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Criminal Law

Eighth Amendment

University of Kentucky

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Full-Text Articles in Law

What Is Criminal Restitution?, Cortney E. Lollar Nov 2014

What Is Criminal Restitution?, Cortney E. Lollar

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

A new form of restitution has become a core aspect of criminal punishment. Courts now order defendants to compensate victims for an increasingly broad category of losses, including emotional and psychological losses and losses for which the defendant was not found guilty. Criminal restitution therefore moves far beyond its traditional purpose of disgorging a defendant's ill-gotten gains. Instead, restitution has become a mechanism of imposing additional punishment. Courts, however, have failed to recognize the punitive nature of restitution and thus enter restitution orders without regard to the constitutional protections that normally attach to criminal proceedings. This Article deploys a novel …


Capital Punishment As Human Sacrifice: A Societal Ritual As Depicted In George Eliot's Adam Bede, Roberta M. Harding Jan 2000

Capital Punishment As Human Sacrifice: A Societal Ritual As Depicted In George Eliot's Adam Bede, Roberta M. Harding

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

The purpose of this article is to identify, describe, and analyze the historic and contemporary connection between the practices of capital punishment and human sacrifice. After describing how human sacrifice constitutes an integral component of capital punishment, it will be argued that the institutionalization of this antiquated barbaric ritual, vis-a-vis the use of capital punishment, renders the present use of the death penalty in the United States incompatible with "the evolving standards of decency that mark the progress of a maturing society"; and that consequently, this facet of capital punishment renders the penalty at odds with the Eighth Amendment's prohibition …


The Gallows To The Gurney: Analyzing The (Un)Constitutionality Of The Methods Of Execution, Roberta M. Harding Oct 1996

The Gallows To The Gurney: Analyzing The (Un)Constitutionality Of The Methods Of Execution, Roberta M. Harding

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

The objective of this article is to examine this issue by formulating an analytical framework for determining when methods of execution constitute cruel and unusual punishment. This task is accomplished Part II by briefly tracing the historical evolution of the Eighth Amendment's Cruel and Unusual Punishments Clause. Part III examines the prohibition's core components. Part IV reviews the traditional and modem interpretations of cruel and unusual punishment as applied to the methods of capital punishment, and assesses the standard with which to determine whether a specific method of execution comports with the present interpretation of cruel and unusual punishment as …


Defining Excessiveness: Applying The Eighth Amendment To Civil Forfeiture After Austin V. United States, Sarah N. Welling, Medrith Lee Hager Jan 1995

Defining Excessiveness: Applying The Eighth Amendment To Civil Forfeiture After Austin V. United States, Sarah N. Welling, Medrith Lee Hager

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

In 1971, agents of the federal government seized a $20,000 yaught after finding a small quantity of marijuana on board. Ten years later government agents confiscated a twenty-eight foot boat that held drugs consisting of one marijuana twig and two marijuana leaves. Since then, the government has taken possession of a $250,000 home because a drug transaction occurred in a car parked in the driveway and of a smaller dwelling because the owner used the telephone inside to set up a drug deal at another location. In another incident, local, county, state, and federal agents shot and killed the owner …


“Endgame”: Competency And The Execution Of Condemned Inmates—A Proposal To Satisfy The Eighth Amendment's Prohibition Against The Infliction Of Cruel And Unusual Punishment, Roberta M. Harding Jan 1994

“Endgame”: Competency And The Execution Of Condemned Inmates—A Proposal To Satisfy The Eighth Amendment's Prohibition Against The Infliction Of Cruel And Unusual Punishment, Roberta M. Harding

Law Faculty Scholarly Articles

The first section of this Article provides a brief historical overview of the proscription against executing the incompetent and the proffered rationales. This section also examines key factors contributing to the increase in the number of mentally dysfunctional condemned inmates. Then the Article explores the traditional competency-to-execute model that remains in use. This analysis will include a discussion of specific issues, such as: the term used to describe the requisite mental affliction, how that term is defined in order to identify who may ultimately benefit from the rule in Ford v. Wainwright, what standard is appropriate to determine whether …