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Contracts

2016

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Articles 1 - 30 of 109

Full-Text Articles in Law

An "App" For Third Party Beneficiaries, David G. Epstein, Alexandra W. Cook, J. Kyle Lowder, Michelle Sonntag Dec 2016

An "App" For Third Party Beneficiaries, David G. Epstein, Alexandra W. Cook, J. Kyle Lowder, Michelle Sonntag

Washington Law Review

Every year, more than 100 reported court opinions consider the question of whether an outsider can sue for damages under a contract made by others—in part because the law is so ambiguous. While contract enforcement by a third party is controlled largely by the facts of the particular case, it also materially depends upon the relevant legal standards. At present, not just the standards, but also the reasons for these standards, are unclear. Eighty years ago, Lon Fuller, a professor teaching contracts at a then-Southern law school, and William Perdue, a student at that school, significantly clarified and improved ...


Leap Of Faith: Determining The Standard Of Faith Needed To Violate The Implied Covenant Of Good Faith And Fair Dealing For Delaware Limited Liability Companies, Pat Andriola Nov 2016

Leap Of Faith: Determining The Standard Of Faith Needed To Violate The Implied Covenant Of Good Faith And Fair Dealing For Delaware Limited Liability Companies, Pat Andriola

Boston College Law Review

Delaware courts have long respected the right to contract in Delaware, and possibly no entity is afforded more privileges to set the boundaries of its corporate form than the Delaware Limited Liability Company. Unlike nearly every other state, Delaware permits LLCs to abolish the duties of care and loyalty in their operating agreements, but forbids companies to eliminate liability for “any act or omission that constitutes a bad faith violation of the implied contractual covenant of good faith and fair dealing.” The problem with the phrase “bad faith violation” is that, when referencing a breach of the implied covenant of ...


Wills, Trusts, And Estates, J. William Gray Jr., Katherine E. Ramsey Nov 2016

Wills, Trusts, And Estates, J. William Gray Jr., Katherine E. Ramsey

University of Richmond Law Review

No abstract provided.


Corporate And Business Law, Laurence V. Parker Jr. Nov 2016

Corporate And Business Law, Laurence V. Parker Jr.

University of Richmond Law Review

Over the past three years, there have been a number of legislative changes to Virginia's business entity statutes. In Part I,this article highlights the changes to the Virginia Stock Corporation Act ("VSCA") and the Virginia Nonstock Corporation Act ('"VNSCA"). Part II highlights changes to the Limited Liability Company Act ("LLC Act"). Part III summarizes Virginia's new intrastate crowdfunding law. The Supreme Court of Virginia has also addressed several significant issues over the last three years, including the applicability of appraisal rights in a stepped transaction. Part IV reviews several of the significant cases during this period.


Sound The Alarm: Limitations Of Liability In Alarm Service Contracts, Joshua N. Cohen Nov 2016

Sound The Alarm: Limitations Of Liability In Alarm Service Contracts, Joshua N. Cohen

Fordham Law Review

Home and business owners increasingly rely on alarm systems to protect against theft and property damage. When a burglary or fire occurs and an alarm service customer discovers that the alarm company negligently failed to call the police or fire department, the customer understandably would expect redress for the company’s failure to provide its service. Many customers would be surprised, though, to discover that an alarm company’s liability is often contractually limited to a relatively token amount unrelated to the cost of the service, even when the alarm company is negligent. Some states view these limitations of liability ...


Gambling Contract Not Violative Of Public Policy Oct 2016

Gambling Contract Not Violative Of Public Policy

The Catholic Lawyer

No abstract provided.


Employment Agreements For The Inventing Worker: A Proposal For Reforming Trailer Clause Enforceability Guidelines, Peter Caldwell Oct 2016

Employment Agreements For The Inventing Worker: A Proposal For Reforming Trailer Clause Enforceability Guidelines, Peter Caldwell

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


Contract And Property Law—Fee-Shifting Statutes And Landlord-Tenant Law—A Call For The Repeal Of The English Rule "Loser Pays" System Regarding Contract Disputes And Its Effect On Low-Income Arkansas Tenants, Stephanie Mantell Oct 2016

Contract And Property Law—Fee-Shifting Statutes And Landlord-Tenant Law—A Call For The Repeal Of The English Rule "Loser Pays" System Regarding Contract Disputes And Its Effect On Low-Income Arkansas Tenants, Stephanie Mantell

University of Arkansas at Little Rock Law Review

No abstract provided.


Consumer Preferences For Performance Defaults, Franklin G. Snyder, Ann M. Mirabito Oct 2016

Consumer Preferences For Performance Defaults, Franklin G. Snyder, Ann M. Mirabito

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

Commercial law in the United States is designed to facilitate private transactions, and thus to enforce the presumed intent of the parties, who generally are free to negotiate the terms they choose. But these contracts inevitably have gaps, both because the parties cannot anticipate every situation that might arise from their relationship, and because negotiation is not costless. When courts are faced with these gaps in a litigation context, they supply default terms to fill them. These defaults usually are set to reflect what courts believe similar parties would have agreed to if they had addressed the issue. These “majoritarian ...


Public Responsibllities Beyond Consent: Rethinking Contract Theory, Leon E. Trakman Sep 2016

Public Responsibllities Beyond Consent: Rethinking Contract Theory, Leon E. Trakman

Hofstra Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Three Phases Of The Supreme Court’S Arbitration Jurisprudence: Empowering The Already-Empowered, Martin H. Malin Sep 2016

The Three Phases Of The Supreme Court’S Arbitration Jurisprudence: Empowering The Already-Empowered, Martin H. Malin

Nevada Law Journal

No abstract provided.


The Right To Reimbursement: Nevada Courts Should Follow The Trend And Forbid Insurers From Seeking Recoupment Of Defense Costs, Kristen Matteoni Sep 2016

The Right To Reimbursement: Nevada Courts Should Follow The Trend And Forbid Insurers From Seeking Recoupment Of Defense Costs, Kristen Matteoni

Nevada Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Too Big To Nail: How Investor-State Arbitration Lacks An Appropriate Execution Mechanism For The Largest Awards, Jacob A. Kuipers Aug 2016

Too Big To Nail: How Investor-State Arbitration Lacks An Appropriate Execution Mechanism For The Largest Awards, Jacob A. Kuipers

Boston College International and Comparative Law Review

Typically, when an international arbitration tribunal renders an award, it includes a specific date by which the defendants must pay the award. If the defendants refuse to pay the award by the mandated deadline and the defendants are not seeking that the award be set aside, then the claimants have the ability to seize assets of the defendants through national courts that could enforce the tribunal’s judgment. Those courts may issue orders to seize a party’s assets in their jurisdiction as a way to enforce all or part of the tribunal’s award. This presents an uphill battle ...


Changing The Game: The Effects Of The 2012 Revision Of The Icc Arbitration Rules On The Icc Model Arbitration Clause For Trust Disputes, Colin Connor Jul 2016

Changing The Game: The Effects Of The 2012 Revision Of The Icc Arbitration Rules On The Icc Model Arbitration Clause For Trust Disputes, Colin Connor

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Foreign Nation Judgments - If State Law Provides For The Enforceability Of Foreign Judgments, The Judgment Is Enforceable Without Determination Of Whether The Arbitration Award On Which It Is Based Is Independently Enforceable Under The Convention On The Recognition And Enforcement Of Foreign Arbitral Awards, John W. Kindt Jul 2016

Foreign Nation Judgments - If State Law Provides For The Enforceability Of Foreign Judgments, The Judgment Is Enforceable Without Determination Of Whether The Arbitration Award On Which It Is Based Is Independently Enforceable Under The Convention On The Recognition And Enforcement Of Foreign Arbitral Awards, John W. Kindt

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Contracts - Arbitration Agreement - An Arbitration Agreement In An International Contract Is To Be Given Full Effect By Federal Courts Except Where Public Policy Or Equity Dictate Otherwise, James D. Dunham, J. S. Schuster Jul 2016

Contracts - Arbitration Agreement - An Arbitration Agreement In An International Contract Is To Be Given Full Effect By Federal Courts Except Where Public Policy Or Equity Dictate Otherwise, James D. Dunham, J. S. Schuster

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


The Convention On The Uniform Law Of International Bills Of Exchange And International Promissory Notes: A Comparison To The Uniform Commercial Code, Harold S. White Jul 2016

The Convention On The Uniform Law Of International Bills Of Exchange And International Promissory Notes: A Comparison To The Uniform Commercial Code, Harold S. White

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Patent Privateers And Antitrust Fears, Matthew Sipe Jul 2016

Patent Privateers And Antitrust Fears, Matthew Sipe

Michigan Telecommunications & Technology Law Review

Patent trolls are categorically demonized as threatening American innovation and industry. But whether they are a threat that antitrust law is equipped to deal with is a complex question that depends on the particular type of patent troll and activities they engage in. This Article looks specifically at privateer patent trolls: entities that acquire their patents from operating entities and assert them against other industry members. In the particular context of privateering, antitrust law is almost certainly not the proper legal solution. Privateering does raise significant issues: circumventing litigation constraints, evading licensing obligations, and raising the cost and frequency of ...


Jay-Z Has 99 Problems But A Sample Ain’T One, Rebecca Knight Jul 2016

Jay-Z Has 99 Problems But A Sample Ain’T One, Rebecca Knight

The University of Cincinnati Intellectual Property and Computer Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Sovereign Immunity - The State Department’S Decision To Recognize And Allow The Claim Of Sovereign Immunity Is Binding Upon The Courts And Is Not Subject To Review Under The Administrative Procedure Act, Robin B. Gray Jr., George P. Shingler Jun 2016

Sovereign Immunity - The State Department’S Decision To Recognize And Allow The Claim Of Sovereign Immunity Is Binding Upon The Courts And Is Not Subject To Review Under The Administrative Procedure Act, Robin B. Gray Jr., George P. Shingler

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Convention Providing A Uniform Law On The Form Of An International Will: Problems With State Probate Law, Jack N. Sibley Jun 2016

Convention Providing A Uniform Law On The Form Of An International Will: Problems With State Probate Law, Jack N. Sibley

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Soviet Accession To The Universal Copyright Convention: Possible Implications For Future Foreign Publication Of Dissidents’ Works, Lee J. Ross Jr. Jun 2016

Soviet Accession To The Universal Copyright Convention: Possible Implications For Future Foreign Publication Of Dissidents’ Works, Lee J. Ross Jr.

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Foreign Investment Protection And Icsid Arbitration, Charles Vuylsteke Jun 2016

Foreign Investment Protection And Icsid Arbitration, Charles Vuylsteke

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


U.C.C. Section 2-207: When Does An Additional Term Materially Alter A Contract?, Timothy Davis Jun 2016

U.C.C. Section 2-207: When Does An Additional Term Materially Alter A Contract?, Timothy Davis

Catholic University Law Review

In an effort to provide more clarity to a highly confusing area of law, Professor Timothy Davis surveyed ninety-four cases decided between January 1, 2005 and July 1, 2015 to see when additional terms in contracts constitute a material alteration under the U.C.C. The Article identifies the various factors that courts will consider to determine the issue, including (1) the subject matter of the additional term; (2) the test adopted for determining materiality; (3) the conduct of the parties; (4) the presence of course of dealing evidence; and (5) the language of comments four to U.C.C ...


The Standard Investment Agreement: Text And Comments, Philippe Kahn Jun 2016

The Standard Investment Agreement: Text And Comments, Philippe Kahn

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Home Is Where The Confusion Is: Pennsylvania Formally Adopts The "Gist Of The Action" Doctrine And Builds A House For Ambiguity In Bruno V. Erie Insurance Co., Lauren Anthony Jun 2016

Home Is Where The Confusion Is: Pennsylvania Formally Adopts The "Gist Of The Action" Doctrine And Builds A House For Ambiguity In Bruno V. Erie Insurance Co., Lauren Anthony

Villanova Law Review

No abstract provided.


Arbitrating Estoppel: Equitable Estoppel In Arbitration Contracts, Nicholas Oleski Jun 2016

Arbitrating Estoppel: Equitable Estoppel In Arbitration Contracts, Nicholas Oleski

Cleveland State Law Review

The Sixth Circuit and the district courts within the circuit have held that non-signatories to arbitration contracts may be compelled to arbitrate under the Federal Arbitration Act—even though they are not signatories to the arbitration contract. These courts reason that the non-signatories must arbitrate their claims because of an equitable estoppel theory. Although the Federal Arbitration Act displaces most state law regarding arbitration, the Supreme Court has held that federal courts must use state contract law to determine who is bound by an arbitration contract. This Note examines state contract law in the Sixth Circuit on equitable estoppel and ...


Contracting Out Of Fiduciary Duties In Llcs: Delaware Will Lead, But Will Anyone Follow?, H. Justin Pace Jun 2016

Contracting Out Of Fiduciary Duties In Llcs: Delaware Will Lead, But Will Anyone Follow?, H. Justin Pace

Nevada Law Journal

No abstract provided.


The Paradox Of The Right To Contract: Noncompete Agreements As Thirteenth Amendment Violations, Ayesha Bell Hardaway May 2016

The Paradox Of The Right To Contract: Noncompete Agreements As Thirteenth Amendment Violations, Ayesha Bell Hardaway

Seattle University Law Review

Employers in a variety of fields are increasingly imposing noncompete agreements on their workers as a condition of the workers’ at-will employment. These employees are working at or near minimum wage, in positions that require little or no advanced technical skills. Major news sources have highlighted this issue while covering recent employment litigation between Jimmy Johns and a pair of its former employees. In this litigation, two plaintiffs filed suit in federal court seeking injunctive relief and declaratory judgment invalidating the noncompete and confidentiality agreements that they signed with the sandwich maker. Granting defendant’s motion to dismiss, the Illinois ...


Slave Contracts And The Thirteenth Amendment, John C. Williams May 2016

Slave Contracts And The Thirteenth Amendment, John C. Williams

Seattle University Law Review

The Thirteenth Amendment—the commandment that “neither slavery nor involuntary servitude . . . shall exist within the United States”— did not truly eradicate incidents of slavery. This is hardly a controversial point. The postwar emergence of the Black Codes—laws meant to confine African Americans’ ability to rent, travel, and live as free humans would expect to—ensured that slavery’s conditions continued unabated. The Amendment itself permits slavery to exist “as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted.” Still, did the Thirteenth Amendment not abolish the most fundamental characteristic of chattel slavery—the ability to trade ...