Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Contracts

Uniform Commercial Code

Institution
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 143

Full-Text Articles in Law

After Ftx: Can The Original Bitcoin Use Case Be Saved?, Mark Burge Dec 2023

After Ftx: Can The Original Bitcoin Use Case Be Saved?, Mark Burge

Faculty Scholarship

Bitcoin and the other cryptocurrencies spawned by the innovation of blockchain programming have exploded in prominence, both in gains of massive market value and in dramatic market losses, the latter most notably seen in connection with the failure of the FTX cryptocurrency exchange in November 2022. After years of investment and speculation, however, something crucial has faded: the original use case for Bitcoin as a system of payment. Can cryptocurrency-as-a-payment-system be saved, or are day traders and speculators the actual cryptocurrency future? This article suggests that cryptocurrency has been hobbled by a lack of foundational commercial and consumer-protection law that …


Modernizing Notice Of Breach Rules To Preserve Contract Remedies, Stephen Plass Jan 2023

Modernizing Notice Of Breach Rules To Preserve Contract Remedies, Stephen Plass

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Recently, the legal community has scrutinized the capacity of mandatory arbitration rules to deter or foreclose claims for breach of contract. But little attention has been paid to express and constructive notice of breach rules that are just as effective at foreclosing contractual remedies. While four-year statutes of limitations are typically viewed as the default cutoff time for breach of contract claims, contracting parties, particularly buyers of goods, must act much sooner to preserve their legal remedies. It is now common practice for sellers to require notice of breach within days or weeks of their performance as an express condition …


The Economics Of Leasing, Thomas W. Merrill Jan 2020

The Economics Of Leasing, Thomas W. Merrill

Faculty Scholarship

Leasing may be the most important legal institution that has received virtually no systematic scholarly attention. Real property leasing is familiar in the context of residential tenancies. But it is also widely used in commercial contexts, including office buildings and shopping centers. Personal property leasing, which was rarely encountered before World War II, has more recently exploded on a world-wide basis, with everything from autos to farm equipment to airplanes being leased. This article seeks to develop a composite picture of the defining features of leases and why leasing is such a widespread and highly successful economic institution. The reasons …


Protecting Consumers As Sellers, Jim Hawkins Oct 2019

Protecting Consumers As Sellers, Jim Hawkins

Indiana Law Journal

When the majority of modern contract and consumer protection laws were written in the 1950s, ’60s, and ’70s, consumers almost always acted as buyers, and businesses almost always acted as sellers. As a result, these laws reflect a model of strong sellers and weak buyers. But paradigms are shifting. Advances in technology and constraints on consumers’ financial lives have pushed consumers into new roles. Consumers today often act as sellers—hawking gold to make ends meet, peddling durable goods on eBay, or offering services in the sharing economy to make a profit. Consumers and business models have changed, but the laws …


Carrying A Good Joke Too Far, Peter A. Alces, Jason M. Hopkins Sep 2019

Carrying A Good Joke Too Far, Peter A. Alces, Jason M. Hopkins

Peter A. Alces

No abstract provided.


A Commercial Law For Software Contracting, Michael L. Rustad, Elif Kavusturan Jun 2019

A Commercial Law For Software Contracting, Michael L. Rustad, Elif Kavusturan

Washington and Lee Law Review

Since the 1980s, software is at the core of most modern organizations, most products and most services. Part II of this Article examines how the U.C.C. evolved as the primary source of law for the first generation of computer contracts during the mainframe computer era. Part III examines how courts have overextended U.C.C. Article 2, as the main source of law for software licensing, to the limits. Part IV argues that the ALI and the NCCUSL should propose a new Article 2B for software licensing. Part V recommends a new Article 2C for “software as a service.”


Apple Pay, Bitcoin, And Consumers: The Abcs Of Future Public Payments Law, Mark Edwin Burge Jun 2018

Apple Pay, Bitcoin, And Consumers: The Abcs Of Future Public Payments Law, Mark Edwin Burge

Mark Edwin Burge

As technology rolls out ongoing and competing streams of payments innovation, exemplified by Apple Pay (mobile payments) and Bitcoin (cryptocurrency), the law governing these payments appears hopelessly behind the curve. The patchwork of state, federal, and private legal rules seems more worthy of condemnation than emulation. This Article argues, however, that the legal and market developments of the last several decades in payment systems provide compelling evidence of the most realistic and socially beneficial future for payments law. The paradigm of a comprehensive public law regulatory scheme for payment systems, exemplified by Articles 3 and 4 of the Uniform Commercial …


Article 2 Of The Ucc: Some Thoughts On Success Or Failure In The Twenty-First Century, Robert A. Hillman Apr 2018

Article 2 Of The Ucc: Some Thoughts On Success Or Failure In The Twenty-First Century, Robert A. Hillman

Cornell Law Faculty Publications

The volume of litigation on Uniform Commercial Code Article 2, along with the rise of e-commerce, raises the question of whether Article 2 can succeed in the twenty-first century. There are, of course, many ways to measure success or failure of legislation. One strategy, applied here, is to evaluate Article 2 against the UCC’s ambitious “purposes and policies” of simplifying, clarifying, and modernizing commercial law, supporting commercial practices, and promoting uniformity of the law among the states. In doing so, I ask three questions that help determine when particular sections of Article 2 impede these goals and are ripe for …


Contract Law's Predominant Purpose Test And The Law-Fact Distinction, Daniel P. O'Gorman Jan 2018

Contract Law's Predominant Purpose Test And The Law-Fact Distinction, Daniel P. O'Gorman

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Remedies In The Ucc: Some Critical Thoughts, Victor P. Goldberg Jan 2018

Remedies In The Ucc: Some Critical Thoughts, Victor P. Goldberg

Faculty Scholarship

I thank the conference organizers and the law review for giving me the opportunity to vent some of my frustrations with the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC). I have expressed my concerns with the Code’s overreliance on “custom and usage” elsewhere, and will not pursue that further here. Nor will I bemoan the Code’s invocation of good faith to undo the parties’ balancing of flexibility and reliance. I will confine my discussion to contract remedies. But I have to begin by noting one section I simply do not understand. Why on earth would the Code drafters in § 2–718(2)(b) have required …


The Uniform Commercial Acts, J.P. Mckeehan Oct 2017

The Uniform Commercial Acts, J.P. Mckeehan

Dickinson Law Review (2017-Present)

The Commissioners on Uniform State Laws have had twenty- five annual conferences. The principal fruit of their labors is represented by the Negotiable Instruments Act, enacted in forty-seven jurisdictions; the Warehouse Receipts Act, enacted in thirty-one jurisdictions; the Sales Act, enacted in fourteen jurisdictions, the Bills of Lading Act enacted in thirteen jurisdictions, and the Stock Transfer Act, enacted in nine jurisdictions. They have also drafted acts relating to divorce, family desertion, probate of wills, marriage evasion, workmen’s compensation and partnership but these have not yet been enacted in more than a few states. All of the commercial acts are …


Uniform Commercial Acts, Samuel Williston Oct 2017

Uniform Commercial Acts, Samuel Williston

Dickinson Law Review (2017-Present)

No abstract provided.


Do We Need A Global Commercial Code?, Michael Joachim Bonell Oct 2017

Do We Need A Global Commercial Code?, Michael Joachim Bonell

Dickinson Law Review (2017-Present)

The International Institute for the Unification of Private Law (UNIDROIT) first launched the idea of preparing a code of inter- national trade law. In 1970, the Secretariat of UNIDROIT submitted a note to the newly established United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) in justification of such an initiative and indicated some of the salient features of the project. What was proposed was a veritable code in the continental sense. The proposed code included two parts: part one dealing with the law of obligations generally, and part two relating to specific kinds of commercial transactions. However, the “Progressive codification …


Consumer Preferences For Performance Defaults, Franklin G. Snyder, Ann M. Mirabito Oct 2016

Consumer Preferences For Performance Defaults, Franklin G. Snyder, Ann M. Mirabito

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

Commercial law in the United States is designed to facilitate private transactions, and thus to enforce the presumed intent of the parties, who generally are free to negotiate the terms they choose. But these contracts inevitably have gaps, both because the parties cannot anticipate every situation that might arise from their relationship, and because negotiation is not costless. When courts are faced with these gaps in a litigation context, they supply default terms to fill them. These defaults usually are set to reflect what courts believe similar parties would have agreed to if they had addressed the issue. These “majoritarian” …


Apple Pay, Bitcoin, And Consumers: The Abcs Of Future Public Payments Law, Mark Edwin Burge Aug 2016

Apple Pay, Bitcoin, And Consumers: The Abcs Of Future Public Payments Law, Mark Edwin Burge

Faculty Scholarship

As technology rolls out ongoing and competing streams of payments innovation, exemplified by Apple Pay (mobile payments) and Bitcoin (cryptocurrency), the law governing these payments appears hopelessly behind the curve. The patchwork of state, federal, and private legal rules seems more worthy of condemnation than emulation. This Article argues, however, that the legal and market developments of the last several decades in payment systems provide compelling evidence of the most realistic and socially beneficial future for payments law. The paradigm of a comprehensive public law regulatory scheme for payment systems, exemplified by Articles 3 and 4 of the Uniform Commercial …


Apple Pay, Bitcoin, And Consumers: The Abcs Of Future Public Payments Law, Mark Edwin Burge Jul 2016

Apple Pay, Bitcoin, And Consumers: The Abcs Of Future Public Payments Law, Mark Edwin Burge

Mark Edwin Burge

As technology rolls out ongoing and competing streams of payments innovation, exemplified by Apple Pay (mobile payments) and Bitcoin (cryptocurrency), the law governing these payments appears hopelessly behind the curve. The patchwork of state, federal, and private legal rules seems more worthy of condemnation than emulation. This Article argues, however, that the legal and market developments of the last several decades in payment systems provide compelling evidence of the most realistic and socially beneficial future for payments law. The paradigm of a comprehensive public law regulatory scheme for payment systems - exemplified by Articles 3 and 4 of the Uniform …


Uniform Commercial Code Article 2b & The State Contract Law-Federal Intellectual Property Law Interface: Can State Statutes Even Begin To Address Copyright Preemption Of Shrink-Wrap Licenses?, Elizabeth J. Mcclure Apr 2016

Uniform Commercial Code Article 2b & The State Contract Law-Federal Intellectual Property Law Interface: Can State Statutes Even Begin To Address Copyright Preemption Of Shrink-Wrap Licenses?, Elizabeth J. Mcclure

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


Collapsing Illusions: Standards For Setting Efficient Contract And Other Defaults, Steven J. Burton Apr 2016

Collapsing Illusions: Standards For Setting Efficient Contract And Other Defaults, Steven J. Burton

Indiana Law Journal

In this Essay, Professor Burton analyzes and evaluates four commonly used standards for setting efficient default rules and standards. Based on two theoretical insights, he shows that three of them collapse upon analysis into the fourth, a Coasian standard that turns out to be a dead end. The theoretical upshot is that the Coase Theorem often is a good reason to use defaults rather than mandatory rules or standards. But neither the theorem nor reference to a transaction-costless world sustains particular defaults. To set an efficient default, the law should guide courts toward supplying terms that parties should have adopted …


Bitcoin And The Uniform Commercial Code, Jeanne L. Schroeder Apr 2016

Bitcoin And The Uniform Commercial Code, Jeanne L. Schroeder

Articles

Much of the discussion of bitcoin in the popular press has concentrated on its status as a currency. Putting aside a vocal minority of radical libertarians and anarchists, however, many bitcoin enthusiasts are concentrating on how its underlying technology – the blockchain – can be put to use for wide variety of uses. For example, economists at the Fed and other central banks have suggested that they should encourage the evolution of bitcoin’s blockchain protocol which might allow financial transactions to clear much efficiently than under our current systems. As such, it also holds out the possibility of becoming that …


Bringing Continuity To Cryptocurrency: Commercial Law As A Guide To The Asset Categorization Of Bitcoin, Evan Hewitt Mar 2016

Bringing Continuity To Cryptocurrency: Commercial Law As A Guide To The Asset Categorization Of Bitcoin, Evan Hewitt

Seattle University Law Review

This Note will undertake to analyze bitcoin under the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) and the Internal Revenue Code (IRC)—two important sources of commercial law—to see whether any existing asset categories adequately protect bitcoin’s commercial viability. This Note will demonstrate that although commercial law dictates that bitcoin should—nay must—be regulated as a currency in order to sustain its existence, the very definition of currency seems to preclude that from happening. Therefore, this Note will recommend that we experiment with a new type of asset that receives currency-like treatment, specifically designed for cryptocurrencies, under which bitcoin can be categorized in order to …


The Regression Of "Good Faith" In Maryland Commercial Law, Lisa D. Sparks Jan 2016

The Regression Of "Good Faith" In Maryland Commercial Law, Lisa D. Sparks

University of Baltimore Law Forum

“Good faith,” in the affirmative or as the absence of bad faith, has always been a challenge to define and judge as a matter of conduct, motive, or both. Different tests apply a subjective standard, an objective standard, or even a combination of the two. Some parties may be held to different expectations than others. This determination of good faith has always been fact-driven and somewhat transcendental. Until recently, however, the question invoked a construct of fairness, resting on a two-pronged metric, at least insofar as several key titles of the Maryland Uniform Commercial Code were concerned. Since June 1, …


Default Proceedings Under Article 9: Problems, Solutions, And Lessons To Be Learned, Leonard Lakin Aug 2015

Default Proceedings Under Article 9: Problems, Solutions, And Lessons To Be Learned, Leonard Lakin

Akron Law Review

This article will explore in detail the relevant Code provisions relating to default proceedings and the impact of the significant court decisions which have interpreted this most important area of secured transactions as well as the changes made by -the 1972 Official Text of Article 9, which has already been adopted in ten states as of this writing.


Good Faith: A New Look At An Old Doctrine, Robert S. Adler, Richard A. Mann Jul 2015

Good Faith: A New Look At An Old Doctrine, Robert S. Adler, Richard A. Mann

Akron Law Review

In this article we sketch the basic contours of the contractual policing devices that apply to special relationships and to arm's length transactions. We then explicate in greater detail the duty of good faith under general contract law and the Uniform Commercial Code. Finally, we explore some strategies for shortening arm's length transactions through consensual extensions of the duty of good faith.


Too Clever By Half: Reflections On Perception, Legitimacy, And Choice Of Law Under Revised Article 1 Of The Uniform Commercial Code, Mark Edwin Burge Jul 2015

Too Clever By Half: Reflections On Perception, Legitimacy, And Choice Of Law Under Revised Article 1 Of The Uniform Commercial Code, Mark Edwin Burge

Mark Edwin Burge

The overwhelmingly successful 2001 rewrite of Article 1 of the Uniform Commercial Code was accompanied by an overwhelming failure: proposed section 1-301 on contractual choice of law. As originally sent to the states, section 1-301 would have allowed non-consumer parties to a contract to select a governing law that bore no relation to their transaction. Proponents justifiably contended that such autonomy was consistent with emerging international norms and with the nature of contracts creating voluntary private obligations. Despite such arguments, the original version of section 1-301 was resoundingly rejected, gaining zero adoptions by the states before its withdrawal in 2008. …


Too Clever By Half: Reflections On Perception, Legitimacy, And Choice Of Law Under Revised Article 1 Of The Uniform Commercial Code, Mark Edwin Burge Jul 2015

Too Clever By Half: Reflections On Perception, Legitimacy, And Choice Of Law Under Revised Article 1 Of The Uniform Commercial Code, Mark Edwin Burge

Mark Edwin Burge

The overwhelmingly successful 2001 rewrite of Article 1 of the Uniform Commercial Code was accompanied by an overwhelming failure: proposed section 1-301 on contractual choice of law. As originally sent to the states, section 1-301 would have allowed non-consumer parties to a contract to select a governing law that bore no relation to their transaction. Proponents justifiably contended that such autonomy was consistent with emerging international norms and with the nature of contracts creating voluntary private obligations. Despite such arguments, the original version of section 1-301 was resoundingly rejected, gaining zero adoptions by the states before its withdrawal in 2008. …


Too Clever By Half: Reflections On Perception, Legitimacy, And Choice Of Law Under Revised Article 1 Of The Uniform Commercial Code, Mark Edwin Burge Apr 2015

Too Clever By Half: Reflections On Perception, Legitimacy, And Choice Of Law Under Revised Article 1 Of The Uniform Commercial Code, Mark Edwin Burge

William & Mary Business Law Review

The overwhelmingly successful 2001 rewrite of Article 1 of the Uniform Commercial Code was accompanied by an overwhelming failure: proposed section 1-301 on contractual choice of law. As originally sent to the states, section 1-301 would have allowed non-consumer parties to a contract to select a governing law that bore no relation to their transaction. Proponents justifiably contended that such autonomy was consistent with emerging international norms and with the nature of contracts creating voluntary private obligations. Despite such arguments, the original version of section 1-301 was resoundingly rejected, gaining zero adoptions by the states before its withdrawal in 2008. …


Negotiating And Drafting The International Sales Contract And Related Agreements, John Gornall Mar 2015

Negotiating And Drafting The International Sales Contract And Related Agreements, John Gornall

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Delaware’S Implied Contractual Covenant Of Good Faith And “Sibling Rivalry” Among Equity Holders, Daniel S. Kleinberger Jan 2015

Delaware’S Implied Contractual Covenant Of Good Faith And “Sibling Rivalry” Among Equity Holders, Daniel S. Kleinberger

Faculty Scholarship

An obligation of good faith and fair dealing is implied in every common law contract and is codified in the Uniform Commercial Code (“U.C.C”). The terminology differs: Some jurisdictions refer to an “implied covenant;” others to an “implied contractual obligation;” still others to an “implied duty.” But whatever the label, the concept is understood by the vast majority of U.S. lawyers as a matter of commercial rather than entity law. And, to the vast majority of corporate lawyers, “good faith” does not mean contract law but rather conjures up an important aspect of a corporate director’s duty of loyalty.

Nonetheless, …


A Consent Theory Of Unconscionability: An Empirical Study Of Law In Action, Larry Dimatteo, Bruce Rich Dec 2014

A Consent Theory Of Unconscionability: An Empirical Study Of Law In Action, Larry Dimatteo, Bruce Rich

Larry A DiMatteo

This Article provides the findings of an empirical study of 187 court cases in which the issue of the unconscionability of a contract or a contract term was addressed by the courts. The cases were drawn from two time periods. The first set of cases can be viewed as the first generation of Uniform Commercial Code (U.C.C.)-style unconscionability cases from 1968-1980. The second generation of unconscionability cases were from the time period of 1991-2003. The two groups of cases allow us to not only analyze a series of questions and factors, but also to make intergenerational or longitudinal observations. The …


Contract Law—No Faith In Arkansas’S Approach To The Implied Duty Of Good Faith. Arkansas Research Medical Testing, Llc V. Osborne, 2011 Ark. 158, 2011 Wl 1423993., Kathleen Lestage Jul 2014

Contract Law—No Faith In Arkansas’S Approach To The Implied Duty Of Good Faith. Arkansas Research Medical Testing, Llc V. Osborne, 2011 Ark. 158, 2011 Wl 1423993., Kathleen Lestage

University of Arkansas at Little Rock Law Review

No abstract provided.