved poorer outcomes than their privately retained counterparts, measured by the actual sentences defendants received. But this study suggests that the traditional explanation for this difference—under-funding resulting in overburdened public defenders—may not tell the whole story. The authors discovered a large segment of what they call “marginally indigent” defendants, who appear capable of hiring private counsel if the charges against them are sufficiently serious. When the sentence data was controlled for the seriousness of the charges, however, public defenders still ...


Corporate Defendants And The Protections Of Criminal Procedure: An Economic Analysis, Vikramaditya S. Khanna Sep 2004

Corporate Defendants And The Protections Of Criminal Procedure: An Economic Analysis, Vikramaditya S. Khanna

Law & Economics Working Papers Archive: 2003-2009

Corporations are frequently treated as “persons” under the law. One of the fundamental questions associated with this treatment is whether corporations should receive the same Constitutional protections and guarantees as natural persons. In particular, should corporations receive the Constitutional protections of Criminal Procedure? After all, corporations cannot be sent to jail so the sanctions they face are essentially the same as in civil proceedings. If so, then why not have the same procedural protections for corporate defendants in civil and criminal cases? Little scholarly analysis has focused on this issue from an economic perspective and this article aims to fill ...


Discrimination In Sentencing On The Basis Of Afro-Centric Features, William T. Pizzi, Irene V. Blair, Charles M. Judd Sep 2004

Discrimination In Sentencing On The Basis Of Afro-Centric Features, William T. Pizzi, Irene V. Blair, Charles M. Judd

ExpressO

For a long time, social scientists have worried about possible racial discrimination in sentencing in the United States. With a prison population that exceeds two million inmates of whom approximately 48% are African American, the worry over the fairness of the sentencing process is understandable. This article is not about discrimination between racial categories as such, but about a related form of discrimination, namely, discrimination on the basis of a person’s Afro-centric features. Section I of the article describes a line of social science research that shows that a person’s Afro-centric features have a strong biasing effect on ...


The Rave Act: A Specious Solution To The Serious Problem Of Increased Ecstasy Distribution Within The United States That Is Unconstitutionally Overbroad, Erin Treacy Sep 2004

The Rave Act: A Specious Solution To The Serious Problem Of Increased Ecstasy Distribution Within The United States That Is Unconstitutionally Overbroad, Erin Treacy

ExpressO

The RAVE Act amends the 1986 "Crackhouse Statute" on the assumption that electronic music concerts are comparable to crackhouses. This article submits that the rationale behind the former Crackhouse statute does not logically support the RAVE Act and that the new law, as enacted, is unconstitutionally overbroad, infringing upon First Amendment rights. This article shows that the “rave culture,” its associated drug use and electronic music performances (sometimes known as raves) are not inextricably linked. The article also explores policy arguments that may be asserted against the RAVE Act and provides suggestions on how to amend the existing statute to ...


The Market For Criminal Justice: Federalism, Crime Control And Jurisdictional Competition, Doron Teichman Sep 2004

The Market For Criminal Justice: Federalism, Crime Control And Jurisdictional Competition, Doron Teichman

Law & Economics Working Papers Archive: 2003-2009

For the most part, the United States has a decentralized criminal justice system. State legislatures define the majority of crimes and set out the punishments for those crimes. In addition, the enforcement of criminal laws lies, in most cases, in the hands of local law enforcement agencies. This article points out how this decentralized structure drives local jurisdictions to harshen their criminal justice system in order to displace crime to neighboring jurisdictions. More precisely, local jurisdictions can attempt to displace crime in two distinct ways. First, they can raise the expected sanction to a level that is higher than that ...


Sex, Shame, And The Law: An Economic Perspective On Megan's Law, Doron Teichman Sep 2004

Sex, Shame, And The Law: An Economic Perspective On Megan's Law, Doron Teichman

Law & Economics Working Papers Archive: 2003-2009

This Article focuses on the question, how should policymakers aiming to minimize the cost of sanctioning utilize legal and nonlegal sanctions when designing a system of criminal sanctions. After presenting the general economic case for the use of nonlegal sanctions the article turns to present a model of shaming, which unlike existing models, incorporates the endogenous effects of legal and nonlegal sanctions. This model demonstrates that tailoring an efficient regime that combines legal and nonlegal sanctions might be more difficult than previously perceived by law and economics scholars. A specific case study presented in this article is of the current ...


Apprendi's Limits, Roger Craig Green Sep 2004

Apprendi's Limits, Roger Craig Green

ExpressO

This article argues that Blakely v. Washington did not decide (explicitly or implicitly) whether the Federal Sentencing Guidelines are constitutional. It also claims that the best interpretation of Apprendi v. New Jersey would uphold the Guidelines because they do not result in a punishment above the crime of conviction's statutory maximum. The notion that statutory maxima are constitutionally important stems from separation of power principles. Congress, not the Commission, is responsible for defining crimes, and thereby for prescribing how much punishment is authorized by a jury's guilty verdict.