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Sustainable Development Arrested By U.S. Criminal Law, Steven Ferrey Jan 2019

Sustainable Development Arrested By U.S. Criminal Law, Steven Ferrey

American University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Why The Categorical Approach Should Not Be Used When Determining Whether An Offense Is A Crime Of Violence Under The Residual Clause Of 18 U.S.C. § 924 (C), Mary Frances Richardson Jan 2018

Why The Categorical Approach Should Not Be Used When Determining Whether An Offense Is A Crime Of Violence Under The Residual Clause Of 18 U.S.C. § 924 (C), Mary Frances Richardson

American University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Fundamentally Unfair: Databases, Deportation, And The Crimmigrant Gang Member, Katherine Conway Jan 2017

Fundamentally Unfair: Databases, Deportation, And The Crimmigrant Gang Member, Katherine Conway

American University Law Review

Provocative language painting immigrants as dangerous criminals and promises of increased immigration enforcement were cornerstones of Donald j Trump's presidential candidacy. As president, he has maintained this rhetoric and made good on many of his promises by broadening the definition of "criminal conduct" for immigration enforcement purposes, touting a renewed focus on immigrant gangs and cartels, and conducting several nation-wide anti-gang sweeps that placed an estimated 1095 "known" gang members in Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) custody. But the Trump Administration did not create the specter of the criminal immigrant, or "crimmigrant," gang member, nor did it create the detection …


Is That A Kielbasa In Your Pocket? Applying A Hybrid Standard To The Federal Bank Robbery Act When Bank Robbers Wield Objects As Weapons During A Bank Robbery, Cory A. Hutchens Jan 2016

Is That A Kielbasa In Your Pocket? Applying A Hybrid Standard To The Federal Bank Robbery Act When Bank Robbers Wield Objects As Weapons During A Bank Robbery, Cory A. Hutchens

American University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Why Capital Punishment Is No Punishment At All, Jason Iuliano Jan 2015

Why Capital Punishment Is No Punishment At All, Jason Iuliano

American University Law Review

Capital punishment has generated an incredible amount of public debate. Is the practice constitutional? Does it deter crime? Is it humane? Supporters and opponents of capital punishment disagree on all of these issues and many more. There is perhaps only one thing that unites these two camps: the belief that the death penalty is society's most severe punishment. In this Article, I argue that this belief is mistaken. Capital punishment is not at the top of the punishment hierarchy. In fact, it is no punishment at all. My argument builds from a basic conception of punishment endorsed by the Supreme …


Unspringing The Witness Memory And Demeanor Trap: What Every Judge And Juror Needs To Know About Cognitive Psychology And Witness Credibility, Mark W. Bennett Jan 2015

Unspringing The Witness Memory And Demeanor Trap: What Every Judge And Juror Needs To Know About Cognitive Psychology And Witness Credibility, Mark W. Bennett

American University Law Review

The soul of America's civil and criminal justice systems is the ability of jurors and judges to accurately determine the facts of a dispute. This invariably implicates the credibility of witnesses. In making credibility determinations, jurors and judges necessarily decide the accuracy of witnesses' memories and the effect of the witnesses' demeanor on their credibility. Almost all jurisdictions' pattern jury instructions about witness credibility explain nothing about how a witness's memories for events and conversations work-and how startlingly fallible memories actually are. They simply instruct the jurors to consider the witness's "memory" with no additional guidance. Similarly, the same pattern …


Brass Rings And Red-Headed Stepchildren: Protecting Active Criminal Informants, Michael L. Rich Jan 2012

Brass Rings And Red-Headed Stepchildren: Protecting Active Criminal Informants, Michael L. Rich

American University Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Somali Piracy Problem: A Global Puzzle Necessitating A Global Solution, Milena Sterio Jan 2011

The Somali Piracy Problem: A Global Puzzle Necessitating A Global Solution, Milena Sterio

American University Law Review

Over the past few years, piracy has exploded off the coast of Somalia. The Somali pirates congregate on a mother ship and then divide into smaller groups that sail out on tiny skiffs. Using potent weapons like AK-47’s and hand-propelled grenades, the Somali pirates then attack civilian ships carrying cargo through the Gulf of Aden, toward South Africa or Asia. Once they have overtaken the victim vessel, pirates typically hijack the vessel’s cargo and crewmembers. The former is often resold to willing buyers (some of which include terrorist organizations like Al Qaeda). The latter are taken to the Somali shore …


Mugged Twice?: Payment Of Ransom On The High Seas, Lawrence Rutkowski, Bruce G. Paulsen, Jonathan D. Stoian Dec 2010

Mugged Twice?: Payment Of Ransom On The High Seas, Lawrence Rutkowski, Bruce G. Paulsen, Jonathan D. Stoian

American University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Salvage Awards On The Somali Coast: Who Pays For Public And Private Rescue Efforts In Piracy Crises?, Geoffrey Christopher Rapp Nov 2010

Salvage Awards On The Somali Coast: Who Pays For Public And Private Rescue Efforts In Piracy Crises?, Geoffrey Christopher Rapp

American University Law Review

This paper, a contribution to the "Troubled Waters: Combating Modern Piracy with the Rule of Law" symposium, explores the question of who pays for rescue efforts associated with maritime piracy. The paper explores the availability of admiralty law's salvage awards to governmental and non-governmental actors who intervene to rescue vessels and crew from pirates. Such awards provide an unusual incentive to rescue, traditionally unavailable for land-based rescue, but may raise complicated questions of policy and international law. The paper concludes by comparing salvage awards to a recent trend in American states to adopt "Search and Rescue" expense statutes allowing governments …


Fighting Piracy With Private Security Measures: When Contract Law Should Tell Parties To Walk The Plank, Jennifer S. Martin Oct 2010

Fighting Piracy With Private Security Measures: When Contract Law Should Tell Parties To Walk The Plank, Jennifer S. Martin

American University Law Review

This Article addresses the following question: when should contract law permit parties to discontinue performance under a private security contract aimed to combat piracy? Piracy has been 'on the rise' off Somalia and in East Asia, with serious attacks escalating. Some shipping companies have responded by drafting 'best management practices', hiring security companies to advise on countering the threat and hiring armed or unarmed security protection. After presenting representative factual situations involving pirate attacks, the Article describes the traditional approach to defining the obligations of parties and the performance issues that arise during contractual performance. This approach takes into account …


How Piracy Has Shaped The Relationship Between American Law And International Law, Joel H. Samuels Aug 2010

How Piracy Has Shaped The Relationship Between American Law And International Law, Joel H. Samuels

American University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Rationality, Pirates, And The Law: A Retrospective, Peter T. Leeson Jul 2010

Rationality, Pirates, And The Law: A Retrospective, Peter T. Leeson

American University Law Review

In the late 1720s Caribbean piracy was brought to a screeching halt. An enhanced British naval presence was partly responsible for this. But most important in bringing pirates to their end was a series of early 18th-century legal changes that made it possible to effectively prosecute them. This short paper’s purpose is to recount those legal changes and document their effectiveness. Its other purpose is to analyze pirates’ response to the legal changes designed to exterminate them, which succeeded, at least partly, in frustrating the government’s goal. By providing a retrospective look at anti-piracy law and pirates’ reactions to that …


Foreword, José Luis Jesus Jun 2010

Foreword, José Luis Jesus

American University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Stepping Out Of The Vehicle: The Potential Of Arizona V. Gant To End Automatic Searches Incident To Arrest Beyond The Vehicular Context , Angad Singh Jan 2010

Stepping Out Of The Vehicle: The Potential Of Arizona V. Gant To End Automatic Searches Incident To Arrest Beyond The Vehicular Context , Angad Singh

American University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Countering Persistent Contemporary Sea Piracy: Expanding Jurisdictional Regimes, Joseph M. Isanga Jan 2010

Countering Persistent Contemporary Sea Piracy: Expanding Jurisdictional Regimes, Joseph M. Isanga

American University Law Review

No abstract provided.


No Shortcuts On Human Rights: Bail And The International Criminal Trial, Caroline L. Davidson Jan 2010

No Shortcuts On Human Rights: Bail And The International Criminal Trial, Caroline L. Davidson

American University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Expanding The Scope Of The Good-Faith Exception To The Exclusionary Rule To Include A Law Enforcement Officer's Reasonable Reliance On Well-Settled Case Law That Is Subsequently Overruled , Ross M. Oklewicz Jan 2010

Expanding The Scope Of The Good-Faith Exception To The Exclusionary Rule To Include A Law Enforcement Officer's Reasonable Reliance On Well-Settled Case Law That Is Subsequently Overruled , Ross M. Oklewicz

American University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Contemplating Cruel And Unusual: A Critical Analysis Of Baze V. Rees In The Context Of The Supreme Court's Eighth Amendment Proportionality Jurisprudence, Katie Roth Heilman Feb 2009

Contemplating Cruel And Unusual: A Critical Analysis Of Baze V. Rees In The Context Of The Supreme Court's Eighth Amendment Proportionality Jurisprudence, Katie Roth Heilman

American University Law Review

This Comment argues that, while the Court’s modern Eighth Amendment jurisprudence has gradually reduced the circumstances under which the death penalty may be imposed, this trend is inconsistent with the Court’s unwillingness to critically examine the specific procedures states use to execute, even in the face of growing concerns over the humaneness of such procedures. Part I gives a historic overview of the Court’s limited method-of-execution jurisprudence, followed by a review of the Court’s recent line of rulings on challenges to the death penalty’s proportionality. Part II analyzes Baze within the broader context of the Court’s Eight Amendment proportionality jurisprudence. …


Out Of Jail... But Still Not Free To Litigate - Using Congressional Intent To Interpret 28 U.S.C. Sec. 1915(B)'S Application To Released Prisoners, Julia Colarusso Jan 2009

Out Of Jail... But Still Not Free To Litigate - Using Congressional Intent To Interpret 28 U.S.C. Sec. 1915(B)'S Application To Released Prisoners, Julia Colarusso

American University Law Review

This Comment argues that, based on the Prison Litigation Reform Act (PLRA)’s purpose and legislative history, prisoners who fulfilled the statute’s payment obligations while incarcerated should be entitled to apply for traditional in forma pauperis (IFP) status under § 1915(a)(1) upon release. Part I traces the historical development of prisoners’ right of access to the courts and its ties to the IFP doctrine. It then examines the PLRA’s many amendments to the federal IFP statute. Part II explains the divergent readings that circuit courts currently apply to § 1915(b). After analyzing the statute’s plain language and legislative history, Part III …


Candor, Zeal, And The Substitution Of Judgment: Ethics And The Mentally Ill Criminal Defendant , John D. King Dec 2008

Candor, Zeal, And The Substitution Of Judgment: Ethics And The Mentally Ill Criminal Defendant , John D. King

American University Law Review

This Article explores the tension between autonomy and paternalism that characterizes the attorney-client relationship when a criminal defense attorney represents a mentally impaired client. Specifically, the Article analyzes the ethical frameworks that constrain the discretion of the attorney in this situation and proposes a new paradigm for ethical decisionmaking when an attorney represents a marginally competent client.

The criminal defense attorney is both a zealous advocate for her client and an officer of the legal system. In representing a marginally competent client, the initial ethical dilemma facing the attorney is whether she has an obligation to alert the court to …


Say Cheese! Examining The Constitutionality Of Photostops, Molly Bruder Aug 2008

Say Cheese! Examining The Constitutionality Of Photostops, Molly Bruder

American University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Reforming Fourth Amendment Privacy Doctrine, Jim Harper Jun 2008

Reforming Fourth Amendment Privacy Doctrine, Jim Harper

American University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Deep Background: Journalists, Sources, And The Perils Of Leaking, William E. Lee Jun 2008

Deep Background: Journalists, Sources, And The Perils Of Leaking, William E. Lee

American University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Arbitrary And F^@#$*! Capricious: An Analysis Of The Second Circuit's Rejection Of The Fcc's Fleeting Expletive Regulation In Fox Television Stations, Inc. V. Fcc (2007), Justin Winquist Feb 2008

Arbitrary And F^@#$*! Capricious: An Analysis Of The Second Circuit's Rejection Of The Fcc's Fleeting Expletive Regulation In Fox Television Stations, Inc. V. Fcc (2007), Justin Winquist

American University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Vicarious Criminal Liability And The Constitutional Dimensions Of Pinkerton, Alex Kreit Jan 2008

Vicarious Criminal Liability And The Constitutional Dimensions Of Pinkerton, Alex Kreit

American University Law Review

This article considers what limits the constitution places on holding someone criminally liable for another's conduct. While vicarious criminal liability is often criticized, there is no doubt that it is constitutionally permissible as a general matter. Under the long-standing felony murder doctrine, for example, if A and B rob a bank and B shoots and kills a security guard, A can be held criminally liable for the murder. What if, however, A was not involved in the robbery but instead had a completely separate conspiracy with B to distribute cocaine? What relationship, if any, does the constitution require between A's …


Tactical Ineffective Assistance In Capital Trials, Kyle Graham Jan 2008

Tactical Ineffective Assistance In Capital Trials, Kyle Graham

American University Law Review

Are defense attorneys sandbagging in their death-penalty cases? In Poindexter v. Mitchell, a habeas corpus case decided in 2006, Chief Judge Danny Boggs of the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit wrote that by conducting a deliberately defective investigation into mitigation evidence that might otherwise have been presented at the penalty phase of a capital trial, a defense attorney can virtually guarantee that any death sentence the jury returns will be vacated in later proceedings. The likelihood of such an outcome, Boggs wrote, will more than make up for the somewhat greater chance that a jury that …


The "High-Crime Area" Question: Requiring Verifiable And Quantifiable Evidence For Fourth Amendment Reasonable Suspicion Analysis [Pdf], Andrew Guthrie Ferguson, Damien Bernache Jan 2008

The "High-Crime Area" Question: Requiring Verifiable And Quantifiable Evidence For Fourth Amendment Reasonable Suspicion Analysis [Pdf], Andrew Guthrie Ferguson, Damien Bernache

American University Law Review

This article proposes a legal framework to analyze the "high crime area" concept in Fourth Amendment reasonable suspicion challenges. Under existing Supreme Court precedent, reviewing courts are allowed to consider that an area is a "high crime area" as a factor to evaluate the reasonableness of a Fourth Amendment stop. See Illinois v. Wardlow, 528 U.S. 119 (2000). However, the Supreme Court has never defined a "high crime area" and lower courts have not reached consensus on a definition. There is no agreement on what a "high-crime area" is, whether it has geographic boundaries, whether it changes over time, whether …


Tributes: The Honorable Irma S. Raker, Robert M. Bell, Glenn T. Harrell, Mary Ellen Barbera, Andrew L. Sonner, David A. Aaronson, Elizabeth I. Boals, Anthony C. Morella, Bruce A. Fredrickson, Barlow Burke, Linda D. Schwartz, Gerard M. Babendreir Jan 2008

Tributes: The Honorable Irma S. Raker, Robert M. Bell, Glenn T. Harrell, Mary Ellen Barbera, Andrew L. Sonner, David A. Aaronson, Elizabeth I. Boals, Anthony C. Morella, Bruce A. Fredrickson, Barlow Burke, Linda D. Schwartz, Gerard M. Babendreir

American University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Human Shields, Homicides, And House Fires: How A Domestic Law Analogy Can Guide International Law Regarding Human Shield Tactics In Armed Conflict, Douglas H. Fischer Dec 2007

Human Shields, Homicides, And House Fires: How A Domestic Law Analogy Can Guide International Law Regarding Human Shield Tactics In Armed Conflict, Douglas H. Fischer

American University Law Review

No abstract provided.