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Full-Text Articles in Law

Private Prisons, Private Governance: Essay On Developments In Private-Sector Resistance To Privatized Immigration Detention, Danielle C. Jefferis Oct 2019

Private Prisons, Private Governance: Essay On Developments In Private-Sector Resistance To Privatized Immigration Detention, Danielle C. Jefferis

Northwestern Journal of Law & Social Policy

No abstract provided.


Banning Solitary For Prisoners With Mental Illness: The Blurred Line Between Physical And Psychological Harm, Rosalind Dillon Mar 2019

Banning Solitary For Prisoners With Mental Illness: The Blurred Line Between Physical And Psychological Harm, Rosalind Dillon

Northwestern Journal of Law & Social Policy

No abstract provided.


Motus Animi In Mente Insana: An Emotion-Oriented Paradigm Of Legal Insanity Informed By The Neuroscience Of Moral Judgments And Decision-Making, Federica Coppola Jan 2019

Motus Animi In Mente Insana: An Emotion-Oriented Paradigm Of Legal Insanity Informed By The Neuroscience Of Moral Judgments And Decision-Making, Federica Coppola

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

Legal insanity is deeply rooted in an intellectualistic conception of the capacity for moral rationality. The vast majority of insanity standards essentially consider the integrity of the defendant’s cognitive faculties at the time of the offense. However, the cognitivist model of legal insanity collides with the body of neuroscientific and behavioral literature about the critical role of emotions in moral judgments and decision-making processes. Drawing upon this scientific knowledge, this Article reforms the intellectualistic substance of the capacity for moral rationality that underlies the insanity doctrine by including emotions in its relevant psychological set. Hence, it provides a revised model …


Perception Versus Punishment In Cybercrime, James T. Graves, Alessandro Acquisti, Ross Anderson Jan 2019

Perception Versus Punishment In Cybercrime, James T. Graves, Alessandro Acquisti, Ross Anderson

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

No abstract provided.


Managing Digital Discovery In Criminal Cases, Jenia I. Turner Jan 2019

Managing Digital Discovery In Criminal Cases, Jenia I. Turner

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

The burdens and challenges of discovery—especially electronic discovery—are usually associated with civil, not criminal cases. This is beginning to change. Already common in white-collar crime cases, voluminous digital discovery is increasingly a feature of ordinary criminal prosecutions.

This Article examines the explosive growth of digital evidence in criminal cases and the efforts to manage its challenges. It then advances three claims about criminal case discovery in the digital age. First, the volume, complexity, and cost of digital discovery will incentivize the prosecution and the defense to cooperate more closely in cases with significant amounts of electronically stored information (ESI). Second, …


Torture And Respect, Jacob Bronsther Jan 2019

Torture And Respect, Jacob Bronsther

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

There are two well-worn arguments against a severe punishment like long-term incarceration: it is disproportionate to the offender’s wrongdoing and an inefficient use of state resources. This Article considers a third response, one which penal reformers and theorists have radically neglected, even though it is recognized in the law: the punishment is degrading. In considering penal degradation, this Article examines what judges and scholars have deemed the exemplar of degrading treatment—torture. What is torture, and why is it wrong to torture people? If we can answer this question, this Article maintains, then we can understand when and why certain …


Mens Rea Reform And Its Discontents, Benjamin Levin Jan 2019

Mens Rea Reform And Its Discontents, Benjamin Levin

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

This Article examines the contentious debates over recent proposals for “mens rea reform.” The substantive criminal law has expanded dramatically, and legislators have criminalized a great deal of conduct that is quite common. Often, new criminal laws do not require that defendants know they are acting unlawfully. Mens rea reform proposals seek to address the problems of overcriminalization and unintentional offending by increasing the burden on prosecutors to prove a defendant’s culpable mental state. These proposals have been a staple of conservative-backed bills on criminal justice reform. Many on the left remain skeptical of mens rea reform and view …


Death With Dignity For The Seemingly Undignified: Denial Of Aid In Dying In Prison, Kathleen Messinger Jan 2019

Death With Dignity For The Seemingly Undignified: Denial Of Aid In Dying In Prison, Kathleen Messinger

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

The medical community has fundamentally changed how we think about life and death. Humans in privileged parts of the world are living longer and have access to life-saving treatment. The focus on quantity of life then has shifted to emphasizing quality of life and questioning whether longevity should at the expense of comfort or satisfaction. The conversation surrounding quality of life, and by extension end-of-life care, has included whether a competent adult has a right, or should have a right to end their own life on their own terms. The history of aid in dying is wrought with political ideology, …


Measuring Change: From Rates Of Recidivism To Markers Of Desistance, Cecelia M. Klingele Jan 2019

Measuring Change: From Rates Of Recidivism To Markers Of Desistance, Cecelia M. Klingele

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

Reducing the incidence of crime is a primary task of the criminal justice system and one for which it rightly should be held accountable. The system’s success is frequently judged by the recidivism rates of those who are subject to various criminal justice interventions, from treatment programs to imprisonment. This Article suggests that, however popular, recidivism alone is a poor metric for gauging the success of criminal justice interventions or of those who participate in them. This is true primarily because recidivism is a binary measure, and behavioral change is a multi-faceted process. Accepting recidivism as a valid, stand-alone metric …


"Hash"Ing Out Inequality In The Legal Recreational Cannabis Industry, Maya Rahwanji Jan 2019

"Hash"Ing Out Inequality In The Legal Recreational Cannabis Industry, Maya Rahwanji

Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business

No abstract provided.


Coerced Fate: How Negotiation Models Lead To False Confessions, Kiera Janzen Jan 2019

Coerced Fate: How Negotiation Models Lead To False Confessions, Kiera Janzen

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

Police interrogators across the United States employ tactics that can lead to coerced, often false, confessions. While police departments have shifted away from physically coercive methods of interrogation, psychologically coercive practices that utilize deceit have taken their place. The reliability of confession evidence becomes a significant concern when interrogators elicit confessions using these techniques. Further demonstrating the need for change in this realm, false confessions and wrongful convictions place a financial burden on cities and taxpayers, who foot the bill for settlements and damages resulting from these cases. The current legal framework in the U.S. permits—by failing to explicitly prohibit—these …


A Guiding Hand Or A Slap On The Wrist: Can Drug Courts Be The Solution To Maternal Opioid Use?, Cara O'Connor Jan 2019

A Guiding Hand Or A Slap On The Wrist: Can Drug Courts Be The Solution To Maternal Opioid Use?, Cara O'Connor

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

As the opioid epidemic has expanded its reach, the number of pregnant women addicted to opioids has increased exponentially in recent years. The increase in the number of opioid-addicted pregnant women has resulted in a drastic expansion in the number of newborns who experience Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS). Newborns affected with NAS experience painful withdrawal and cost more to care for due to their increased health needs. In an effort to address the growing number of pregnant women using opioids and babies born with NAS, some states have turned to the criminal justice system. Three states–Tennessee, South Carolina, and Alabama–have …


Artificial Intelligence And Role-Reversible Judgment, Kiel Brennan-Marquez, Stephen Henderson Jan 2019

Artificial Intelligence And Role-Reversible Judgment, Kiel Brennan-Marquez, Stephen Henderson

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

Intelligent machines increasingly outperform human experts, raising the question of when (and why) humans should remain ‘in the loop’ of decision-making. One common answer focuses on outcomes: relying on intuition and experience, humans are capable of identifying interpretive errors—sometimes disastrous errors—that elude machines. Though plausible today, this argument will wear thin as technology evolves.

In this Article, we seek out sturdier ground: a defense of human judgment that focuses on the normative integrity of decision-making. Specifically, we propose an account of democratic equality as ‘role-reversibility.’ In a democracy, those tasked with making decisions should be susceptible, reciprocally, to the impact …


Third-Class Citizenship: The Escalating Legal Consequences Of Committing A "Violent" Crime, Michael O'Hear Jan 2019

Third-Class Citizenship: The Escalating Legal Consequences Of Committing A "Violent" Crime, Michael O'Hear

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

For many years, American legislatures have been steadily attaching a wide range of legal consequences to convictions—and sometimes even just charges—for crimes that are classified as “violent.” These consequences affect many key aspects of the criminal process, including pretrial detention, eligibility for pretrial diversion, sentencing, eligibility for parole and other opportunities for release from incarceration, and the length and intensity of supervision in the community. The consequences can also affect a person’s legal status and rights long after the sentence for the underlying offense has been served. A conviction for a violent crime can result in registration requirements, lifetime disqualification …


Regulating High-Frequency Trading: The Case For Individual Criminal Liability, Orlando Cosme Jr. Jan 2019

Regulating High-Frequency Trading: The Case For Individual Criminal Liability, Orlando Cosme Jr.

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

The popular imagination of securities trading is a chaotic, physical stock exchange—a busy floor with hurried traders yelling, “buy, buy, buy!” While this image is a Hollywood and media favorite, it is no longer accurate. In 2019, most securities trading is conducted electronically on digital markets. One type of trading strategy, high-frequency trading, utilizes algorithms, data centers, fiber optic cables, and supercomputers to obtain an edge in the market. High-frequency trading has leveraged advancements in technology to constitute over half of all trading volume in a given day. High-frequency trading, however, has come under scrutiny in recent years as it …


Reading The Prisoner's Letter: Attorney-Client Confidentiality In Inmate Correspondence, Gregory Sisk, Michelle King, Joy Nissen Beitzel, Bridget Duffus, Katherine Koehler Jan 2019

Reading The Prisoner's Letter: Attorney-Client Confidentiality In Inmate Correspondence, Gregory Sisk, Michelle King, Joy Nissen Beitzel, Bridget Duffus, Katherine Koehler

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

No one in our society has a more compelling need to communicate in complete confidence with a lawyer than a prisoner, when challenging a conviction as wrongful or prison conditions as unlawful. No one has a greater need to be able to engage in the uninhibited discussion of highly personal matters, tragic events, and official misconduct. A prisoner’s constitutional rights to freedom of speech, access to the courts, due process, and assistance of counsel are placed in unique jeopardy when a correctional system insists on prying into the substantive contents of legal mail.

In this Article, we explain the vital …


Mass Incarceration Paradigm Shift?: Convergence In An Age Of Divergence, Mugambi Jouet Jan 2019

Mass Incarceration Paradigm Shift?: Convergence In An Age Of Divergence, Mugambi Jouet

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

The peculiar harshness of modern American justice has led to a vigorous scholarly debate about the roots of mass incarceration and its divergence from humanitarian sentencing norms prevalent in other Western democracies. Even though the United States reached virtually world-record imprisonment levels between 1983 and 2010, the Supreme Court never found a prison term to be “cruel and unusual punishment” under the Eighth Amendment. By countenancing extreme punishments with no equivalent elsewhere in the West, such as life sentences for petty recidivists, the Justices’ reasoning came to exemplify the exceptional nature of American justice. Many scholars concluded that punitiveness had …


The Federal Bank Robbery Act: Why The Current Split Involving The Use Of Force Requirement For Attempted Bank Robbery Is Really An Exception, Paul Piaskoski Jan 2019

The Federal Bank Robbery Act: Why The Current Split Involving The Use Of Force Requirement For Attempted Bank Robbery Is Really An Exception, Paul Piaskoski

Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology

The Federal Bank Robbery Act had been on the books for seventy years by the time the federal appellate courts began to openly quarrel about the necessary elements of attempted bank robbery under the first paragraph of the Act, 18 U.S.C. § 2113(a). Specifically, the circuits disagree as to whether proof of actual force is required to sustain a conviction of attempted bank robbery, or if attempted force is sufficient for a conviction. Legal scholars have repeatedly framed this split in authority as a consequence of competing methods of statutory interpretation. In this Comment, however, I argue that it is …