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Full-Text Articles in Law

Identifying Fundamental Breach Of Articles 25 And 49 Of The Cisg: The Good Faith Duty Of Collaborative Efforts To Cure Defects - Make The Parties Draw A Line In The Sand Of Substantiality, Yasutoshi Ishida Jan 2020

Identifying Fundamental Breach Of Articles 25 And 49 Of The Cisg: The Good Faith Duty Of Collaborative Efforts To Cure Defects - Make The Parties Draw A Line In The Sand Of Substantiality, Yasutoshi Ishida

Michigan Journal of International Law

Article 49(1) of the CISG allows buyers of international goods to avoid their sales contracts “if the failure by the seller to perform . . . amounts to a fundamental breach.” A breach is “fundamental,” as defined by CISG article 25, when it causes the buyer such detriment “as substantially to deprive him of what he is entitled to expect under the contract.” This definition is followed by the so-called “foreseeability test,” an “unless” clause that excepts the situation where “the party in breach did not foresee[,] and a reasonable person of the same kind in the same circumstances would …


Sign Or Die: The Threat Of Imminent Physical Harm And The Doctrine Of Duress In Contract Law, Daniel P. O'Gorman Jan 2018

Sign Or Die: The Threat Of Imminent Physical Harm And The Doctrine Of Duress In Contract Law, Daniel P. O'Gorman

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Sex Matters: Considering Gender In Consumer Contracts, Amy J. Schmitz Apr 2013

Sex Matters: Considering Gender In Consumer Contracts, Amy J. Schmitz

Faculty Publications

We hear about the so-called “War on Women” and persisting salary gaps between men and women in the popular media, but contracts scholars and policymakers rarely discuss gender. Instead, dominant voices in the contracts field often reflect classical and economics-driven theories built on assumptions of gender neutral and economically rational actors. Furthermore, many mistakenly assume that market competition and antidiscrimination legislation address any improper biases in contracting. This Article therefore aims to shed light on gender’s importance by distilling data from my own e-survey of Colorado consumers along with others’ research regarding gender differences in contract outcomes, interests and behaviors. …


Can We Dicker Online Or Is Traditional Contract Formation Really Dying - Rethinking Traditional Contract Formation For The World Wide Web, Tatiana Melnik Jan 2008

Can We Dicker Online Or Is Traditional Contract Formation Really Dying - Rethinking Traditional Contract Formation For The World Wide Web, Tatiana Melnik

Michigan Telecommunications & Technology Law Review

When most people imagine the process of contract formation, they picture two people sitting down and negotiating, arguing about particular contract provisions and particular contract terminology, and maybe even involving attorneys to draft an "official" version of the contract. Regardless of the specific details people imagine, traditional contract formation generally involves some form of negotiation between two parties where they choose one set of terms over another. In modern society, however, such negotiation happens very rarely. People enter into many contracts on a daily basis, for example, when they purchase goods or services online. Online purchases are governed by computers, …


After The Battle Of The Forms, Francis J. Mootz Iii Jan 2008

After The Battle Of The Forms, Francis J. Mootz Iii

Scholarly Works

Commercial parties continue to fight the battle of the forms, but electronic contracting is quickly rendering this practice obsolete. In this article I assess the legal landscape for commercial parties after the battle of the forms. In Section I, I briefly describe the (relatively) settled law under U.C.C. § 2-207. I then describe how these rules permit commercial parties to erect a force-field to protect themselves from being subjected to unwanted terms, and the developments in web-based contracting and recent case law applying contract formation principles to electronic contracting. Finally, I discuss how the growth of electronic contracting will eliminate …


Funky Mussels, A Stolen Car, And Decrepit Used Shoes: Non-Conforming Goods And Notice Thereof Under The United Nations Sales Convention, Harry Flechtner Jan 2008

Funky Mussels, A Stolen Car, And Decrepit Used Shoes: Non-Conforming Goods And Notice Thereof Under The United Nations Sales Convention, Harry Flechtner

Articles

This is a draft of a paper that will appear in a forthcoming issue of the Boston University International Law Journal. This paper, which derives from comments delivered at a 2006 conference held at Istanbul (Turkey) Bilgi University, gives an overview of Part III, Chapter II, Section II of the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG). This portion of the Convention encompasses provisions addressing a number of critical issues, including the seller's obligations concerning the quality (Article 35), title (Article 41) and intellectual property aspects (Article 42) of goods sold in a transaction governed …


Uniform Commercial Code Survey: Sales, Keith A. Rowley, Carolyn L. Dessin, Larry T. Garvin, Robyn L. Meadows Jan 2007

Uniform Commercial Code Survey: Sales, Keith A. Rowley, Carolyn L. Dessin, Larry T. Garvin, Robyn L. Meadows

Scholarly Works

2006 Uniform Commercial Code Survey: Sales


Commercial Law In The Cracks Of Judicial Federalism, Donald J. Smythe Aug 2006

Commercial Law In The Cracks Of Judicial Federalism, Donald J. Smythe

ExpressO

Almost seventy years after the Supreme Court sought to rationalize the American system of judicial federalism in Erie, sales law remains trapped in a pattern more reminiscent of the Swift v. Tyson era. The extraordinarily wide separation of powers in the NCCUSL-ALI uniform law-making process has entrenched Article 2 of the UCC in the status quo. Concurrently, an imbalance between the federal and state courts in the American system of judicial federalism has conferred an unusually wide range of discretion over state commercial law on the federal courts. Ironically, therefore, state sales statutes are being reinterpreted and revised by the …


Improving The Rolling Contract, Stephen E. Friedman Jan 2006

Improving The Rolling Contract, Stephen E. Friedman

American University Law Review

This article addresses the increasingly common problem of buyers finding important contract terms inside the box of a newly purchased item instead of learning about them before or during purchase. The failure of courts to develop a satisfactory approach to deciding which contact terms sellers may provide after purchase is of great significance in light of the rapid proliferation of rolling contracts. In this article, Friedman proposes a mechanism that will ensure that sellers have the flexibility to defer presentation of some terms but that will also protect purchasers against the unfair imposition of unexpected and important terms arriving at …


Uniform Commercial Code Survey: Sales, Keith A. Rowley, Carolyn L. Dessin, Larry T. Garvin, Robyn L. Meadows Jan 2006

Uniform Commercial Code Survey: Sales, Keith A. Rowley, Carolyn L. Dessin, Larry T. Garvin, Robyn L. Meadows

Scholarly Works

2005 Uniform Commercial Code Survey: Sales


Uniform Commercial Code Survey: Sales, Keith A. Rowley, Carolyn L. Dessin, Larry T. Garvin, Robyn L. Meadows Jan 2005

Uniform Commercial Code Survey: Sales, Keith A. Rowley, Carolyn L. Dessin, Larry T. Garvin, Robyn L. Meadows

Scholarly Works

2004 Uniform Commercial Code Survey: Sales.


Default Rules In Sales And The Myth Of Contracting Out, James J. White Jan 2002

Default Rules In Sales And The Myth Of Contracting Out, James J. White

Articles

In this article, I trace the dispute in the courts and before the ALI and NCCUSL over the proper contract formation and interpretation default rules. In Part II, I consider the Gateway litigation. In Part III, I deal with UCITA and the revision to Article 2. In Part IV, I consider the merits of the competing default rules.


Parol Modification And The Statute Of Frauds: Fitting The Pieces Together Under The Uniform Commercial Code, Jeanette K. Brooks Jan 1999

Parol Modification And The Statute Of Frauds: Fitting The Pieces Together Under The Uniform Commercial Code, Jeanette K. Brooks

Campbell Law Review

This comment explores, respectively, the history and purpose of the statute of frauds, the requirement of the Code's statute of frauds, the distinctions between sections 2-209(2) and 2-209(3), the faults in the majority application of section 2-209(3), the proposed application of section 2-209(3), and the benefits of the submitted application of section 2-209.


Identifying Horizontal Price Fixing In The Electronic Marketplace, Jonathan Baker Jan 1996

Identifying Horizontal Price Fixing In The Electronic Marketplace, Jonathan Baker

Articles in Law Reviews & Other Academic Journals

No abstract provided.


International Contracts In European Courts: Jurisdiction Under Article 5(1) Of The Brussels Convention, Herbert Bernstein Jan 1996

International Contracts In European Courts: Jurisdiction Under Article 5(1) Of The Brussels Convention, Herbert Bernstein

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Warranties Against Infringement In The Sale Of Goods: A Comparison Of U.C.C. § 2-312(3) And Article 42 Of The U.N. Convention On Contracts For The International Sale Of Goods, Joseph J. Schwerha Iv Jan 1995

Warranties Against Infringement In The Sale Of Goods: A Comparison Of U.C.C. § 2-312(3) And Article 42 Of The U.N. Convention On Contracts For The International Sale Of Goods, Joseph J. Schwerha Iv

Michigan Journal of International Law

Gone are the days of simple sales contracts. Today's corporate lawyers must have not only a substantial understanding of basic commercial law, but also of the related intellectual property law. Because of the shrinking global economy, such knowledge must rise to an international level.


Warranties And Remedies On Breach: Proposed Revision Of Article 2 And Related Proposals Concerning Products Liability Law, Richard E. Speidel, James J. White Jan 1995

Warranties And Remedies On Breach: Proposed Revision Of Article 2 And Related Proposals Concerning Products Liability Law, Richard E. Speidel, James J. White

Other Publications

The following materials contain (1) the warranty provisions, §§2-313 through 2-318, from the October, 1995 Draft of Revised Article 2, Sales, with selected Reporter's Notes; (2) Discussion questions on warranties; and (3) A comparison of Revised Article 2 and the ALl's Products Liability Restatement (Tent. Draft #2, March 13, 1995), with discussion problems.


How To Negotiate A Sales Contract, James J. White Jan 1995

How To Negotiate A Sales Contract, James J. White

Articles

A. Introduction 1. In my experience, lawyers begin negotiating only after the business people have decided upon the description and quality of the product, the time of delivery, and the mode and amount of payment. The lawyers are left with the pathological problems - who gets what in case of trouble. 2. Most of those pathological problems relate to the seller's responsibility if the product does not conform to the contract or otherwise fails to please the buyer. These failures can cause economic loss to the buyer, economic loss to a remote purchaser, or personal injury or property damage to …


Critical Rules In Negotiating Sales Contracts: The Lawyer's Job, James J. White Jan 1994

Critical Rules In Negotiating Sales Contracts: The Lawyer's Job, James J. White

Other Publications

In my experience, lawyers begin negotiating only after the business people have decided upon the description and quality of the product, the time of delivery, and the mode and amount of payment. The lawyers are left with the pathological problems--who gets what in case of trouble. Most of those problems relate to the seller's responsibility if the product does not conform to the contract or otherwise fails to please the buyer. These failures can cause economic loss to the buyer, economic loss to a remote purchaser, or personal injury or property damage to immediate or remote parties. Third parties may …


The Emerging Article 2: Remedies For Breach Of The Contract For Sale, Richard E. Speidel, James J. White Jan 1994

The Emerging Article 2: Remedies For Breach Of The Contract For Sale, Richard E. Speidel, James J. White

Other Publications

Article 2, Sales is being revised by a Drafting Committee of the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws. To date, the Drafting Committee has held eight meetings and two more are scheduled for early 1995 . The first reading of revised Article 2 occurred at the annual meeting of NCCUSL in August, 1994. A target completion date for the Article 2 project is August, 1996 .


Immunity From Regulatory Price Squeeze Claims: From Keogh, Parker, And Noerr To Town Of Concord And Beyond, Keith A. Rowley Jan 1991

Immunity From Regulatory Price Squeeze Claims: From Keogh, Parker, And Noerr To Town Of Concord And Beyond, Keith A. Rowley

Scholarly Works

On September 21, 1990, the First Circuit handed down its decision in Town of Concord, Massachusetts v. Boston Edison Co. This case, the most recent in a growing line of court of appeals decisions examining the antitrust implications of public utility rate structures, represents the first time a United States court of appeals has unequivocally stated that an antitrust action based upon a “price squeeze” could not be maintained against a utility whose wholesale and retail rates were both fully regulated. Town of Concord notwithstanding, the courts are far from agreeing whether investor-owned electric or natural gas utilities are immune …


Consequential Damages In Contracts For The International Sale Of Goods And The Legacy Of Hadley, Arthur Murphey Jan 1990

Consequential Damages In Contracts For The International Sale Of Goods And The Legacy Of Hadley, Arthur Murphey

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


The Decline Of The Contract Market Damage Model, James J. White Jan 1988

The Decline Of The Contract Market Damage Model, James J. White

Articles

In law school every American lawyer learns that the conventional measure of damages for breach of a sales contract is the difference between the contract price and the market price. Even before these rules were embodied in the Uniform Sales Act and the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC), they were a staple of Anglo-American common law. They remain the rules with which a court would determine damage liability not only for the sale of goods, but also for the sale of real estate and securities.


Promise Fulfilled And Principle Betrayed, James J. White Jan 1988

Promise Fulfilled And Principle Betrayed, James J. White

Articles

My responsibility in this paper is to address three questions. (1) How has the legal realist body of thought affected contract law and its application? (2) How will contract law and its application be affected in the future by realist thinking? (3) If the realist viewpoint were fully accepted, what kind of system would result and how would contract law be affected? Because my focus is upon a principal legislative monument to realism, Article Two of the Uniform Commercial Code (the "U.C.C."), and upon its drafter, Karl Llewellyn, I will not answer any of the three questions explicitly. By focusing …


The Modification Mystery: Section 2-209 Of The Uniform Commercial Code, John E. Murray Jr. Jan 1987

The Modification Mystery: Section 2-209 Of The Uniform Commercial Code, John E. Murray Jr.

Villanova Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Merchant's Exception To The Uniform Commercial Code's Statute Of Frauds, Charles D. Onofry Jan 1987

The Merchant's Exception To The Uniform Commercial Code's Statute Of Frauds, Charles D. Onofry

Villanova Law Review

No abstract provided.


Inventory Lender As A Good Faith Purchaser For Value: Priority Problems In U.C.C. 2-702 Sep 1986

Inventory Lender As A Good Faith Purchaser For Value: Priority Problems In U.C.C. 2-702

Washington and Lee Law Review

No abstract provided.


Water Transfers And Exchanges: Using The Market To Improve Water Use—A Legal/Institutional View, Gary D. Weatherford Jun 1986

Water Transfers And Exchanges: Using The Market To Improve Water Use—A Legal/Institutional View, Gary D. Weatherford

Western Water: Expanding Uses/Finite Supplies (Summer Conference, June 2-4)

18 pages.


The Diminishing Difference Between Selling And Leasing Tangible Personal Property, Richard Marshall Abrams Jan 1979

The Diminishing Difference Between Selling And Leasing Tangible Personal Property, Richard Marshall Abrams

Villanova Law Review

No abstract provided.


Contracts--Developing Concepts Of Unconscionability, Kevin D. Dolan Sep 1977

Contracts--Developing Concepts Of Unconscionability, Kevin D. Dolan

West Virginia Law Review

Section 2-302 of the Uniform Commercial Code is a widely discussed and controversial statement of the law of unconscionability. It was a part of the original UCC as adopted by Pennsylvania in 1953, but some states elected to omit that section when they accepted the UCC. There are three fundamental reasons for their not adopting the section. The first objection is that the section goes against the security of the transaction by allowing the courts to remake parts of the contract. The second stems from the fact that the section limits the parties' freedom to contract because it is often …