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A Complexidade Do Problema E A Simplicidade Da Solução: A Questão Das Penas Mínimas, Maira Machado Nov 2009

A Complexidade Do Problema E A Simplicidade Da Solução: A Questão Das Penas Mínimas, Maira Machado

Núcleo de Estudos sobre o Crime e a Pena

Este relatório busca oferecer elementos ao debate sobre a pertinência das penas mínimas de prisão na legislação criminal. Após um exercício de conceituação da pena mínima, narramos brevemente as práticas legislativas de países com diferentes tradições jurídicas (França, Brasil e Canadá) nos últimos duzentos anos. O objetivo aqui foi traçar um panorama do surgimento dessa prática e realçar as diferentes formas construídas pela legislação para flexibilizar ou minimizar seus efeitos. Em seguida, narramos, em relação aos mesmos países, algumas experiências judiciais de questionamento ou confirmação da prática de estabelecer mínimos na legislação. Esse estudo levou-nos a observar mais de perto …


Examining The "Csi-Effect" In The Cases Of Circumstantial Evidence And Eyewitness Testimony: Multivariate And Path Analyses, Hon. Donald E. Shelton, Young S. Kim, Gregg Barak Sep 2009

Examining The "Csi-Effect" In The Cases Of Circumstantial Evidence And Eyewitness Testimony: Multivariate And Path Analyses, Hon. Donald E. Shelton, Young S. Kim, Gregg Barak

Hon. Donald E. Shelton

As part of a larger investigation of the changing nature of juror behavior in the context of technology development, this study examined important questions unanswered by previous studies on the “CSI-effect.” In answering such questions, the present study applied multivariate and path analyses for the first time. The results showed that (a) watching CSI dramas had no independent effect on jurors' verdicts, (b) the exposure to CSI dramas did not interact with individual characteristics, (c) different individual characteristics were significantly associated with different types of evidence, and (d) CSI watching had no direct effect on jurors' decisions, and it had …


The Legal And Practical Aspects Of Atm's In Tanzania, Daudi Mwita Nyamaka Mr. Jul 2009

The Legal And Practical Aspects Of Atm's In Tanzania, Daudi Mwita Nyamaka Mr.

Daudi Mwita Nyamaka Mr.

The concern of our study was to examine the legal and practical aspects of ATMs in Tanzania. The major problems that were being examined are; the 24 hours operation on ATMs vis-à-vis system failure or error and the system of one bank allowing cardholders of another bank to use its ATMs. With the first problem, all banks in Tanzania with ATMs have attractive advertisements to customers that affirm sufficient services in any time of the day but in reality, the machines usually fail to respond the instructions of the cardholder regardless the fact that the cardholder inserts the card and …


The Admissibility Of Social Science Evidence In Criminal Cases, Hon. Donald E. Shelton Jul 2009

The Admissibility Of Social Science Evidence In Criminal Cases, Hon. Donald E. Shelton

Hon. Donald E. Shelton

The rapid development of emerging scientific methods, especially the increased understanding of deoxyribonucleic acid ("DNA"), has had, and will undoubtedly continue to have, an almost stunning impact on our justice system, particularly at the trial level. The forensic applications of these new scientific discoveries have been most dramatically seen in the criminal trial court. They have also caused us to re-examine other forms of forensic evidence that have been rather routinely admitted in our courts. Forensic evidence from social scientists is certainly one of those forms. Which of these forms of scientific forensic evidence have sufficient validity to be used …


Good Call, County Attorney Gaertner; Your Turn, Legislature, C. Peter Erlinder Apr 2009

Good Call, County Attorney Gaertner; Your Turn, Legislature, C. Peter Erlinder

C. Peter Erlinder

No abstract provided.


Recent Private International Law Developments Before The Supreme Court Of Canada, Antonin I. Pribetic Mar 2009

Recent Private International Law Developments Before The Supreme Court Of Canada, Antonin I. Pribetic

Antonin I. Pribetic

A trilogy of interesting cases involving private international law recently wended their way to the Supreme Court of Canada: (1) King v. Drabinsky (an Ontario case addressing the applicability of the Charter in respect of the enforcement of a foreign judgment); (2) Teck Cominco Metals Ltd. v. Lloyd's Underwriters (a British Columbia case involving declaratory relief in the context of parallel proceedings and forum non conveniens); and (3) Yugraneft v. Rexx Management Corporation (an Alberta case which affirmed that the two-year limitation period under s.3 of Alberta's Limitations Act, governs when a party seeks the recognition and enforcement in Alberta …


The Real Authors Of The Congo Crimes. Nkunda Has Been Arrested But Who Will Arrest Kagame?, C. Peter Erlinder Feb 2009

The Real Authors Of The Congo Crimes. Nkunda Has Been Arrested But Who Will Arrest Kagame?, C. Peter Erlinder

C. Peter Erlinder

No abstract provided.


The Reclassification Of Extreme Pornographic Images, Andrew D. Murray Jan 2009

The Reclassification Of Extreme Pornographic Images, Andrew D. Murray

Professor Andrew D Murray

Legal controls over the importation and supply of pornographic imagery promulgated nearly half a century ago in the Obscene Publications Acts have proven to be inadequate to deal with the challenge of the internet age. With pornographic imagery more readily accessible in the UK than at any time in our history, legislators have been faced with the challenge of stemming the tide. One particular problem has been the ready accessibility of extreme images which mix sex and violence or which portray necrophilia or bestiality. This article examines the Government’s attempt to control the availability of such material through s.63 of …


Thomas Hardy’S Tess Of The D’Urbervilles, Mubashshir Sarshar Jan 2009

Thomas Hardy’S Tess Of The D’Urbervilles, Mubashshir Sarshar

Mubashshir Sarshar

No abstract provided.


Rights Of Arrested Person- Case Analysis, Mubashshir Sarshar Jan 2009

Rights Of Arrested Person- Case Analysis, Mubashshir Sarshar

Mubashshir Sarshar

No abstract provided.


Violation Of Right To Way, Right To Access Of Light And Right To Access Of Air And Other Easementary Rights, Mubashshir Sarshar Jan 2009

Violation Of Right To Way, Right To Access Of Light And Right To Access Of Air And Other Easementary Rights, Mubashshir Sarshar

Mubashshir Sarshar

No abstract provided.


Comparative Study Of The Prinicples Of Contract Formation Of India, China, Usa And France, Mubashshir Sarshar Jan 2009

Comparative Study Of The Prinicples Of Contract Formation Of India, China, Usa And France, Mubashshir Sarshar

Mubashshir Sarshar

No abstract provided.


Non Resumption Of Cohabatation As A Fault Ground Of Divorce Under The Hindu Marriage Act, Mubashshir Sarshar Jan 2009

Non Resumption Of Cohabatation As A Fault Ground Of Divorce Under The Hindu Marriage Act, Mubashshir Sarshar

Mubashshir Sarshar

No abstract provided.


Fact Suppression And The Subversion Of Capital Punishment: What Death Penalty Foes On The Supreme Court And In The Media Do Not Want The Public To Know, Lester --- Jackson Jan 2009

Fact Suppression And The Subversion Of Capital Punishment: What Death Penalty Foes On The Supreme Court And In The Media Do Not Want The Public To Know, Lester --- Jackson

LESTER JACKSON

The U.S. Supreme Court and other courts, aided by the media in suppressing critical information about case facts and case law, have all but abolished capital punishment, turning what's left into a costly and agonizing farce. While pretending to superlative morality, dishonesty, especially half-truth, is central to their cause. An egregious example was Roger Coleman, widely but with knowing falsity portrayed as a choir boy executed because heartless judges impatiently refused to hear evidence of his innocence. Going further, in myriad cases, death sentences are reversed or banned when guilt is not even disputed. This is achieved by focusing upon …


Back To Fundamentals: The Worsening Results Of Ignoring The Social Contract In Baltimore City, John T. Stinson Jan 2009

Back To Fundamentals: The Worsening Results Of Ignoring The Social Contract In Baltimore City, John T. Stinson

John T Stinson Jr.

This article examines how "get tough" law enforcement policies like Project EXILE, which target otherwise underserved low-income communities, often result in deeper rifts between poor neighborhoods and "mainstream society." The article contrasts the Maryland EXILE program implemented in Baltimore City by the U.S. Attorney, D. Md., with the "Stop Snitching" phenomenon, concluding that both work together to advance the erosion of the traditional social contract thought to undergird American democracy.


Heller’S Constitutional Dialogue: How The Supreme Court’S Choice Of Language In District Of Columbia V. Heller Is Instructive For Anticipating Future Interpretations Of The Second Amendment., Jason E. Niehaus Jan 2009

Heller’S Constitutional Dialogue: How The Supreme Court’S Choice Of Language In District Of Columbia V. Heller Is Instructive For Anticipating Future Interpretations Of The Second Amendment., Jason E. Niehaus

Jason E Niehaus

This article was an analysis of the language used by the Supreme Court in its decision in District of Columbia v. Heller to predict (ultimately correctly) the Court's later ruling regarding the Incorporation of the Second Amendment.


Alford Pleas In The Age Of Innocence, Allison D. Redlich, Asil Ozdogru Jan 2009

Alford Pleas In The Age Of Innocence, Allison D. Redlich, Asil Ozdogru

Allison D Redlich

No abstract provided.


Universal Jurisdiction And The Case Of Belgium: A Critical Assessment, Roozbeh (Rudy) B. Baker Jan 2009

Universal Jurisdiction And The Case Of Belgium: A Critical Assessment, Roozbeh (Rudy) B. Baker

Roozbeh (Rudy) B. Baker

Praised in some quarters as a useful tool for bringing criminal perpetrators to justice, criticized by others as a threat to state sovereignty, universal jurisdiction has certainly emerged as a heated topic within international criminal law. In 1993, the Kingdom of Belgium enacted a domestic statute, the Loi du 16 Juin, which codified (in domestic Belgian law) the use and application of universal jurisdiction (for international crimes) in Belgian courts. The Statute, which went through two major revisions in February 1999 and April 2003, granted Belgian courts jurisdiction over war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide, regardless of where in …


An Attack On Self-Defense, Reid G. Fontaine Jan 2009

An Attack On Self-Defense, Reid G. Fontaine

Reid G. Fontaine

Debate about the distinction between justification and excuse in criminal law theory has been lively during the last thirty years. Questions as to the nature and structure of various affirmative defenses continue to be raised, and the doctrine of self-defense has been at the center of much discussion. Three main articulations have been advanced: a purely objective theory, a purely subjective theory, and an objective/subjective hybrid. In the present Article, I support a hybrid model and propose a three-requirement framework that delineates the criteria that must be met to satisfy self-defense as a legitimate justification. Because this three-requirement framework raises …


Attorney Liability Under The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act: Legal And Ethical Challenges And Solutions, William Alan Nelson Ii Jan 2009

Attorney Liability Under The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act: Legal And Ethical Challenges And Solutions, William Alan Nelson Ii

William Alan Nelson II

This article examines the legal end ethical obstacles facing attorneys when counseling clients on the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA). It gives the background of the FCPA and the circumstances of its enactment, specifically looking at the legislative history of the Act. The article also provides the statutory language of the FCPA and cases illustrating how the FCPA has been applied. It examines the relationship of the FCPA and the ABA Model Rules of Professional Conduct and state ethical rules on attorney conduct. The article provides multiple hypotheticals illustrating the ethical quagmires attorneys face when counseling clients on the FCPA. …


Extraordinary And Compelling: A Re-Examination Of The Justifications For Compassionate Release, William W. Berry Iii Jan 2009

Extraordinary And Compelling: A Re-Examination Of The Justifications For Compassionate Release, William W. Berry Iii

William W Berry III

Federal law, unbeknownst to many, includes a provision that permits the immediate release of federal prisoners. This safety valve provision requires that the Director of the Bureau of Prisons make a motion on behalf of the prisoner in order to secure the prisoner's compassionate release. Far from being a veiled version of parole, this compassionate release provision is to be used only in circumstances deemed "extraordinary and compelling." While the Bureau of Prisons has read this language very narrowly for many years, considering only terminally ill inmates as candidates for compassionate release, the Sentencing Commission modified its Guideline commentary in …


An Indirect-Effects Model Of Mediated Adjudication: The Csi Myth, The Tech Effect, And Metropolitan Jurors' Expectations For Scientific Evidence, Hon. Donald E. Shelton, Young S. Kim, Gregg Barak Jan 2009

An Indirect-Effects Model Of Mediated Adjudication: The Csi Myth, The Tech Effect, And Metropolitan Jurors' Expectations For Scientific Evidence, Hon. Donald E. Shelton, Young S. Kim, Gregg Barak

Hon. Donald E. Shelton

Part I of this article defines the "CSI effect", given that the phrase has come to have many different meanings ascribed to it. It emphasizes the epistemological importance of first describing the effect of the “CSI effect” as observed in juror behavior documented in a new study conducted in Wayne County (Detroit), Michigan, and then looking at causative factors that may be related to an explanation of those observed effects. Part II describes the methodology of the Wayne County study, provides a descriptive analysis of Wayne County jurors, and compares the jurors demographically to the Washtenaw County jurors who were …


Twenty-First Century Forensic Science Challenges For Trial Judges In Criminal Cases: Where The "Polybutadiene" Meets The "Bitumen", Hon. Donald E. Shelton Jan 2009

Twenty-First Century Forensic Science Challenges For Trial Judges In Criminal Cases: Where The "Polybutadiene" Meets The "Bitumen", Hon. Donald E. Shelton

Hon. Donald E. Shelton

This artice discusses the challenges faced by trial judges in crimnal cases in fulfilling their Daubert "gatekeeping" role in the face of rapid advancements in forensic science. Admissibility questions for various forms of scientific evidence are reviewed, from DNA to fingerprints to social science "syndrome" evidence. The article discusses the pretrial issues presented by DNA databases, search issues and limitations problems as well as the impact of forensic science developments on juror expectations. Finally, forensic science issues regarding trial conduct are discussed, including voir dire, arguments and jury instructions,


No Rational Basis: The Pragmatic Case For Marijuana Law Reform, Eric Blumenson Jan 2009

No Rational Basis: The Pragmatic Case For Marijuana Law Reform, Eric Blumenson

Eric Blumenson

This article presents a critique of marijuana prohibition and suggests some alternative regulatory approaches that would be more productive and consonant with justice. Part I relies on a forty-year empirical record to demonstrate that (1) reliance on a law enforcement approach has aggravated rather than mitigated the risks involved with marijuana use, and (2) criminalization, which results in the arrest of more than 700,000 Americans annually for possession of any amount of marijuana, is an inhumane and destructive response to an act that almost 100 million Americans have committed. Part II assesses the relative merits of several alternative reform policies, …


Pretend “Gun-Free” School Zones: A Deadly Legal Fiction, David B. Kopel Jan 2009

Pretend “Gun-Free” School Zones: A Deadly Legal Fiction, David B. Kopel

David B Kopel

Most states issue permits to carry a concealed handgun for lawful protection to an applicant who is over 21 years of age, and who passes a fingerprint-based background check and a safety class. These permits allow the person to carry a concealed defensive handgun almost everywhere in the state. Should professors, school teachers, or adult college and graduate students who have such permits be allowed to carry firearms on campus? In the last two years, many state legislatures have debated the topic. School boards, regents, and administrators are likewise faced with decisions about whether to change campus firearms policies. The …


Wild-West Cowboys Versus Cheese-Eating Surrender Monkeys: Some Problems In Comparative Approaches To Extreme Speech, Eric Heinze Jan 2009

Wild-West Cowboys Versus Cheese-Eating Surrender Monkeys: Some Problems In Comparative Approaches To Extreme Speech, Eric Heinze

Prof. Eric Heinze, Queen Mary University of London

All European states ban some form of hate speech. US law precludes such bans. In view of the political and symbolic importance of free speech, it becomes tempting to assume that trans-Atlantic differences towards hate speech reflect deeper cultural divisions.

However, we must pay attention to comparative methodology before drawing ambitious conclusions about cross-cultural social and political differences that derive solely from differences in formal, black-letter norms. In this volume, Robert Post claims that formal, constitutional requirements of content-neutral regulation reflect a freer public sphere in the US, in contrast to the European public sphere.

Yet a legal-realist approach casts …


Cumulative Jurisprudence And Hate Speech: Sexual Orientation And Analogies To Disability, Age And Obesity, Eric Heinze Jan 2009

Cumulative Jurisprudence And Hate Speech: Sexual Orientation And Analogies To Disability, Age And Obesity, Eric Heinze

Prof. Eric Heinze, Queen Mary University of London

Non-discrimination norms in human rights instruments generally enumerate specified categories for protection, such as race, ethnicity, sex or religion, etc. They often omit express reference to sexual minorities.

Through open-ended interpretation, however, sexual minorities subsequently become incorporated. That ‘cumulative jurisprudence’ yields protections for sexual minorities through norms governing privacy, employment, age of consent, or freedoms of speech and association.

Hate speech bans, too, are often formulated with reference to traditionally recognised categories, particularly race and religion. It might be expected that the same cumulative jurisprudence should therefore be applied to include sexual minorities. In this article, that approach is challenged. …