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Full-Text Articles in Law

Franchising Law In The United States Between Theory And Practice: Heads Up For Foreign Investors, Radwa Elsaman Jan 2024

Franchising Law In The United States Between Theory And Practice: Heads Up For Foreign Investors, Radwa Elsaman

Touro Law Review

As a dynamic vehicle for fostering investment opportunities, both domestically and internationally, franchising spans a diverse array of industrial sectors, encompassing both goods and services. The United States plays a highly influential role in global franchise industry promotion, with a vast majority of International Franchise Association members representing American companies. Present data underscores that franchising has extended its reach to virtually every sector of the American economy. Notably, the United States stands among just four common law nations that have established dedicated franchise legislation, operating at both state and federal levels. This framework includes provisions for pre-sale disclosure, registration of …


Atmed Treatment Ctr., Inc. V. Travelers Indem. Co., 285 A.3d 352 (R.I. 2022), Catherine R. Enos Jan 2024

Atmed Treatment Ctr., Inc. V. Travelers Indem. Co., 285 A.3d 352 (R.I. 2022), Catherine R. Enos

Roger Williams University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Demystifying Implied Terms, Marcus Moore Aug 2022

Demystifying Implied Terms, Marcus Moore

All Faculty Publications

Recent years have witnessed significant interest in demystifying the implication of contract terms. Whilst the discussion thus far has elicited some answers, the subject remains notoriously ‘elusive'. This article advances discussion in the field. It argues that underlying recent debates are deeper issues that must be brought to the surface. These include theoretical incoherence regarding the nature/purpose of implication tracing back to The Moorcock (1889), and analytical indeterminacy in applying the established ‘tests' for implication, as courts vary between conflicting instrumental and non-instrumental approaches. Feeding both issues is inconsistent linguistic use of core terminology. This article helps demystify implication by …


You’Ve Got To Have (Good) Faith: Good Faith’S Trajectory In Anglo-Canadian Contract Law Post-Wastech And The Potential For A Duty To Renegotiate, Vanessa Di Feo Jun 2022

You’Ve Got To Have (Good) Faith: Good Faith’S Trajectory In Anglo-Canadian Contract Law Post-Wastech And The Potential For A Duty To Renegotiate, Vanessa Di Feo

Dalhousie Law Journal

This paper argues that the organizing principle of good faith should be judicially developed to include a duty to renegotiate in situations of hardship. It looks to the French Civil Code and the UNIDROIT Principles for guidance, in addition to Canadian law’s receptibility to an incrementally expanded principle of good faith. Although the Supreme Court of Canada rejected hardship in the 2018 case of Churchill Falls (Labrador) Corp v Hydro-Québec, it did not forever close the door to this doctrine in Québec in situations of true financial peril. Given the “judicial dialogue” between Québec civil law obligations and Anglo-Canadian …


Designing And Enforcing Preliminary Agreements, Albert H. Choi, George Triantis Feb 2020

Designing And Enforcing Preliminary Agreements, Albert H. Choi, George Triantis

Articles

Preliminary agreements—variously labeled as memoranda of understanding, letters of intent, term sheets, commitment letters, or agreements in principle—are common in complex business transactions. They document an incomplete set of terms that the parties have agreed upon, while anticipating further negotiation of the remaining provisions. They often create legal obligations, particularly a duty to negotiate in good faith. This duty has been the subject of a substantial number of judicial opinions over the past few decades and yet continues to be regarded as a confusing and unpredictable issue in contract law. Legal scholarship is hamstrung in its analysis of the case …


The Standard Investment Agreement: Text And Comments, Philippe Kahn Jun 2016

The Standard Investment Agreement: Text And Comments, Philippe Kahn

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Good Faith: Helping Commercial Parties Or Creating An Unnecessary Burden?, Ee-Ing Ong May 2015

Good Faith: Helping Commercial Parties Or Creating An Unnecessary Burden?, Ee-Ing Ong

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

One of the challenges facing Asian legal systems in the coming years is whether the courts should impose a general duty of good faith in contracts. The doctrine of good faith has been making inroads in various common law jurisdictions, most recently in Canada where the Supreme Court held in Bhasin v. Hrynew, 2014 SCC 71 that there was a duty of honest performance in all contracts. The idea behind imposing a duty of good faith in all contracts is to ensure that parties essentially “play fair” in contract negotiations and/or performance. However, is such a duty really necessary for …


A New And Old Theory For Adjudicating Standardized Contracts, Eric Mills Holmes, Dagmar Thürmann Jan 2015

A New And Old Theory For Adjudicating Standardized Contracts, Eric Mills Holmes, Dagmar Thürmann

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Delaware’S Implied Contractual Covenant Of Good Faith And “Sibling Rivalry” Among Equity Holders, Daniel S. Kleinberger Jan 2015

Delaware’S Implied Contractual Covenant Of Good Faith And “Sibling Rivalry” Among Equity Holders, Daniel S. Kleinberger

Faculty Scholarship

An obligation of good faith and fair dealing is implied in every common law contract and is codified in the Uniform Commercial Code (“U.C.C”). The terminology differs: Some jurisdictions refer to an “implied covenant;” others to an “implied contractual obligation;” still others to an “implied duty.” But whatever the label, the concept is understood by the vast majority of U.S. lawyers as a matter of commercial rather than entity law. And, to the vast majority of corporate lawyers, “good faith” does not mean contract law but rather conjures up an important aspect of a corporate director’s duty of loyalty.

Nonetheless, …


Demand Promissory Notes And Commercial Loans: Balancing Freedom Of Contract & Good Faith, George A. Nation Iii Nov 2014

Demand Promissory Notes And Commercial Loans: Balancing Freedom Of Contract & Good Faith, George A. Nation Iii

George A Nation III

Promissory notes are ubiquitous in commercial lending. The promissory note represents the borrowers promise to repay and is governed by the Uniform Commercial Code’s Article 3. Under Article 3, promissory notes are either demand instruments or time instruments. In general, the holder of a demand instrument may decide to demand payment at any time and for any reason, while the holder of a time note must wait for payment until the arrival of the specific repayment date or dates included in the note. For this reason, time notes usually contain an acceleration clause. An acceleration clause allows the holder to …


Uniform Interpretation Of The 1980 Uniform Sales Law, Franco Ferrari Oct 2014

Uniform Interpretation Of The 1980 Uniform Sales Law, Franco Ferrari

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Ponzi Schemes In Bankruptcy, Honorable Dorothy T. Eisenberg, Nicholas W. Quesenberry Oct 2014

Ponzi Schemes In Bankruptcy, Honorable Dorothy T. Eisenberg, Nicholas W. Quesenberry

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Let Us Never Blame A Contract Breaker, Richard A. Posner Jun 2009

Let Us Never Blame A Contract Breaker, Richard A. Posner

Michigan Law Review

Holmes famously proposed a "no fault" theory of contract law: a contract is an option to perform or pay, and a "breach" is therefore not a wrongful act, but merely triggers the duty to pay liquidated or other damages. I elaborate the Holmesian theory, arguing that fault terminology in contract law, such as "good faith," should be given pragmatic economic interpretations, rather than be conceived of in moral terms. I further argue that contract doctrines should normally be alterable only on the basis of empirical investigations.


Fault In Contract Law, Eric A. Posner Jun 2009

Fault In Contract Law, Eric A. Posner

Michigan Law Review

A promisor is strictly liable for breaching a contract, according to the standard account. However, a negligence-based system of contract law can be given an economic interpretation, and this Article shows that such a system is in some respects more attractive than the strict-liability system. This may explain why, as a brief discussion of cases shows, negligence ideas continue to play a role in contract decisions.


Debunking The Corporate Fiduciary Myth, Kelli A. Alces Jan 2009

Debunking The Corporate Fiduciary Myth, Kelli A. Alces

Scholarly Publications

No abstract provided.


The Diverging Meaning Of Good Faith, Mark J. Loewenstein Jan 2009

The Diverging Meaning Of Good Faith, Mark J. Loewenstein

Publications

This article explores the meaning of "good faith" in the context of corporations and unincorporated entities. The courts, particularly in Delaware, have developed two different approaches. In the corporate arena, the courts are fashioning a notion of good faith that seems to require an examination of director motivations. In the unincorporated arena, good faith has a meaning grounded in contract law. These are two different concepts and reflect the fundamental differences between corporations and unincorporated entities, with the former based on fiduciary duties and the latter on contract. There are, however, indications that this "divergence" is starting to disappear, and …


Confronting Adr Agreements' Contract/No-Contract Conundrum With Good Faith, Amy J. Schmitz Jul 2008

Confronting Adr Agreements' Contract/No-Contract Conundrum With Good Faith, Amy J. Schmitz

Faculty Publications

This Article explores the intricate problem, or conundrum, of enforcing "Alternative Dispute Resolution ('ADR') agreements" that require mediation or other non-binding dispute resolution procedures. Although public policy supports ADR, courts' inadequate analysis of ADR agreements is threatening their vitality. Instead of properly considering the flexible nature of these agreements, courts assume formalist contract or no-contract conclusions similar to those they impose on what Professor Charles Knapp has termed "contracts to bargain." ADR agreements and other contracts to bargain pose enforcement problems because they require parties' cooperation without specifying what cooperation means or how to enforce such flexible duties. This Article …


An Employment Contract Instinct With An Obligation: Good Faith Costs And Contexts, Robert C. Bird Jan 2008

An Employment Contract Instinct With An Obligation: Good Faith Costs And Contexts, Robert C. Bird

Pace Law Review

No abstract provided.


Fulfilling Lucy's Legacy: Recognizing Implicit Good-Faith Obligations Within Explicit Job Duties, Emily Gold Waldman Jan 2008

Fulfilling Lucy's Legacy: Recognizing Implicit Good-Faith Obligations Within Explicit Job Duties, Emily Gold Waldman

Pace Law Review

No abstract provided.


Disney Examined: A Case Study In Corporate Governance And Ceo Succession, Lawrence Lederman Jan 2007

Disney Examined: A Case Study In Corporate Governance And Ceo Succession, Lawrence Lederman

NYLS Law Review

No abstract provided.


Desperately Seeking Consideration: The Unfortunate Impact Of U.C.C. Section 2-306 On Contract Interpretation, Victor P. Goldberg Jan 2007

Desperately Seeking Consideration: The Unfortunate Impact Of U.C.C. Section 2-306 On Contract Interpretation, Victor P. Goldberg

Faculty Scholarship

In Section 2-306, the Uniform Commercial Code's drafters intended to assure that two classes of agreements would be enforceable, even though they might appear on their face to be illusory. Variable quantity (output and requirements) contracts were buttressed by reading in a good faith standard (§ 2-306(1)) and exclusive dealing contracts were made enforceable by reading in a best efforts standard (§ 2-306(2)). This was a big mistake. In this paper I show how these two fixes create problems for interpreting contracts. I use two well-known cases, Feld v. Henry S. Levy & Sons, Inc. and Wood v. Lucy, …


The Often Imitated, But Not Yet Duplicated, Revised Uniform Commercial Code Article 1, Keith A. Rowley Jan 2006

The Often Imitated, But Not Yet Duplicated, Revised Uniform Commercial Code Article 1, Keith A. Rowley

Scholarly Works

Unlike Revised Uniform Commercial Code Article 9 (1999), which every state and the District of Columbia enacted within roughly two years of its promulgation, states have been slower to warm to Revised UCC Article 1 (2001). Nearly seven years after the American Law Institute and the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Law promulgated it, thirty-three states have enacted their own versions of Revised UCC Article 1. None of the thirty-three has enacted the uniform version in its entirety. All thirty-three enacting states have rejected the uniform choice-of-law provision (§ 1-301) in favor of retaining language based on pre-Revised …


Good Faith Performance In Employment Contracts: A "Comparative Conversation" Between The Us And England, Katherine M. Apps Dec 2005

Good Faith Performance In Employment Contracts: A "Comparative Conversation" Between The Us And England, Katherine M. Apps

ExpressO

This paper asks two questions connected by the fact that they both stem from the inherent incompleteness of employment contracts: in American law, how can the terms in employment handbooks be variable, but sometimes only within reasonable procedurally fair circumstances; and in English law, why doesn’t the implied term of mutual trust and confidence in employment contracts fall foul of the strict test for implication of terms into contract? This paper finds the answer to both questions in the doctrine of good faith. An analysis of good faith as a “comparative conversation” between academic and judicial debates in the US …


Good Faith In The Cisg: Interpretation Problems In Article 7, Benedict C. Sheehy Aug 2004

Good Faith In The Cisg: Interpretation Problems In Article 7, Benedict C. Sheehy

ExpressO

ABSTRACT: This article examines the dispute concerning the meaning of Good Faith in the CISG. Although there are good reasons for arguing a more limited interpretation or more limited application of Good Faith, there are also good reasons for a broader approach. Regardless of the correct interpretation, however, practitioners and academics need to have a sense of where the actual jurisprudence is going. This article reviews every published case on Article 7 since its inception and concludes that while there is little to suggest a strong pattern is developing, a guided pattern while incorrect doctrinally is preferable to the current …


Independent Legal Significance, Good Faith, And The Interpretation Of Venture Capital Contracts, D. Gordon Smith Mar 2004

Independent Legal Significance, Good Faith, And The Interpretation Of Venture Capital Contracts, D. Gordon Smith

Faculty Scholarship

Venture capital contracts are inherently incomplete. When interpreting such contracts, courts could deal with the expectations of parties formally by inquiring only about the plain meaning of the contract or qualitatively by enforcing the presumed expectations of the parties, regardless of whether those expectations are expressed in the contract. The Delaware courts have opted for a formal approach. In doing so, they appear to be engaged in an effort to force contracting parties toward completeness. While the duty of good faith appears to respond to the inevitable incompleteness of contracts, the courts largely ignore this duty in preferred stock cases. …


Discretion In Long-Term Open Quantity Contracts: Reining In Good Faith, Victor P. Goldberg Jan 2002

Discretion In Long-Term Open Quantity Contracts: Reining In Good Faith, Victor P. Goldberg

Faculty Scholarship

Long-term contracts often promise to deliver the seller's full output, the buyer's requirements, or some variation on these. For example, an electric utility might enter into a thirty year contract with a coal mine promising that it will take all the coal needed to supply a particular generating plant. These open quantity contracts have raised two issues. The first is whether the promise was illusory. If the utility had no duty to take any coal, a court could have found that there was no consideration and, therefore, no contract. While there was a time when full output and requirements contracts …


Should The Law Ignore Commercial Norms? A Comment On The Bernstein Conjuncture And Its Relevance For Contract Law Theory And Reform, Jason Scott Johnston Jun 2001

Should The Law Ignore Commercial Norms? A Comment On The Bernstein Conjuncture And Its Relevance For Contract Law Theory And Reform, Jason Scott Johnston

Michigan Law Review

Professor Bernstein's study of the interaction between private law and norms in the cotton industry is the latest installment in her ongoing investigation into the relationship between law and norms in trades ranging from the diamond market to grain and feed markets. Her incredibly detailed and thorough exploration of private lawmaking and commercial norms - and their interaction - stands as one of the most significant contributions to contract and commercial law scholarship made in the last half-century. The cotton industry study upon which I focus in this Comment not only reports fascinating findings about dispute resolution practices, but also …


Good Faith And The Cooperative Antagonist (Symposium On Revised Article 1 And Proposed Revised Article 2 Of The Uniform Commercial Code), James J. White Jan 2001

Good Faith And The Cooperative Antagonist (Symposium On Revised Article 1 And Proposed Revised Article 2 Of The Uniform Commercial Code), James J. White

Articles

One of Karl Llewellyn's most noted achievements in the Uniform Commercial Code was to impose the duty of good faith on every obligation under the Uniform Commercial Code.1 Some (I am one) have privately thought that imposition of this unmeasurable, undefinable duty was Llewellyn's cruelest trick, but no court, nor any academic writer, has ever been so bold or so gauche as to suggest that good faith should not attend the obligations of parties under the UCC. Notwithstanding this silent indorsement of the duty of good faith, the courts2 and commentators3 have had difficulty in determining what is and what …


Comparing The General Good Faith Provisions Of The Pecl And The Ucc: Appearance And Reality, Harry Flechtner Jan 2001

Comparing The General Good Faith Provisions Of The Pecl And The Ucc: Appearance And Reality, Harry Flechtner

Articles

"Good faith" is a notoriously amorphous and variable concept. Thus it is the interpretation and application of the concept that provides the most important points of comparison for the good faith provisions of the Principles of European Contract Law ("PECL") and the Uniform Commercial Code ("UCC") . The UCC has been in force since the 1950's, and its good faith provisions have been applied in hundreds of cases. In contrast, the PECL is a new phenomenon and its good faith rules have not been applied to actual cases. The comment to PECL Article 1:201, however, includes five concrete illustrations of …


Good Faith In The Termination And Formation Of Federal Contracts, Frederick W. Claybrook Jr. Jan 1997

Good Faith In The Termination And Formation Of Federal Contracts, Frederick W. Claybrook Jr.

Maryland Law Review

No abstract provided.