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Full-Text Articles in Law

Time’S Up: Against Shortening Statutes Of Limitation By Employment Contract, Meredith R. Miller Jan 2023

Time’S Up: Against Shortening Statutes Of Limitation By Employment Contract, Meredith R. Miller

Scholarly Works

Employers are increasingly adding clauses to contracts with employees that purport to shorten the statutes of limitation for employees to pursue claims against their employers (“SOL Clauses”). SOL Clauses are being imposed on employees in various stages of the contracting process. They have turned up in job applications, offer letters, arbitration clauses, employment agreements and employee handbooks. Where they have been enforced by the courts, the justification has been a prioritization of “freedom of contract” over any other policy concerns. This Article argues that, in the employment context, “freedom of contract” should not be prioritized over other competing concerns, which …


But We Didn’T Agree To That!: Why Class Proceedings Should Not Be Implied From Silent Or Ambiguous Arbitration Clauses After Lamps Plus, Inc. V. Varela, Andrea Demelo Laprade Dec 2021

But We Didn’T Agree To That!: Why Class Proceedings Should Not Be Implied From Silent Or Ambiguous Arbitration Clauses After Lamps Plus, Inc. V. Varela, Andrea Demelo Laprade

Catholic University Law Review

The application of class arbitrability when a contract is silent on the matter remains a mystery. The Supreme Court has not clarified its stance on class arbitrability and preemptive effects of the Federal Arbitration Act on state law when applied to determine if class arbitrability is available. The purpose of this Paper is to address how the Lamps Plus v. Varela decision created more confusion about the question of class arbitrability. It argues that the failure to address the particulars of the availability of class arbitration will perpetuate litigation on this issue. This Paper suggests that the FAA’s purpose supports …


Why Does Lord Denning's Lead Balloon Intrigue Us Still? The Prospects Of Finding A Unifying Principle For Duress, Undue Influence And Unconscionability, Marcus Moore Apr 2018

Why Does Lord Denning's Lead Balloon Intrigue Us Still? The Prospects Of Finding A Unifying Principle For Duress, Undue Influence And Unconscionability, Marcus Moore

All Faculty Publications

To this day, Lord Denning’s opinion in Lloyds Bank v Bundy remains a staple of first-year Contracts courses in law faculties across the common law world. After surveying doctrines such as duress, undue influence, and unconscionable bargains, Denning posited that they were instances of an underlying principle permitting avoidance of a contract for “inequality of bargaining power”. Although rejected by the House of Lords, Denning’s proposition has intrigued Contract scholars for more than four decades. Subsequent attempts to “fix” Denning’s thesis have fallen short. Yet, authors of Contract textbooks persist in asking whether the doctrines might yet be unified in …


Contracting Out Of The Fiduciary Duty Of Loyalty: An Empirical Analysis Of Corporate Opportunity Waivers, Gabriel Rauterberg, Eric Talley Jun 2017

Contracting Out Of The Fiduciary Duty Of Loyalty: An Empirical Analysis Of Corporate Opportunity Waivers, Gabriel Rauterberg, Eric Talley

Articles

For centuries, the duty of loyalty has been the hallowed centerpiece of fiduciary obligation, widely considered one of the few “mandatory” rules of corporate law. That view, however, is no longer true. Beginning in 2000, Delaware dramatically departed from tradition by granting incorporated entities a statutory right to waive a crucial part of the duty of loyalty: the corporate opportunities doctrine. Other states have since followed Delaware’s lead, similarly permitting firms to execute “corporate opportunity waivers.” Surprisingly, more than fifteen years into this reform experiment, no study has attempted to either systematically measure the corporate response to these reforms or …


Unhitching The Trailer Clause: The Rights Of Inventive Employees And Their Emploers, Marc B. Hershovitz Mar 2016

Unhitching The Trailer Clause: The Rights Of Inventive Employees And Their Emploers, Marc B. Hershovitz

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


Bridging The Gap Between Intent And Status: A New Framework For Modern Parentage, Yehezkel Margalit Jan 2016

Bridging The Gap Between Intent And Status: A New Framework For Modern Parentage, Yehezkel Margalit

Hezi Margalit

The last few decades have witnessed dramatic changes in the conceptualization and methodologies of determining legal parentage in the U.S. and other countries in the western world. Through various sociological shifts, growing social openness and bio-medical innovations, the traditional definitions of family and parenthood have been dramatically transformed. This transformation has led to an acute and urgent need for legal and social frameworks to regulate the process of determining legal parentage. Moreover, instead of progressing in a piecemeal, ad-hoc manner, the framework for determining legal parentage should be comprehensive. Only a comprehensive solution will address the differing needs of today’s …


For Richer, Not Poorer: Premarital Waivers Of Spousal Support In California, J. Nicholas Marfori Jan 2016

For Richer, Not Poorer: Premarital Waivers Of Spousal Support In California, J. Nicholas Marfori

Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review

California law is fairly straightforward with respect to premarital agreements that seek to alter community property rights in the event of a divorce. But it is unclear and unsettled with respect to those agreements that seek to limit or waive spousal support. Although California prohibits courts from enforcing premarital waivers of spousal support if it would be unconscionable to do so at the time of enforcements, courts have not articulated a clear standard for what that means. California made its first attempt to do so in In re Marriage of Facter. This Article considers that decision in illustrating how current …


Illegal Agreements And The Lesser Evil Principle, Chunlin Leonhard Sep 2015

Illegal Agreements And The Lesser Evil Principle, Chunlin Leonhard

Catholic University Law Review

When parties enter into an illegal agreement and bring a dispute arising from the transaction before a court, the court finds itself in a difficult position. The court is faced with two competing interests: the importance of both upholding and protecting the dignity of the law and honoring inherent principles of U.S. contract law - freedom of contract and individual autonomy. There exists a common misconception that courts, when presented with illegal contracts, follow the rule of non-enforcement. However, an examination of case law indicates that courts are instead concerned with the consequences of their choices, and have consistently followed …


Depersonalization Of Personal Service Contracts: The Search For A Modern Approach To Assignability, Larry A. Dimatteo Jul 2015

Depersonalization Of Personal Service Contracts: The Search For A Modern Approach To Assignability, Larry A. Dimatteo

Akron Law Review

The ever-evolving nature of modem commercial transactions dictates the need to review the common law area of personal service contracts. Namely, that when a court labels a contract as one for "personal service," in contrast to the general rule of assignability, it is per se nonassignable. A review of this exception to assignability is suggested when one views the dramatic change in the nature of personal service contracts as well as their increasing popularity.


Judicial Treatment Of California’S Anti-Deficiency Legislation Section 580b: Is It Effective?, Cole F. Morgan May 2015

Judicial Treatment Of California’S Anti-Deficiency Legislation Section 580b: Is It Effective?, Cole F. Morgan

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

Short sales of real property represent approximately a quarter of all homeowner transactions. Recently, short sales passed foreclosures as the preferred method in home sales due to the ease of sale. Coker v. JP Morgan Chase Bank, N.A., has ruled lenders of a purchase-money mortgage may not pursue a deficiency judgment after the short sale of a home. Essentially, this means after the sale is completed and the lender has obtained the proceeds from the sale, if there is a deficiency, they may not personally hold the borrower liable for the remaining debt of the mortgage. The ruling was established …


A New And Old Theory For Adjudicating Standardized Contracts, Eric Mills Holmes, Dagmar Thürmann Jan 2015

A New And Old Theory For Adjudicating Standardized Contracts, Eric Mills Holmes, Dagmar Thürmann

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Demand Promissory Notes And Commercial Loans: Balancing Freedom Of Contract & Good Faith, George A. Nation Iii Nov 2014

Demand Promissory Notes And Commercial Loans: Balancing Freedom Of Contract & Good Faith, George A. Nation Iii

George A Nation III

Promissory notes are ubiquitous in commercial lending. The promissory note represents the borrowers promise to repay and is governed by the Uniform Commercial Code’s Article 3. Under Article 3, promissory notes are either demand instruments or time instruments. In general, the holder of a demand instrument may decide to demand payment at any time and for any reason, while the holder of a time note must wait for payment until the arrival of the specific repayment date or dates included in the note. For this reason, time notes usually contain an acceleration clause. An acceleration clause allows the holder to …


Solidifying Arkansas's Liquidated Damage Law After S.O.G.-San-Ore-Gardner V. Missouri Pacific Railroad Co.: It's Not All Water Under The Bridge, David C. Jung Jan 2013

Solidifying Arkansas's Liquidated Damage Law After S.O.G.-San-Ore-Gardner V. Missouri Pacific Railroad Co.: It's Not All Water Under The Bridge, David C. Jung

University of Arkansas at Little Rock Law Review

The construction of the Benzal Bridge over the White River in rural Arkansas brought about years of litigation between Missouri Pacific Railroad Company and contractor San Ore-Gardner, the crux of which was whether the liquidated damages provision in the parties' contract was enforceable. The liquidated damages provision at issue provided that San Ore-Gardner would be liable to Missouri Pacific Railroad Company for damages in the amount of $600 per day if performance of the contract was not completed within the specified time period. Although Missouri Pacific Railroad Company did contribute to the over two year delay in completion of the …


Mandating Precontractual Disclosure, Eric H. Franklin Jan 2013

Mandating Precontractual Disclosure, Eric H. Franklin

Scholarly Works

Parties negotiating an arm's-length contract are generally not required to disclose facts to one another. Although this default rule is supported by both centuries of common law and freedom of contract principles, courts and legislatures treat certain transactions differently. This is particularly true in circumstances in which the default rule results in an unacceptable harm suffered by a broad group of persons. In such cases, lawmakers have acted to impose precontractual disclosure obligations. These decisions and statutes are largely reactive: A harm is identified in a certain transaction's precontractual period and disclosure is mandated to rectify the harm. These reactive …


Contractualism In The Law Of Treaties, Omar M. Dajani Sep 2012

Contractualism In The Law Of Treaties, Omar M. Dajani

Michigan Journal of International Law

When Henry Sumner Maine famously observed that "the movement of the progressive societies has hitherto been a movement from Status to Contract," he was invoking contract not as a device for binding parties to their commitments but, rather, as a metaphor for freedom. That metaphor lies at the heart of what legal scholars have come to call contractualism (or, sometimes, contractarianism)-the idea that people should be free to decide with whom, for what, and on which terms they enter agreements and that the law should minimize the constraints it places on these decisions. It is a proposition rooted in the …


Unchecked: How Frazier V. Citifinancial Eliminated Judicially Created Grounds For Vacatur Under The Federal Arbitration Act, Sean C. Wagner Jan 2012

Unchecked: How Frazier V. Citifinancial Eliminated Judicially Created Grounds For Vacatur Under The Federal Arbitration Act, Sean C. Wagner

Oklahoma Law Review

No abstract provided.


Turkey's Accession To The Cisg: The Significance For Turkey And For Sales Transactions With U.S. Contracting Parties, William P. Johnson Jan 2011

Turkey's Accession To The Cisg: The Significance For Turkey And For Sales Transactions With U.S. Contracting Parties, William P. Johnson

All Faculty Scholarship

The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) entered into force for Turkey on August 1, 2011. This article considers the significance of Turkey’s accession to the CISG as part of Turkey’s continuing engagement with systems of international trade, especially as relates to sales transactions with U.S. contracting parties. This article urges the Turkish bar to recognize that the CISG is a viable alternative to various potentially applicable bodies of domestic sales law, and the article offers some guidance regarding proper understanding and application of the CISG. This article also offers comparative analysis of some …


The Law And Economics Of Contracts, Benjamin E. Hermalin, Avery W. Katz, Richard Craswell Jan 2006

The Law And Economics Of Contracts, Benjamin E. Hermalin, Avery W. Katz, Richard Craswell

Faculty Scholarship

This paper, which will appear as a chapter in the forthcoming Handbook of Law and Economics (A.M. Polinsky & S. Shavell, eds.), surveys major issues arising in the economic analysis of contract law. It begins with an introductory discussion of scope and methodology, and then addresses four topic areas that correspond to the major doctrinal divisions of the law of contracts. These areas include freedom of contract (i.e., the scope of private power to create binding obligations), formation of contracts (both the procedural mechanics of exchange, and rules that govern pre-contractual behavior), contract interpretation (what consequences follow when agreements are …


Bargaining Power In Contract Theory, Daniel D. Barnhizer Aug 2005

Bargaining Power In Contract Theory, Daniel D. Barnhizer

ExpressO

This Article analyzes the role that legal conceptions of bargaining power play in defining the jurisprudence of contract law. Contract law cannot ignore bargaining power asymmetries. Unchecked power imbalances in the bargaining context soon become indistinguishable from naked coercion, and at some level the imbalance undermines both the consent of the weaker party and the legitimacy of the resulting bargain. The debate over the role of the legal doctrine of inequality of bargaining power and subdoctrines such as unconscionability and duress has largely focused on whether and how the state should intervene in individual private agreements to correct perceived power …


Two Cheers For Freedom Of Contract, Mark L. Movsesian Jan 2002

Two Cheers For Freedom Of Contract, Mark L. Movsesian

Faculty Publications

Once, they say, freedom of contract reigned in American law. Parties could make agreements on a wide variety of subjects and choose the terms they wished. Courts would refrain from questioning the substance of bargains and would ensure only that parties had observed the proper formalities. In interpretation, objectivity was paramount. Courts would seek to ascertain, not what the parties had intended, but what a reasonable observer would understand the parties' words to mean. Contract law was a series of abstractions informed by individual autonomy and judicial deference.

This world, a classical paradise of doctrines with sharp corners, began to …


Freedom Of Contract, Fiduciary Duties, And Partnerships: The Bargain Principle And The Law Of Agency, J. Dennis Hynes Jan 1997

Freedom Of Contract, Fiduciary Duties, And Partnerships: The Bargain Principle And The Law Of Agency, J. Dennis Hynes

Publications

No abstract provided.


Too Many Theories, Todd D. Rakoff May 1996

Too Many Theories, Todd D. Rakoff

Michigan Law Review

A Review of Michael J. Trebilcock, The Limits of Freedom of Contract


Fiduciary Rules And Rupa, J. Dennis Hynes Jan 1995

Fiduciary Rules And Rupa, J. Dennis Hynes

Publications

No abstract provided.


Foreword, J. Dennis Hynes Jan 1995

Foreword, J. Dennis Hynes

Publications

No abstract provided.


The Effect Of Section 1-102(3) And 1-103 On Commercial Agreements Involving Ucc Tansactions: Should They Be Revised?, James J. White Jan 1994

The Effect Of Section 1-102(3) And 1-103 On Commercial Agreements Involving Ucc Tansactions: Should They Be Revised?, James J. White

Other Publications

Power to Modify Article 5 Obligations Under 1-102(3) and 1-203. see Sections 5-103(c) and 5-116(c) of Revised Article 5.

Persons speaking for issuing banks argued strongly in the Article 5 revision process that complete freedom of contract should prevail and that no provision should be made invariable . They argued successfully for the removal in current Section 5-109 of references to due care and they argued successfully against the inclusion of any similar obligation elsewhere in Article 5. Consequently Section 1-102(3) has no place to get a grip in Article 5--because no obligations of due care are expressed in the …


Buyer's Remedies And Warranty Disclaimers: The Case For Mistake And The Indeterminacy Of U.C.C. Section 1-103, David Frisch Jan 1990

Buyer's Remedies And Warranty Disclaimers: The Case For Mistake And The Indeterminacy Of U.C.C. Section 1-103, David Frisch

Law Faculty Publications

The primary purpose of this article is not to end the longstanding malaise surrounding section 1-103, but to illuminate its existence and encourage a serious reconsideration of the extent to which common law and equitable principles serve as sources of law in resolving cases under the Code. A greater appreciation of the importance of this issue to commercial law development will result in an approach which makes the law more predictable and which better facilitates the essential need to keep the Code responsive to commercial practice. Part II of this article introduces the context within which section 1-103 will be …


For Unifying Servitudes And Defeasible Fees: Property Law's Functional Equivalents, Gerald Korngold Jan 1988

For Unifying Servitudes And Defeasible Fees: Property Law's Functional Equivalents, Gerald Korngold

Articles & Chapters

While property scholars have argued persuasively for a unified law of servitudes and for a unified law of defeasible fees, Professor Korngold argues that further unification is necessary: the law should integrate servitudes and defeasible fees involving land use controls. Because these interests are functional equivalents, judicial results should not depend on the historical label attached to the interest. Courts should address the tension between freedom of contract and free alienability values that inhere in both interests. Professor Korngold focuses on significant issues that arise in both defeasible fees and servitudes contexts, including the forfeiture remedy, ownership in gross, permissible …


Contracts—Covenants Not To Compete Ancillary To The Sale Of A Business—Fifteen-Year Restraint Is Reasonable, Martha Jett Mcalister Jul 1986

Contracts—Covenants Not To Compete Ancillary To The Sale Of A Business—Fifteen-Year Restraint Is Reasonable, Martha Jett Mcalister

University of Arkansas at Little Rock Law Review

No abstract provided.


Contractual Disclaimer And Limitation Of Liability Under The Law Of New York, James Brook Jan 1983

Contractual Disclaimer And Limitation Of Liability Under The Law Of New York, James Brook

Articles & Chapters

No abstract provided.


A Tale Of Two Laws, Barbara A. Black Mar 1981

A Tale Of Two Laws, Barbara A. Black

Michigan Law Review

A Review of The Rise and Fall of Freedom of Contract by Patrick S. Atiyah